Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.IndianaVesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Vesicular Stomatitis: A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus: A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Stomatitis, Aphthous: A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.KansasNucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.IllinoisGolgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.UridineNucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.TritiumProtein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

*  Gonococcal stomatitis - definition of gonococcal stomatitis by The Free Dictionary
gonococcal stomatitis synonyms, gonococcal stomatitis pronunciation, gonococcal stomatitis translation, English dictionary ... definition of gonococcal stomatitis. n. Inflammation of the mucous tissue of the mouth. n inflammation of the mouth stomatitic ... stomatitis. (redirected from gonococcal stomatitis). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. sto·ma·ti·tis. (stō′mə-tī ... vesicular stomatitis - a disease of horses, cattle, swine, and occasionally human beings; caused by the vesiculovirus ...
*  Overwhelmed to death: an anti-cancer gene therapy approach paired with an immune-activating distress signal - RSC Advances Blog
Their study found that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein (VSVMP), when inserted into a cancer cell, compromises the ... has shown some success in treating the disease. In a previous study, Xiao and co-investigators at State Key Laboratory of ... In the current study, the research team further armed with VSVMP gene delivery vessel with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) - a protein ... The team proposes that the drug-derived IL-12 induces a secondary cascade of chemical mediators, which in turn recruit and ...
*  Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell...
Since sulphation in both internal and peripheral locations of the virus glycoproteins was found to be arrested by the α1 → 2 ... Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S ... Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell ... Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell ...
*  Microbiology Society Journals | Fusion-active glycoprotein G mediates the cytotoxicity of vesicular stomatitis virus M mutants...
In contrast, a G-deleted VSV expressing wild-type M protein remained cytotoxic. These findings indicate that the host shut-off ... M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic properties in both Vero cells and IFN-competent ... This study demonstrates that infection of human fibroblasts with recombinant VSV containing the M51R substitution resulted in ... The M33A substitution, previously implicated in VSV cytotoxicity, did not affect host shut-off activity. ...
*  TNF-mediated survival of CD169+ cells promotes immune activation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection. - Helmholtz...
In this paper, we show that after Vesicular stomatitis virus infection, phagocytes produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which ... In this paper, we show that after Vesicular stomatitis virus infection, phagocytes produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which ... TNF-mediated survival of CD169+ cells promotes immune activation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection.. Authors:. Shinde ... TNF-mediated survival of CD169+ cells promotes immune activation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection. 2017 J. Virol.. ...
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Live Virus Vaccines Based on a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) Backbone: Standardized Template with...
We tested a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein for safety in pigs. Inoculation did not cause ... Live Virus Vaccines Based on a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) Backbone: Standardized Template with Key Considerations for a ... Here, we introduce an attenuated form of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) as a potential chimeric virus vaccine ... In one trial the rVSV/HIV-1 vector was administered in a homologous two-dose regimen, and in a second trial with pDNA in a ...
*  Addgene: pHEF-VSVG
Sergey Kasparov's lab contains the insert Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein and is published in Physiol Genomics. 2003 ... Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein * Species. Rhabdoviridae Cloning Information * Cloning method Restriction Enzyme ... Please acknowledge the Principal Investigator, cite the article in which the plasmids were described, and include Addgene in ... Plasmid sent as bacteria in agar stab 1. $65 Add to Cart ... Transform into DH5alpha and grow in Luria Broth containing ...
*  Mechanism of RNA synthesis initiation by the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase | The EMBO Journal
Emerson SU, Yu Y (1975) Both NS and L proteins are required for in vitro RNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol ... Testa D, Banerjee AK (1979) Initiation of RNA synthesis in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. Role of ATP. J Biol Chem 254: ... Green TJ, Luo M (2009) Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid‐binding domain ... Das SC, Pattnaik AK (2004) Phosphorylation of vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein P is indispensable for virus growth. J ...
*  Human anti-vesicular stomatitis virus octapeptide (VSV8) (aa 52-59) T cell receptor, pCDTCR1 vector - Creative Biolabs
Creative Biolabs provides Human anti-vesicular stomatitis virus octapeptide (VSV8) (aa 52-59) T cell receptor, pCDTCR1 product ... VSV-8 is derived from the VSV nucleoprotein that is expressed in the cytosol of the infected cells. CTL response against VSV in ... VSIV8; VSIV-8; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleoprotein (52-59); Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleoprotein ... The vector of anti-vesicular stomatitis virus octapeptide (VSV8) T cell receptor (TCR) is constructed for the engineering of T ...
*  Cytoplasmic Compartmentalization of the Protein and Ribonuclei...
The cytoplasmic sites of synthesis in L cells of the ... and Ribonucleic Acid Species of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: ... The cytoplasmic sites of synthesis in L cells of the protein and ribonucleic acid species of vesicular stomatitis virus were ... Cytoplasmic Compartmentalization of the Protein and Ribonucleic Acid Species of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Authors * Robert R ... Longer labeling resulted in detection of nucleoprotein N, as well as other minor nucleocapsid proteins L and NS1, in the ...
*  Research > Rose Lab | Pathology | Yale School of...
One of the major platforms is based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a cattle virus that induces potent immune ... Research in the Rose Lab. Vaccines based on viruses have the ability to provide lifelong protection from disease through ... respiratory syncytial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), Ebola virus, and Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that caused ... In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
*  Systemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Selectively Destroys Multifocal Glioma and Metastatic Carcinoma in Brain | Journal of...
2004) Replication and cytopathic effect of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus in hypoxic tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. J ... Variable deficiencies in the interferon response enhance susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus oncolytic actions in ... 2003) Vesicular stomatitis viruses with rearranged genomes have altered invasiveness and neuropathogenesis in mice. J Virol 77: ... Systemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Selectively Destroys Multifocal Glioma and Metastatic Carcinoma in Brain. Koray Özduman, ...
*  USDA APHIS | Vesicular Stomatitis Home
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) surveillance is conducted by the State Departments of Agriculture in conjunction with USDA - ... Overview of U.S. Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreaks in 2004, 2005, 2006. Vesicular Stomatitis 2004/2005/2006 U.S. Outbreak (2006 ... The agent that causes vesicular stomatitis, VSV, has a wide host range and can occasionally infect sheep and goats. In affected ... How to submit samples: International and Interstate Testing of Animals for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Antibodies - information ...
*  PLOS ONE: Acute Reactogenicity after Intramuscular Immunization with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Is Linked to...
Those data support the idea that some of the IL-1β expressed in vivo in response to VSV may be activated by a caspase-1 and ASC ... therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R−/− mice were fully protected ... The amount of IL-1β detected in mice deficient in either caspase-1 or the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC after rVSV ...
*  M - Matrix protein - Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (strain 85CLB South America) (VSIV) - M gene & protein
This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. ... Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. Shut off cellular transcription by inhibiting mRNA nuclear export ... Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). ... Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (strain San Juan) (VSIV). ...
*  Phenotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus mutants with mutations in the PSAP motif of the matrix protein.
... Obiang L., Raux H., ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (M) has a flexible amino-terminal part that recruits cellular partners. It ... Late domains are present in proteins of several enveloped viruses and are involved in the ultimate step of the budding process ... and a mutant with a single mutation in the dynamin-binding motif was much less impaired in Vero cells than in BSR (clones of ...
*  Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes....
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent ... Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. ... Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. ... Finally, we established that the G protein of the folding mutant of the Vesicular Stomatitis virus, ts045, is blocked at a ...
*  Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors - Current...
... their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells ... Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to ... Vesicular stomatitis virus with the rabies virus glycoprotein directs retrograde transsynaptic transport among neurons in vivo ... Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms. J. Comp. Neurol. 523: ...
*  Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle, Archives of Virology | 10.1007/s00705-009-0348...
"Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest ... In this study, we investigated the role of lipids in the life cycle of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Cholesterol depletion ... Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle. Lipid rafts play an important role in the ... Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle. Wang, W.; Fu, Y.; Zu, Y.; Wu, N.; Reichling, J ...
*  Academic Programs Faculty - Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of Medicine
... are taught by more than 1,000 full time faculty members in the basic and clinical sciences and more than 550 part time teachers ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus; Viral Matrix Proteins; Vesiculovirus; Apoptosis; Virus Replication Department: 336-716-4237 ... Pneumonia, Viral; Drug Resistance, Viral; Oseltamivir; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia ...
*  Vesicular stomatitis virus - Wikipedia
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV; often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well- ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. VSIV ... "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of ... ViralZone: Vesiculovirus Vesicular Stomatitis Virus from The Lab-On-Site Project. Disease card on World Organisation for Animal ...
*  Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses.
... with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. This study is focused on aqueous solutions of ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / growth & development*, ultrastructure*. Virus Cultivation / methods*. Virus Replication / ... The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical ... Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus ...
*  "Leucine aminopeptidase is not essential for trimming peptides in the c" by Charles Fenton Towne, Ian A. York et al.
After viral infection, LAP-deficient mice generate normal CTL responses to seven epitopes from three different viruses. These ... To examine the role of LAP in generating MHC class I peptides in vivo, we generated LAP-deficient mice and LAP-deficient cell ... Similarly, there is no reduction in presentation of peptides from precursor or full-length Ag constructs or in the overall ... The trimming of peptides in LAP-deficient cells is not reduced under basal conditions or after stimulation with IFN. ...
*  FUSION PROTEINS - Patent application
... vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein G, a translocating domain of SER virus F protein and a translocating domain of ... 0092] In use, the polypeptides of the present invention are typically employed in the form of a pharmaceutical composition in ... Vesicular Stomatitis 118-139 Yao et al., 2003, Virology 310(2), virus glycoprotein G 319-332 SER virus F protein Translocation ... 0302] Following the methods used in Example 9, the CPNv-C (act. A) prepared in Example 20 is obtained in a purified form and ...
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
pCMV-G encodes the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that replaces HIV-1 Env. VSV-G expands the tropism of the ... In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In ... This embolic model was first developed in rats by Overgaard et al.1 in 1992 and further characterized by Zhang et al. in 19972 ... In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. ...

Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Vesiculovirus matrix proteins: The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known as VSIV or VSV. The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene expression and the induction of cell rounding.Caphosol: Caphosol (EUSA Pharma) is a mouth rinse designed to moisten, lubricate and clean the oral cavity including the mucosa of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis in patients receiving radiation therapy or chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Mouth ulcerPseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Denture-related stomatitisRabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.Sindbis virusTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Cytopathic effectCD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.PSI-6130Interferon: :24-187 :24-185 :24-186Nudivirus: A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames.HHV capsid portal protein: HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Viral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.Coles PhillipsCore enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Virotherapy: Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are three main branches of virotherapy: anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for gene therapy and viral immunotherapy.Oncolytic herpes virus: Many variants of herpes simplex virus have been considered for viral therapy of cancer; the early development of these was thoroughly reviewed in the journal Cancer Gene Therapy in 2002. This page describes (in the order of development) the most notable variants—those tested in clinical trials: G207, HSV1716, NV1020 and Talimogene laherparepvec (previously Oncovex-GMCSF).Sigma viruses: Sigma viruses are a clade of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae that naturally infect dipterans, and have recently been proposed to represent a new genus of rhabdoviruses.Longdon B and Walker PJ (2011) Sigma virus genus proposal for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.John Martin (Governor of Kansas): John Alexander Martin (March 10, 1839 – October 2, 1889) was the 10th Governor of Kansas.Interferon type ISouthern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine: Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine is an academic unit of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) located in Alton, Illinois, USA, in the Greater St. Louis area.CisternaGlobal spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Ebola virus: Ebolavirus|other uses|Ebola (disambiguation)Ebola}}Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mumps virus: Mumps virus is the causative agent of mumps, a well-known common childhood disease characterised by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness. Natural infection is currently restricted to humans and the virus is transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, or contaminated objects.Influenza virus nucleoprotein: Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the main determinants of species specificity.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.Cell-free protein synthesis: Cell-free protein synthesis (also called in-vitro protein synthesis or abbreviated CFPS), is the production of protein using biological machinery without the use of living cells. The in-vitro protein synthesis environment is not constrained by a cell wall or homeostasis conditions necessary to maintain cell viability.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.

(1/2088) Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection.

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

(2/2088) Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export.

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

(3/2088) A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding.

The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common.  (+info)

(4/2088) Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras.

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

(5/2088) Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus.

A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses.  (+info)

(6/2088) Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity.

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

(7/2088) One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus.

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

(8/2088) Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors.

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

  • Virology
  • She was previously a civilian microbiologist in the virology division of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). (
  • Following his internship, he joined the U.S. Navy Medical Corps, where he was first exposed to virology research while assigned to the U.S. Navy Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • Wagner joined the faculty at Yale University in 1951 and then moved to Johns Hopkins in 1957, where he became the director of the Infectious Disease Division and later the head of the Division of Virology. (
  • Following a brief stint as the virology section editor for the Journal of Bacteriology, run by the American Society for Microbiology, Wagner served as the founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Virology, working with fellow editors Lloyd Kozloff and Norman Salzman. (
  • With Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Wagner collaborated in editing a vast 19-volume treatise called Comprehensive Virology. (
  • In the early 1980s, Wagner was among the group of American virologists who helped organize and became the founding members of the American Society for Virology. (
  • He is considered "one of the seminal figures in contemporary virology and it's been that way for more than 50 years" by Arthur S. Levine, senior vice chancellor for the health sciences at University of Pittsburgh. (
  • dead link] In 1949, Youngner moved to the University of Pittsburgh to pursue virology at and, subsequently, to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine for the rest of his career. (
  • The Department of Virology of Erasmus MC, Rotterdam in the Netherlands is working on developing a Metapneumovirus vaccine for humans. (
  • David M. Knipe is the Higgins Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and interim Co-Chair in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts and co-chief editor of the reference book Fields Virology. (
  • He had previously served as Chair of the Program in Virology at Harvard Medical School from 2004 through 2016. (
  • He took the Cold Spring Harbor course on animal virology in 1961 and he moved to Richard Franklin's lab at the Rockefeller Institute at New York City which was one of the few labs pioneering molecular research on animal virology. (
  • is an American biologist specialized in microbiology and virology. (
  • This enzyme converted RNA to DNA, and became a major breakthrough in virology. (
  • Cytotoxic
  • Soluble antigen immunization induced entry of CD8 cells into the intestinal mucosa and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) differentiation, whereas CD8 cells in secondary lymphoid tissue proliferated but were not cytolytic. (
  • gene
  • The material in the lipid-rich vesicle fraction appears to be a post-ER intermediate in the transport process to the plasma membrane (PM). After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N -linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • Genetic mapping and diagnosis of haemophilia A achieved through a BclI polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. (
  • Restriction site polymorphism in the phosphoglycerate kinase gene on the X chromosome. (
  • however, HMPV lacks the non-structural genes, NS1 and NS2, and the HMPV antisense RNA genome contains eight open reading frames in slightly different gene order than RSV (viz. (
  • Knipe developed a cotransfection method for marker rescue mapping of mutations and introduction of new sequences into the HSV genome and showed that the ICP4 gene mapped in the repeated sequences of the short component of the viral genome. (
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (
  • The Lentivirus is unique in that it has been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy. (
  • To be effective in gene therapy, there must be insertion, alteration and/or removal of host cell genes. (
  • Some of the experimental uses for the Lentivirus vector have been in gene therapy of diseases like Diabetes mellitus, Murine haemophilia A, prostate cancer, chronic granulomatous disease, and vascular gene therapy. (
  • In a study designed to enhance the outcomes of vascular transplant through vascular endothelial cell gene therapy, the third generation of Lentivirus showed to be effective in the delivery of genes to moderate venous grafts and transplants in procedures like coronary artery bypass. (
  • A draw back to this therapy is explained in the study that long-term gene expression may require the use of promoters and can aid in a greater trans-gene expression. (
  • The viral vector's responsibility was to increase the gene synthesis and production of NADP in these phagocytic cells. (
  • enzyme
  • These data demonstrate that LAP is not an essential enzyme for generating most MHC class I-presented peptides and reveal redundancy in the function of cellular aminopeptidases. (
  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (
  • With continued researched and publications from other researchers, along with help from Dr. Huang, Dr. Baltimore discovered an enzyme, reverse transcriptase (in a mouse leukemia retrovirus), that converts RNA to DNA (involved in a process now known as reverse transcription). (
  • vivo
  • To examine the role of LAP in generating MHC class I peptides in vivo, we generated LAP-deficient mice and LAP-deficient cell lines. (
  • This might indicate that the in vivo mechanism of intra-Golgi transport is not faithfully reproduced in vitro, or that intra-Golgi transport occurs by a nonvesicular mechanism. (
  • The role of CD40 ligand (CD40L) in CD8 T cell activation was assessed by tracking antigen-specific T cells in vivo using both adoptive transfer of T cell receptor transgenic T cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers. (
  • In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph cells throughout the insect. (
  • Exogenous molecular control in vivo of miR-155 expression may inhibit malignant growth, viral infections, and enhance the progression of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Matrix
  • The "gag" domain codes for the structural components of the virus like the capsid, the matrix, nucleoproteins. (
  • membranes
  • The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is absolutely required for coatomer vesicle formation on Golgi membranes but not for anterograde transport to the medial-Golgi in a mammalian in vitro transport system. (
  • Replicas of Golgi membranes after a 15-min transport incubation were prepared as described in Materials and Methods. (
  • High-resolution images from replicas of quick-frozen, freeze-dried Golgi membranes reveal that Golgi incubated in vitro with unfractionated cytosol (Fig. 6 A) or reconstituted cytosol (not shown) exhibit abundant buds and vesicles with a punctate surface coating. (
  • mammalian cells
  • At CWRU, he conducted research with Dr. Robert D. Goldman and showed that microfilaments in mammalian cells were actin filaments through the binding of purified heavy meromyosin to decorate the microfilaments in permeabilized cells. (
  • genetics
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (
  • Following the completion of his graduate studies, he trained as post-doctoral fellow on molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus (HSV) at the University of Chicago with Dr. Bernard Roizman. (
  • In 1979, Knipe joined the faculty at Harvard Medical School as an assistant professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and established his own lab to study HSV. (
  • His early interest in phage genetics quickly yielded to a passion for animal viruses. (
  • vitro
  • From in vitro comparisons of a number of viruses, we selected one that appeared the best in selectively killing glioblastoma cells. (
  • These findings demonstrate that characteristics specific to transport between different Golgi compartments are reconstituted in the cell-free system and that vesicle formation is not required for in vitro transport at any level of the stack. (
  • In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. (
  • Knipe first separated and translated the VSV mRNAs in vitro to identify their coding potential. (
  • Marburg
  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. (
  • MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae Marburgviruses are endemic in arid woodlands of equatorial Africa. (
  • A 2006 Lancet article co-authored by Hensley published results on progress for treatment of Marburg virus, a severe hemorrhagic virus with potential utility as a biological weapon. (
  • genome
  • Lastly, the "env" domain of the viral genome encodes for the glycoproteins and envelope on the surface of the virus. (
  • Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the required genes into the host cell. (
  • Inhibition
  • Depletion of ARF from cytosol abolishes vesicle formation and inhibition by GTPgammaS, but transport in all assays is otherwise unaffected. (
  • Treatment with anti-CD40L mAb resulted in partial inhibition of OT-I accumulation in MLNs and much greater inhibition of OT-I accumulation in the LP (Fig. 3). (
  • Little inhibition of OT-I expansion in PLNs was observed (data not shown). (
  • chronic obstruc
  • HMPV is associated with more severe disease in people with asthma and adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • 2001
  • Robert R. Wagner (1923-2001) was an American virologist who spent time on the faculty at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and finally the University of Virginia School of Medicine, from which he retired as professor emeritus in 1994. (
  • Wagner died of cancer in 2001. (
  • Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. (
  • mutant
  • We show that a double mutant with point mutations in both the PSAP and the PPPY motifs is impaired compared with a single mutant in the PPPY motif, indicating that the PSAP motif partially compensates for the lack of the PPPY motif. (
  • cattle
  • The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to distinguish from foot-and-mouth disease. (
  • Microbiology
  • In 1967 Wagner moved to the University of Virginia School of Medicine to serve as the chair of the Department of Microbiology. (
  • After completing a Sc.D. degree in microbiology at the University of Michigan, Youngner stayed on as a faculty member, and left in 1947 to join the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda. (
  • In 1960 he was appointed Professor of Microbiology. (
  • In 1968, he was recruited by Nobel laureate Salvador Luria to the Department of Biology at MIT as an Associate Professor of Microbiology. (
  • cells
  • This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. (
  • In healthy human cells the virus cannot reproduce, probably because of the interferon response. (
  • First, VSV was dispersed in aqueous C(14)AO+ D or DSCG, and then HeLa cells were inoculated by contacting the cells with the aqueous C(14)AO + D or DSCG containing VSV. (
  • Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. (
  • In contrast, we determined that VSV retained its infectivity in the presence of aqueous DSCG, and that greater than 74-82% of the HeLa cells survived contact with aqueous DSCG (depending on concentration of DSCG). (
  • The trimming of peptides in LAP-deficient cells is not reduced under basal conditions or after stimulation with IFN. (
  • We have used quantitative immuno-EM on NRK cells to distinguish peri-Golgi vesicles from other vesicles in the Golgi region. (
  • Appearance of virus-specific mucosal, but not splenic, CD8 cells also relied heavily on CD40-CD40L interactions.The mucosal CTL response of transferred CD8 T cells was MHC class II and interleukin 12 independent.The results established a novel pathway of direct CD40L-mediated CD8 T cell activation. (
  • Immunization concurrent with CD40L blockade or in the absence of CD40 demonstrated that accumulation of CD8 T cells in the mucosa was CD40L dependent. (
  • However, mucosal CD8 T cells in normal and CD40(-/-) mice were equivalent killers, indicating that CD40L was not required for CTL differentiation. (
  • Appearance of virus-specific mucosal, but not splenic, CD8 cells also relied heavily on CD40-CD40L interactions. (
  • In unimmunized mice, OT-I cells comprised 0.4% of MLN cells and were undetectable in LP cells (data not shown). (
  • In this experiment, only the transferred CD8 T cells were capable of expressing CD40L, so that any inhibitory effect must be mediated at the level of the OT-I cells. (
  • After OT-I cell transfer, immunization of CD40L−/− mice with sOVA resulted in substantial proliferation in the periphery and appearance of OT-I cells in the LP (Fig. 3). (
  • These results were similar to those obtained in CD40L-competent mice (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2), and indicated that CD40L expressed by CD8 T cells was responsible for activation of OT-I cells destined for the mucosa. (
  • The markers 6q+ and 15q+ occurred in most cells. (
  • The cells were derived in 1961 by I. A. Macpherson and M. G. P. Stoker. (
  • it is very low in resting cells. (
  • Alternative more cost-effective approaches to the detection of HMPV by nucleic acid-based approaches have been employed and these include: detection of hMPV antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions by immunofluorescent-antibody test the use of immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies to detect HMPV in nasopharyngeal secretions and shell vial cultures immunofluorescence assays for detection of hMPV-specific antibodies the use of polyclonal antibodies and direct isolation in cultured cells. (
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (
  • Even though the function of miR-155-3p has been largely ignored, several studies now suggest that, in some cases (astrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells), both miR-155-5p and -3p can be functionally matured from pre-mir-155. (
  • isolation
  • It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further north and west to areas of higher humidity and leading to reproductive isolation. (
  • In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV and RAVV was reported from healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus) caught in caves. (
  • This isolation strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses and that visiting bat-infested caves is a risk factor for acquiring marburgvirus infections. (
  • Anterograde
  • These data suggest a role of peri-Golgi vesicles in recycling of Golgi residents, rather than an important role in anterograde transport. (
  • apoptosis
  • Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). (
  • VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little or no cytopathology or apoptosis. (
  • received his bachelor's degree
  • Wagner attended Columbia University as an undergraduate and received his bachelor's degree in 1943, after which he began medical school at Yale Medical School and received his M.D. in 1946. (
  • contrast
  • Cholesterol depletion at the adsorption stage also reduced the production of VSV significantly, but in contrast, only had a limited effect on virus production at the post-entry stage. (
  • citation needed], However, in contrast to paramyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses do not have hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities. (
  • 1967
  • Another risk factor is contact with nonhuman primates, although only one outbreak of MVD (in 1967) was due to contact with infected monkeys. (
  • 1939
  • In 1939, Rossby waves were discovered in jet streams and were linked to high and low pressure systems at ground level, which form Earth's daily weather. (
  • Youngner graduated Evander Childs High School, when he was 15 years old, and received a B.A. in English from New York University in 1939. (
  • human
  • The human-sand fly-human cycle of transmission, known as anthroponotic, is limited to two Leishmania species endemic in the Old World and so does not involve Lutzomyia sand flies. (
  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (
  • Valine, not methionine, is amino acid 106 in human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1). (
  • It is the second most common cause after human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of lower respiratory infection in young children. (
  • Northern blot analysis found that miR-155 pri-miRNA was abundantly expressed in the human spleen and thymus and detectable in the liver, lung, and kidney. (
  • Additionally, PCR analyses found that while miR-155-3p was detectable in a number of human tissues the expression levels of this miRNA were 20-200 fold less when compared to miR-155-5p levels. (
  • genes
  • Nonreplicating viruses are used to deliver toxic or therapeutic genes. (
  • Transcription results in five monocistronic mRNAs being produced because the intergenic sequences act as both termination and promoter sequences for adjacent genes. (
  • Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR. (
  • and the viral latency-associated transcript promotes heterochromatin modifications on viral chromatin and silencing of lytic genes in neurons. (
  • 1975
  • The first volume was reviewed in 1975 as somewhat difficult to understand for those unfamiliar to the field, but likely valuable as a reference work. (
  • Dr. Baltimore later received the Nobel Prize in 1975 for his discovery. (
  • primates
  • Their trial vaccine elicited a protective immune response in nonhuman primates, and when infected with Lassa, they showed no evidence of clinical disease. (
  • research
  • New research reports a tendency for Rossby waves in jet streams to grow and stick, however, particularly in July and August. (
  • The research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, explains why heat waves last for weeks, not just a few days, and reports on the resultant health and economic threat. (
  • Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to create phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA sequences. (
  • Lisa E. Hensley is the Associate Director of Science at the Office of the Chief Scientist, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Integrated Research Facility in Frederick, Maryland. (
  • She has been involved in research uncovering critical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses, and has used those discoveries to develop candidate therapeutic drugs for their treatment. (
  • She also held graduate teaching and research posts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. (
  • Hensley joined USAMRIID in 1998 as a research associate in the Pathology Division. (
  • In Chapter 5, "A Woman With a Peaceful Life," Preston recounts Hensley's beginnings as a researcher with USAMRIID and her eventual recruitment to the CDC to collaborate on smallpox research. (
  • Hensley was part of the team responsible for the first nonhuman smallpox infection (in monkeys), proving the potential for continued live-animal smallpox research. (
  • Thymidine kinase has been making a growing impact in the cancer research community. (
  • His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Under his leadership the department expanded dramatically, both in number of faculty and in breadth of research. (
  • During the early 1960s, while at Johns Hopkins, he became involved in research on interferons, which eventually entered clinical use. (
  • citation needed] After his PhD, Baltimore returned to MIT for postdoctoral research with James Darnell in 1963. (
  • In February, 1965, Baltimore was recruited by Renato Dulbecco to the newly established Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla as an independent research associate. (
  • Alice Huang's research focused on defective interfering particles (DIPs) which can be utilized to combat viruses. (
  • Although the sudden appearance of species and its relationship to speciation was proposed and identified by Mayr in 1954, historians of science generally recognize the 1972 Eldredge and Gould paper as the basis of the new paleobiological research program. (
  • vaccine
  • A co-authored 2005 paper in PLOS Medicine reviewed the development of a vaccine for Lassa fever, for which there are currently no vaccines licensed. (
  • Youngner was an important early pioneer in vaccine development, testing, and government licensing of drugs before allowing them to market. (
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (
  • From Youngner's work, formalin application for six days was projected to produce only "one live virus particle in 100 million doses of vaccine. (
  • Since these children have not yet developed a mature immune system, a multidose vaccine strategy may be needed, starting in the first weeks of life. (
  • Wagner
  • After his time in the Navy, Wagner moved to England to work as a postdoctoral fellow with Christopher Andrewes. (
  • Wagner also became the director of the newly created University of Virginia Cancer Center and was appointed the Marion McNulty and Marvin C. Weaver Professor of Oncology in 1984. (
  • The journal launched in 1966, and Wagner continued in his role for 15 years, overseeing a large expansion in the size of the journal before stepping down in 1982 and being succeeded by Edward M. Scolnick. (
  • Wagner retired and assumed professor emeritus status at the University of Virginia in 1994, though he continued to be an active member of the community. (
  • subsequently
  • The 23 nucleotide single-stranded miR-155, which is harbored in exon 3, is subsequently processed from the parent RNA molecule. (
  • Once miR-155-5p/-3p is assembled into the RISC, these molecules subsequently recognize their target messenger RNA (mRNA) by base pairing interactions between nucleotides 2 and 8 of miR-155-5p/-3p (the seed region) and complementary nucleotides predominantly in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mRNAs (see Figure 4 and 5 below). (
  • cell
  • Using these approaches, we found that the LC containing C(14)AO + D caused inactivation of virus as well as cell death. (
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. (
  • A critical role for CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in amplification of the mucosal CD8 T cell response. (
  • The results thus far demonstrated a role for CD40L in CD8 T cell activation, but did not indicate whether this effect was direct or indirect. (
  • Cytogenetic instability has been reported in the literature for some cell lines. (
  • Youngner identified that a difference in pH, as indicated by metabolic activity by other researchers, could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. (
  • He showed that HSV replicates its DNA in defined compartments in the infected cell nucleus. (
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (
  • In the first step the virus uses its surface glycoproteins for attachment to the outer surface of a cell. (
  • symptoms
  • MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (
  • It has been found that elevated blood serum levels of TK-1 correlates with metastatic capabilities of the cancer and thereby can be used to detect malignant types of cancer, furthermore TK-1 has been found to show up in blood serum even before clinical symptoms even start to show. (