Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.IndianaVesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Vesicular Stomatitis: A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus: A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Stomatitis, Aphthous: A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.KansasNucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.IllinoisGolgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.UridineNucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.TritiumProtein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Vesiculovirus matrix proteins: The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known as VSIV or VSV. The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene expression and the induction of cell rounding.Caphosol: Caphosol (EUSA Pharma) is a mouth rinse designed to moisten, lubricate and clean the oral cavity including the mucosa of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis in patients receiving radiation therapy or chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Mouth ulcerPseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Denture-related stomatitisRabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.Sindbis virusTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Cytopathic effectCD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.PSI-6130Interferon: :24-187 :24-185 :24-186Nudivirus: A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames.HHV capsid portal protein: HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Viral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.Coles PhillipsCore enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Virotherapy: Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are three main branches of virotherapy: anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for gene therapy and viral immunotherapy.Oncolytic herpes virus: Many variants of herpes simplex virus have been considered for viral therapy of cancer; the early development of these was thoroughly reviewed in the journal Cancer Gene Therapy in 2002. This page describes (in the order of development) the most notable variants—those tested in clinical trials: G207, HSV1716, NV1020 and Talimogene laherparepvec (previously Oncovex-GMCSF).Sigma viruses: Sigma viruses are a clade of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae that naturally infect dipterans, and have recently been proposed to represent a new genus of rhabdoviruses.Longdon B and Walker PJ (2011) Sigma virus genus proposal for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.John Martin (Governor of Kansas): John Alexander Martin (March 10, 1839 – October 2, 1889) was the 10th Governor of Kansas.Interferon type ISouthern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine: Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine is an academic unit of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) located in Alton, Illinois, USA, in the Greater St. Louis area.CisternaGlobal spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Ebola virus: Ebolavirus|other uses|Ebola (disambiguation)Ebola}}Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mumps virus: Mumps virus is the causative agent of mumps, a well-known common childhood disease characterised by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness. Natural infection is currently restricted to humans and the virus is transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, or contaminated objects.Influenza virus nucleoprotein: Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the main determinants of species specificity.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.Cell-free protein synthesis: Cell-free protein synthesis (also called in-vitro protein synthesis or abbreviated CFPS), is the production of protein using biological machinery without the use of living cells. The in-vitro protein synthesis environment is not constrained by a cell wall or homeostasis conditions necessary to maintain cell viability.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.
(1/2088) Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection.
CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination. (+info)
(2/2088) Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export.
Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious. (+info)
(3/2088) A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding.
The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common. (+info)
(4/2088) Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras.
Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release. (+info)
(5/2088) Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus.
A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses. (+info)
(6/2088) Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity.
Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out. (+info)
(7/2088) One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus.
Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture. (+info)
(8/2088) Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors.
We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells. (+info)