Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.IndianaVesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Vesicular Stomatitis: A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus: A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Stomatitis, Aphthous: A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.KansasNucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.IllinoisGolgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.UridineNucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.TritiumProtein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

*  Microbiology Society Journals | Fusion-active glycoprotein G mediates the cytotoxicity of vesicular stomatitis virus M mutants...

In contrast, a G-deleted VSV expressing wild-type M protein remained cytotoxic. These findings indicate that the host shut-off ... M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic properties in both Vero cells and IFN-competent ... This study demonstrates that infection of human fibroblasts with recombinant VSV containing the M51R substitution resulted in ... The M33A substitution, previously implicated in VSV cytotoxicity, did not affect host shut-off activity. ...

*  Mechanism of RNA synthesis initiation by the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase | The EMBO Journal

Emerson SU, Yu Y (1975) Both NS and L proteins are required for in vitro RNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol ... Testa D, Banerjee AK (1979) Initiation of RNA synthesis in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. Role of ATP. J Biol Chem 254: ... Green TJ, Luo M (2009) Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid‐binding domain ... Das SC, Pattnaik AK (2004) Phosphorylation of vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein P is indispensable for virus growth. J ...

*  Systemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Selectively Destroys Multifocal Glioma and Metastatic Carcinoma in Brain | Journal of...

2004) Replication and cytopathic effect of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus in hypoxic tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. J ... Variable deficiencies in the interferon response enhance susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus oncolytic actions in ... 2003) Vesicular stomatitis viruses with rearranged genomes have altered invasiveness and neuropathogenesis in mice. J Virol 77: ... Systemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Selectively Destroys Multifocal Glioma and Metastatic Carcinoma in Brain. Koray Özduman, ...

*  PLOS ONE: Acute Reactogenicity after Intramuscular Immunization with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Is Linked to...

Those data support the idea that some of the IL-1β expressed in vivo in response to VSV may be activated by a caspase-1 and ASC ... therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R−/− mice were fully protected ... The amount of IL-1β detected in mice deficient in either caspase-1 or the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC after rVSV ...

*  M - Matrix protein - Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (strain 85CLB South America) (VSIV) - M gene & protein

This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. ... Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. Shut off cellular transcription by inhibiting mRNA nuclear export ... Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). ... Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (strain San Juan) (VSIV). ...

*  Academic Programs Faculty - Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of Medicine

... are taught by more than 1,000 full time faculty members in the basic and clinical sciences and more than 550 part time teachers ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus; Viral Matrix Proteins; Vesiculovirus; Apoptosis; Virus Replication Department: 336-716-4237 ... Pneumonia, Viral; Drug Resistance, Viral; Oseltamivir; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia ...

*  Vesicular stomatitis virus - Wikipedia

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV; often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well- ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. VSIV ... "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of ... ViralZone: Vesiculovirus Vesicular Stomatitis Virus from The Lab-On-Site Project. Disease card on World Organisation for Animal ...

*  Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses.

... with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. This study is focused on aqueous solutions of ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / growth & development*, ultrastructure*. Virus Cultivation / methods*. Virus Replication / ... The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical ... Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus ...

*  Rhabdoviridae - Wikipedia

The prototypical and best studied rhabdovirus is vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. It is a preferred model system to study ... In September 2012, researchers writing in the journal PLOS Pathogens described a species of rhabdovirus, called Bas-Congo Virus ... Diseases associated with viruses of this family include rabies fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus, and vesicular ... Replication of many rhabdoviruses occurs in the cytoplasm, although several of the plant infecting viruses replicate in the ...

*  Giantin (10 nm gold) and rBet1 (15 nm gold) show differ | Open-i

Most of the cell's giantin is present in the Golgi complex (G) and associated ... By contrast, when cells expressed vesicular stomatitis virus protein G this anterograde marker was largely absent from the peri ... 6 A). In the Golgi complex itself, giantin was found over all cisternae with highest concentrations in G2-G4 (Table I). In ... By contrast, when cells expressed vesicular stomatitis virus protein G this anterograde marker was largely absent from the peri ...

*  Golgi coated bud formation is blocked by ARF depletion | Open-i

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/physiology. *Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism. Related in: MedlinePlus ... Bottom Line: This might indicate that the in vivo mechanism of intra-Golgi transport is not faithfully reproduced in vitro, or ... Bottom Line: This might indicate that the in vivo mechanism of intra-Golgi transport is not faithfully reproduced in vitro, or ... We also show that asymmetry in donor and acceptor membrane properties in the medial assay is a unique feature of this assay ...

*  Publication : USDA ARS

Replication of vesicular stomatitis virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis [abstract]. American Society for Virology ... Title: REPLICATION OF VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS IN THE BITING MIDGE, CULICOIDES SONORENSIS ... has been implicated as a possible vector for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the western United States. Within a competent ... VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little or no cytopathology or apoptosis. In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ ...

*  Lutzomyia - Wikipedia

"Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, Indiana Serotype - Multiplication in and Transmission by Experimentally Infected Phlebotomine ... One such virus of medical importance is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) of the Vesiculovirus genus. Viruses of this genus ... The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. ... Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to ...

*  Marburg virus disease - Wikipedia

... recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of MARV has been used successfully in ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae Marburgviruses are endemic in arid ... vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) or filovirus-like particles (VLPs) as all of these candidates could protect nonhuman ...

*  BHK-21 [C-13] ATCC ® CCL-10™ Mesocricetus auratus kidney nor

1-day-old hamsters in March, 1961, by I.A. Macpherson and M.G.P. Stoker. Following 84 days of continuous cultivation, ... minimal conserved transcription stop-start signal promotes stable expression of a foreign gene in vesicular stomatitis virus. J ... Virus Susceptibility Human adenovirus 25 Reovirus 3 Vesicular stomatitis virus Human poliovirus 2 ... minimal conserved transcription stop-start signal promotes stable expression of a foreign gene in vesicular stomatitis virus. J ...

*  Vesicular stomatitis virus | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors |...

Maraba virus Piry virus Spring viraemia of carp virus Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus ... Vesicular stomatitis virus. Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other. This page is a soft redirect ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well- ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The ...

*  Table of Contents - June 19, 2017, 189 (24) | CMAJ

Assessing the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized ... All editorial matter in CMAJ represents the opinions of the authors and not necessarily those of the Canadian Medical ... Encounters: The spaces in between Elizabeth Cerceo. CMAJ June 19, 2017 189 (24) E838-E839; DOI: ... Researchers unite in demand for funding Paul Webster. CMAJ June 19, 2017 189 (24) E847; DOI: ...

*  Related Articles

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown considerable promise both as an immunization vector and as an oncolytic virus. In ... In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely ... In this respect, injection of oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) into subcutaneous B16ova melanomas in C57Bl/6 mice ... and we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis ...

*  glycoprotein

Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis viruses with HAP2 in place of the viral glycoprotein cannot enter cells. However the results ... The first virus structure to be solved by X-ray crystallography was of a plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus in 1976, ... Enveloped hepatitis A virus particles are present in the blood of infected humans. However virus in the feces, which is ... In contrast, removal of the membrane from influenza virus, dengue virus, or measles virus destroys their infectivity. Enveloped ...

*  Anthony N. Van den Pol, PhD > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...

... and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain. J Virol. 2017 Mar 15; 2017 Feb 28. ... Variable deficiencies in the interferon response enhance susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus oncolytic actions in ... Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain. J Neurosci. 2008 ... Attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus infection of brain using antiviral drugs and an adeno-associated virus-interferon ...

*  2017/18 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code A93.8: Other specified arthropod-borne viral fevers

Piry virus disease. *Vesicular stomatitis virus disease [Indiana fever]. The following code(s) above A93.8 contain annotation ... Other forms of stomatitis. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Stomatitis NOS ... Other forms of stomatitis. 2016 2017 2018 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Stomatitis NOS ... In this context, annotation back-references refer to codes that contain:*Applicable To annotations, or ...

*  Lutzomyia shannoni - Wikipedia

It is well known as a vector of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes the disease vesicular stomatitis in animals, ... Emergence and re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the United States. Virus Research 85(2), 211-19. Vesicular Stomatitis. ... The bite of the female fly transmits the vesicular stomatitis virus in mammals. The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to ... One well-studied vesicular stomatitis virus enzootic involving this fly is on Ossabaw Island off the coast of Georgia in the ...

*  Vesiculovirus matrix proteins - Wikipedia

"Membrane deformations induced by the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus in a minimal system". J Gen Virol. 86 (Pt 12 ... Kopecky SA, Lyles DS (May 2003). "The cell-rounding activity of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is due to the ... The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known ... In turn, this induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell. Enveloped viruses acquire ...

*  Baby hamster kidney cell - Wikipedia

BHK-21 cells are susceptible to human adenovirus D, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain). BHK-21 cells ... Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology. The cells were derived in ...

*  FUSION PROTEINS - Patent application

... vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein G, a translocating domain of SER virus F protein and a translocating domain of ... 0092] In use, the polypeptides of the present invention are typically employed in the form of a pharmaceutical composition in ... Vesicular Stomatitis 118-139 Yao et al., 2003, Virology 310(2), virus glycoprotein G 319-332 SER virus F protein Translocation ... 0302] Following the methods used in Example 9, the CPNv-C (act. A) prepared in Example 20 is obtained in a purified form and ...

Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.Vesiculovirus matrix proteins: The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known as VSIV or VSV. The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene expression and the induction of cell rounding.Caphosol: Caphosol (EUSA Pharma) is a mouth rinse designed to moisten, lubricate and clean the oral cavity including the mucosa of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx which has been shown to prevent and treat oral mucositis in patients receiving radiation therapy or chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Mouth ulcerPseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Denture-related stomatitisRabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.Sindbis virusTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Cytopathic effectCD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.PSI-6130Interferon: :24-187 :24-185 :24-186Nudivirus: A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames.HHV capsid portal protein: HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Viral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.Coles PhillipsCore enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Virotherapy: Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are three main branches of virotherapy: anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for gene therapy and viral immunotherapy.Oncolytic herpes virus: Many variants of herpes simplex virus have been considered for viral therapy of cancer; the early development of these was thoroughly reviewed in the journal Cancer Gene Therapy in 2002. This page describes (in the order of development) the most notable variants—those tested in clinical trials: G207, HSV1716, NV1020 and Talimogene laherparepvec (previously Oncovex-GMCSF).Sigma viruses: Sigma viruses are a clade of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae that naturally infect dipterans, and have recently been proposed to represent a new genus of rhabdoviruses.Longdon B and Walker PJ (2011) Sigma virus genus proposal for the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.John Martin (Governor of Kansas): John Alexander Martin (March 10, 1839 – October 2, 1889) was the 10th Governor of Kansas.Interferon type ISouthern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine: Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine is an academic unit of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) located in Alton, Illinois, USA, in the Greater St. Louis area.CisternaGlobal spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Ebola virus: Ebolavirus|other uses|Ebola (disambiguation)Ebola}}Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mumps virus: Mumps virus is the causative agent of mumps, a well-known common childhood disease characterised by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness. Natural infection is currently restricted to humans and the virus is transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, or contaminated objects.Influenza virus nucleoprotein: Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the main determinants of species specificity.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |Hepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.Cell-free protein synthesis: Cell-free protein synthesis (also called in-vitro protein synthesis or abbreviated CFPS), is the production of protein using biological machinery without the use of living cells. The in-vitro protein synthesis environment is not constrained by a cell wall or homeostasis conditions necessary to maintain cell viability.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.

(1/2088) Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection.

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

(2/2088) Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export.

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

(3/2088) A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding.

The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common.  (+info)

(4/2088) Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras.

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

(5/2088) Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus.

A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses.  (+info)

(6/2088) Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity.

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

(7/2088) One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus.

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

(8/2088) Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors.

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)


  • To clearly analyze viral infection and spread in brain tumors, we used red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing cancer cells and a recombinant VSV that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • The modified virus was called a "trojan horse" virus Recombinant VSIV has undergone phase 1 trials as a vaccine for Ebola virus. (
  • Purified recombinant myristoylated ARF1 restores inhibition by GTPgammaS, indicating that the GTP-sensitive component in all assays is ARF. (
  • This study demonstrates that infection of human fibroblasts with recombinant VSV containing the M51R substitution resulted in IFN induction, whereas neither the V221F nor the S226R substitution effected an IFN-inducing phenotype. (
  • Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M. "Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates: an efficacy assessment. (


  • The genome of VSIV is on a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that has 11,161 nucleotides in length, that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein, matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein: The VSIV G protein, aka VSVG, enables viral entry. (
  • The virus proteins translated on free ribosomes but G protein is translated by the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • According to this model, the virus-associated RNA polymerase starts firstly the synthesis of leader RNA and then the five mRNA which will produce N,P,M,G,L proteins, respectively. (
  • A cisternal progression mode of intra-Golgi transport requires that Golgi resident proteins recycle by peri-Golgi vesicles, whereas the alternative model of vesicular transport predicts anterograde cargo proteins to be present in such vesicles. (
  • We found significant levels of the Golgi resident enzyme mannosidase II and the transport machinery proteins giantin, KDEL-receptor, and rBet1 in coatomer protein I-coated cisternal rims and peri-Golgi vesicles. (
  • The genome of the virus is a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein, matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein. (
  • The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known as VSIV or VSV. (
  • These proteins play a major role in assembly and budding of VSIV virions. (
  • These plasmids supply the helper functions as well as structural and replication proteins in trans required to produce the lentivirus. (
  • He has also defined the cellular proteins that recognize herpesviral DNA in the nucleus and initiate innate signaling and restrict viral gene expression and identified viral proteins that block host innate responses. (
  • The NF-kappa-B (NFKB) complex of proteins is inhibited by I-kappa-B (IKB) proteins, which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. (
  • They discovered the mechanism of proteolytic cleavage of viral polyprotein precursors, pointing to the importance of proteolytic processing in the synthesis of eukaryotic proteins. (


  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (
  • Most abundant protein in the virion. (
  • Intravenous injection of VSVrp30a expressing a green fluorescent protein reporter, rapidly targeted and destroyed multiple types of human and mouse tumors implanted in the mouse brain, including glioblastoma and mammary tumors. (
  • VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is interrupted by incubation at 15 °C. Under this condition, the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle fraction. (
  • The protein is rich in basic amino acids and contains a highly basic amino terminal domain. (
  • Recently, attenuated VSIV with a mutation in its M protein has been found to have oncolytic properties. (
  • Control experiments using cell lysates with equivalent protein concentrations but no virus did not perturb the uniform alignment of the LC. (
  • Also mRNAs accumulate according to the order of protein sequences on the genome, and this solves the logistics problem in the cell. (
  • For example, N protein is needed too much for the virus, because it coats outside of the replicated genomes completely. (
  • Because of having the N protein sequence at the beginning of the genome (3' end) after the leader RNA sequence, mRNAs for N protein can always be produced and accumulate in high amounts with every termination of transcription. (
  • The G protein is glycosylated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. (
  • In order for replication, both the L and P protein must be expressed to regulate transcription. (
  • The L protein have a lot of enzymatic actiivites such as RNA replication, capping mRNAs phospholorylation of P. L protein gives feature in about replication in cytopolasm. (
  • By contrast, when cells expressed vesicular stomatitis virus protein G this anterograde marker was largely absent from the peri-Golgi vesicles. (
  • Like in vitro transport to the medial-Golgi (medial assay), transport to the trans-Golgi and TGN requires cytosol, ATP, and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). (
  • NSCLC cell lines were treated in vitro with VSV expressing green fluorescence protein (VSV-GFP) and VSV-IFNβ. (
  • The matrix (M) protein of the virus causes many of the cytopathic effects of VSV, including an inhibition of host gene expression and the induction of cell rounding. (
  • It has been shown that M protein also induces apoptosis in the absence of other viral components. (
  • The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). (
  • The M protein from persistently VSV-infected cells was shown to harbour characteristic amino acid substitutions (M51R, V221F and S226R) implicated in IFN induction. (
  • Accordingly, M-mutant VSV expressing a fusion-defective G protein or with a deletion of the G gene showed significantly reduced cytotoxic properties and caused long-lasting infections in Vero cells and mouse hippocampal slice cultures. (
  • Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. (
  • The HMPV fusion (F) protein encodes an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif that engages RGD-binding integrins as cellular receptors, then mediates fusion of the cell membrane and viral envelope in a pH-independent fashion, likely within endosomes. (
  • Enhancement of the binding of palivizumab to the HRSV F protein resulted in a second-generation monoclonal antibody, motavizumab (Numax, MedImmune Inc.), which is currently under study in phase III clinical trials. (
  • Pneumoviruses replicate entirely in the cytoplasm, and this process begins with adsorption of the virus to the cellular receptor on the host cell, directed by the viral attachment protein, variously called G, H (hemagglutinin) or HN (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase). (
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TBK1 gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is similar to IKB kinases and can mediate NFKB activation in response to certain growth factors. (
  • Later, in her work with her husband at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) she studied made ribonucleic acid (RNA) from RNA instead of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which did not follow the conventional central dogma: DNA RNA Protein. (
  • Pseudotyping is combining a virus or a part of a virus (vector) with a foreign viral envelope protein. (
  • Scientists developed this strain of lentivirus by transinfecting 293T cells with pseudotyped virus with the vesicular stomatitis G protein. (


  • BHK-21 cells are susceptible to human adenovirus D, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain). (

stomatis virus

  • This replication-competent virus, the glioma-adapted vesicular stomatis virus strain VSVrp30a, was used for in vivo tests with the underlying view that infection of tumor cells will lead to an increase in the number of viruses subsequently released to kill additional tumor cells. (
  • The researchers accomplished this by the addition of self-inactivating plasmids and creating a more universal tropism by pseudotyping a vesicular stomatis virus glycoprotein. (


  • It is also a common laboratory virus used to study the properties of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, as well as to study viral evolution. (
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. (
  • MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (
  • Type I IFN plays critical roles in antiviral immune response mainly through induction of cellular resistance to viral infection and apoptosis of virus-infected cells. (
  • Knipe developed a cotransfection method for marker rescue mapping of mutations and introduction of new sequences into the HSV genome and showed that the ICP4 gene mapped in the repeated sequences of the short component of the viral genome. (
  • and the viral latency-associated transcript promotes heterochromatin modifications on viral chromatin and silencing of lytic genes in neurons. (
  • Exogenous molecular control in vivo of miR-155 expression may inhibit malignant growth, viral infections, and enhance the progression of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • These DIPs will interfere in replication of the virus because they are reproduced at the expense of a standard viral particle. (
  • She thought that these mutants played a vital role in viral pathogenesis and could possibly be used to prevent disease. (
  • For the research, she isolated a rabies type of virus which produced mutant strains interfering with viral growth. (
  • Lentiviruses also have a viral envelope with protruding glycoproteins that aid in attachment to the host cell's outer membrane. (
  • The virus contains a reverse transcriptase molecule found to perform transcription of the viral genetic material upon entering the cell. (
  • Lastly, the "env" domain of the viral genome encodes for the glycoproteins and envelope on the surface of the virus. (
  • The viral vector's responsibility was to increase the gene synthesis and production of NADP in these phagocytic cells. (


  • Formation of native hepatitis C virus glycoprotein complexes. (
  • In this case, soluble peptide-MHC complexes were generated using the mouse class I heavy chain D b , chemically biotinylated human β2 microglobulin (β 2 M) and the LCMV peptide epitope glycoprotein (GP)33-41 (GP33-KAVYNFATC). (


  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (
  • He continued his work on virus replication using poliovirus and pursued training in enzymology with Jerard Hurwitz at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1964/1965. (


  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (


  • An alternate strategy is the use of replicating viruses that target, infect, produce progeny virus to infect more tumor cells, and kill infected cells. (
  • It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it can infect cattle. (
  • The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells was examined by two approaches. (
  • The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), known to infect horses, cattle and swine, was the virus she first chose to study. (


  • The virus is zoonotic and leads to a flu-like illness in infected humans. (
  • Diseases associated with viruses of this family include rabies fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus, and vesicular diseases and encephalitis flu-like symptoms in humans caused by vesiculoviruses. (
  • formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • Humans can be infected with the virus and experience flu-like symptoms and occasionally oral blisters and lymphadenopathy in the neck. (
  • 11 )) described a method, using tetrameric soluble MHC class I-peptide complexes, for the identification of antigen-specific CD8 + cells in the PBMCs of HIV-infected humans. (
  • The Department of Virology of Erasmus MC, Rotterdam in the Netherlands is working on developing a Metapneumovirus vaccine for humans. (
  • MiR-155 is a microRNA that in humans is encoded by the MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG. (


  • The material in the lipid-rich vesicle fraction appears to be a post-ER intermediate in the transport process to the plasma membrane (PM). After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • Genetic mapping and diagnosis of haemophilia A achieved through a BclI polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. (
  • Restriction site polymorphism in the phosphoglycerate kinase gene on the X chromosome. (
  • After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N -linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • The experiments presented here were to determine whether both sensitive and resistant cells are present in prostate cancers originating from a single genetic lesion in transgenic mice, prostate-specific deletion of the gene for the tumor suppressor Pten. (
  • The ViraPower™ Lentiviral Expression System allows creation of a replication - incompetent, HIV-1-based lentivirus that is used to deliver and express your gene of interest in either dividing or non-dividing mammalian cells. (
  • Efficiently delivers the gene of interest to mammalian cells in culture or in vivo (Dull et al. (
  • The ViraPower™ Lentiviral Expression System facilitates highly efficient, in vitro or in vivo delivery of a target gene to dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells using a replication-incompetent lentivirus. (
  • 1998), the ViraPower™ Lentiviral Expression System possesses features which enhance its biosafety while allowing high-level gene expression in a wider range of cell types than traditional retroviral systems. (
  • J:200017 Barritt LC, Miller JM, Scheetz LR, Gardner K, Pierce ML, Soukup GA, Rocha-Sanchez SM, Conditional deletion of the human ortholog gene Dicer1 in Pax2-Cre expression domain impairs orofacial development. (
  • In this paper, we show that RNA virus infection induces miR-155 expression in macrophages via TLR/MyD88-independent but retinoic acid-inducible gene I/JNK/NF-κB-dependent pathway. (
  • however, HMPV lacks the non-structural genes, NS1 and NS2, and the HMPV antisense RNA genome contains eight open reading frames in slightly different gene order than RSV (viz. (
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (
  • Lentiviral vectors in gene therapy is a method by which genes can be inserted, modified, or deleted in organisms using lentivirus. (
  • The Lentivirus is unique in that it has been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy. (
  • To be effective in gene therapy, there must be insertion, alteration and/or removal of host cell genes. (
  • Some of the experimental uses for the Lentivirus vector have been in gene therapy of diseases like Diabetes mellitus, Murine haemophilia A, prostate cancer, chronic granulomatous disease, and vascular gene therapy. (
  • In a study designed to enhance the outcomes of vascular transplant through vascular endothelial cell gene therapy, the third generation of Lentivirus showed to be effective in the delivery of genes to moderate venous grafts and transplants in procedures like coronary artery bypass. (
  • A draw back to this therapy is explained in the study that long-term gene expression may require the use of promoters and can aid in a greater trans-gene expression. (


  • A co-authored 2005 paper in PLOS Medicine reviewed the development of a vaccine for Lassa fever, for which there are currently no vaccines licensed. (
  • Their trial vaccine elicited a protective immune response in nonhuman primates, and when infected with Lassa, they showed no evidence of clinical disease. (
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (
  • Youngner was an important early pioneer in vaccine development, testing, and government licensing of drugs before allowing them to market. (
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (
  • From Youngner's work, formalin application for six days was projected to produce only "one live virus particle in 100 million doses of vaccine. (
  • Since these children have not yet developed a mature immune system, a multidose vaccine strategy may be needed, starting in the first weeks of life. (
  • His work has shown that replication-defective viruses can serve as a genital herpes vaccine and as a vaccine vector-one of these genital herpes vaccines, HSV-529, is the leading candidate in phase I clinical trials. (


  • Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. (
  • Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that miR-155-5p was detectable in all human tissues investigated. (
  • At MIT, Huang, Baltimore, and graduate student Martha Stampfer discovered that VSV involved an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within the virus particle, and used a novel replication strategy to replicate its RNA genome. (
  • Her discovery of this VSV virion-associated RNA - dependent RNA polymerase led to Baltimore's research on tumor viruses and the discovery of the enzyme called reverse transcriptase. (
  • In her postdoctoral work at the Salk Institute and MIT with David Baltimore, Dr. Huang worked on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and discovered that these viruses had RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase. (
  • Dr. Huang and Dr. Baltimore unraveled that RNA viruses were different and used RNA polymerase to replicate its RNA genome. (
  • An RNA polymerase in the virion. (


  • Infection studies were performed in both Culicoides cell lines and insects to examine the replication of VSV. (
  • Deletion of Pten in MPE progenitor cells using a lentivirus vector resulted in cells that responded poorly to interferon and were susceptible to VSV infection. (
  • In contrast, tumor-derived Pten−/− cells expressed higher levels of the antiviral transcription factor STAT1, activated STAT1 in response to VSV, and were resistant to VSV infection. (
  • These results suggest that early in tumor development following Pten deletion, cells are primarily sensitive to VSV, but subsequent evolution in tumors leads to development of cells that are resistant to VSV infection. (
  • Valnoctamide Inhibits Cytomegalovirus Infection in Developing Brain and Attenuates Neurobehavioral Dysfunctions and Brain Abnormalities. (
  • The fate of virus-specific CTLs was analyzed during the acute phase of infection in mice challenged both intracranially and intravenously with a high or low dose of LCMV-DOCILE. (
  • The tetrameric class I-peptide complexes, which stained CTLs specifically, were used to follow the fate of GP33-specific CD8 + T cells in mice during the acute phase of LCMV infection. (
  • Hensley was part of the team responsible for the first nonhuman smallpox infection (in monkeys), proving the potential for continued live-animal smallpox research. (
  • It is the second most common cause after human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of lower respiratory infection in young children. (
  • Despite near universal infection during early life, reinfections are common in older children and adults. (
  • There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a Lentivirus in a host cell. (


  • In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. (
  • She has been involved in research uncovering critical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses, and has used those discoveries to develop candidate therapeutic drugs for their treatment. (
  • A 2006 Lancet article co-authored by Hensley published results on progress for treatment of Marburg virus, a severe hemorrhagic virus with potential utility as a biological weapon. (


  • From in vitro comparisons of a number of viruses, we selected one that appeared the best in selectively killing glioblastoma cells. (
  • The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is absolutely required for coatomer vesicle formation on Golgi membranes but not for anterograde transport to the medial-Golgi in a mammalian in vitro transport system. (
  • This might indicate that the in vivo mechanism of intra-Golgi transport is not faithfully reproduced in vitro, or that intra-Golgi transport occurs by a nonvesicular mechanism. (
  • These findings demonstrate that characteristics specific to transport between different Golgi compartments are reconstituted in the cell-free system and that vesicle formation is not required for in vitro transport at any level of the stack. (
  • High-resolution images from replicas of quick-frozen, freeze-dried Golgi membranes reveal that Golgi incubated in vitro with unfractionated cytosol (Fig. 6 A) or reconstituted cytosol (not shown) exhibit abundant buds and vesicles with a punctate surface coating. (
  • In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. (
  • Knipe first separated and translated the VSV mRNAs in vitro to identify their coding potential. (


  • In doing so, he discovered a distinct class of viruses, later name retroviruses, that use an RNA template to catalyze the synthesis of DNA. (
  • While at Johns Hopkins University, Huang conducted research looking into the inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis by nonreplicating vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Huang and Baltimore coauthored a paper with Martha Stampfer titled "Ribonucleic acid synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, II. (
  • In chronic granulomatous disease immune functioning is deficient as a result of the loss of nicotinomide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADP) in phagocyte cells, which aids in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis. (


  • the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. (


  • Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (
  • We report a study that investigates the biocompatibility of materials that form lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (
  • At CWRU, he conducted research with Dr. Robert D. Goldman and showed that microfilaments in mammalian cells were actin filaments through the binding of purified heavy meromyosin to decorate the microfilaments in permeabilized cells. (


  • Furthermore, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS1 ), a canonical negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, is targeted by miR-155 in macrophages, and SOCS1 knockdown mediates the enhancing effect of miR-155 on type I IFN-mediated antiviral response. (

potent oncolytic


  • David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist, university administrator, and 1975 Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine. (


  • She was previously a civilian microbiologist in the virology division of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). (
  • He is considered "one of the seminal figures in contemporary virology and it's been that way for more than 50 years" by Arthur S. Levine, senior vice chancellor for the health sciences at University of Pittsburgh. (
  • dead link] In 1949, Youngner moved to the University of Pittsburgh to pursue virology at and, subsequently, to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine for the rest of his career. (
  • Following his internship, he joined the U.S. Navy Medical Corps, where he was first exposed to virology research while assigned to the U.S. Navy Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • Wagner joined the faculty at Yale University in 1951 and then moved to Johns Hopkins in 1957, where he became the director of the Infectious Disease Division and later the head of the Division of Virology. (
  • Following a brief stint as the virology section editor for the Journal of Bacteriology, run by the American Society for Microbiology, Wagner served as the founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Virology, working with fellow editors Lloyd Kozloff and Norman Salzman. (
  • With Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Wagner collaborated in editing a vast 19-volume treatise called Comprehensive Virology. (
  • In the early 1980s, Wagner was among the group of American virologists who helped organize and became the founding members of the American Society for Virology. (
  • David M. Knipe is the Higgins Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and interim Co-Chair in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts and co-chief editor of the reference book Fields Virology. (
  • He had previously served as Chair of the Program in Virology at Harvard Medical School from 2004 through 2016. (
  • He took the Cold Spring Harbor course on animal virology in 1961 and he moved to Richard Franklin's lab at the Rockefeller Institute at New York City which was one of the few labs pioneering molecular research on animal virology. (
  • is an American biologist specialized in microbiology and virology. (
  • This enzyme converted RNA to DNA, and became a major breakthrough in virology. (


  • Study performed in mice emphasizes the use of lineage-specific lentiviral vectors for the production of NADP. (


  • One confirmed vector of the virus is the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni. (
  • The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis, a known arboviral insect vector, has been implicated as a possible vector for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the western United States. (
  • This is the first whole body microscopic analysis of the replication of an arthropod-borne virus in this known insect vector. (
  • It is well known as a vector of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes the disease vesicular stomatitis in animals, particularly livestock. (


  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (
  • With continued researched and publications from other researchers, along with help from Dr. Huang, Dr. Baltimore discovered an enzyme, reverse transcriptase (in a mouse leukemia retrovirus), that converts RNA to DNA (involved in a process now known as reverse transcription). (


  • The largest resting microhabitat is the forest floor, but sand flies will also rest in a variety of other areas, such as in the nests and burrows of mammals, within the trunks of hollow trees and inside bat caves. (
  • The bite of the female fly transmits the vesicular stomatitis virus in mammals. (

molecular biology

  • Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology. (
  • He credits his interest in molecular biology to George Streisinger under whose mentorship he worked for one summer at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (


  • VSIV is an arbovirus, and its replication occurs in the cytoplasm. (
  • Replication of many rhabdoviruses occurs in the cytoplasm, although several of the plant infecting viruses replicate in the nucleus. (
  • Replication occurs in the cytoplasm. (

David Baltimore

  • his thesis research focused on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) under the supervision of Dr. David Baltimore and Dr. Harvey Lodish. (


  • Furthermore, the data indicate that deletion of virus-specific CTLs in the presence of excessive antigen is preceded by TCR downregulation and is dependent upon perforin. (
  • It has been found that elevated blood serum levels of TK-1 correlates with metastatic capabilities of the cancer and thereby can be used to detect malignant types of cancer, furthermore TK-1 has been found to show up in blood serum even before clinical symptoms even start to show. (


  • In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph cells throughout the insect. (


  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. (
  • Research is ongoing, and has shown VSIV to reduce tumor size and spread in melanoma, lung cancer, colon cancer and certain brain tumors in laboratory models of cancer. (


  • Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. (


  • IMPORTANCE There has been a great deal of progress in the development of replication-competent viruses that kill cancer cells (oncolytic viruses). (


  • A major challenge to oncolytic virus therapy is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses, even when these cancers arise from the same tissue type. (
  • The results indicate that murine prostate cancers are composed of both cells that are sensitive and cells that are resistant to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (


  • Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). (
  • VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little or no cytopathology or apoptosis. (


  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (
  • MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae Marburgviruses are endemic in arid woodlands of equatorial Africa. (


  • Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the required genes into the host cell. (


  • The "gag" domain codes for the structural components of the virus like the capsid, the matrix, nucleoproteins. (


  • We also show that asymmetry in donor and acceptor membrane properties in the medial assay is a unique feature of this assay that is unrelated to the production of vesicles. (
  • Enveloped viruses acquire their membrane by budding at a membrane of their host cell. (


  • HMPV infects airway epithelial cells in the nose and lung. (


  • Further evolution in castration-resistant tumors leads to tumors in which cells are primarily sensitive to VSV. (

chronic obstruc

  • HMPV is associated with more severe disease in people with asthma and adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (


  • Another example of clinical relevance is our finding that the primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain, GABA, has excitatory actions after neuronal trauma, potentially resulting in additional secondary brain injury due to the potential loss of inhibition in affected brain circuits. (
  • M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic properties in both Vero cells and IFN-competent primary fibroblasts. (
  • The vaccination efficacy in these children may also be hampered by the presence of maternally derived antibodies, which may provide partial protection to wild-type virus infections but also suppress the primary immune response on immunization. (

tumor viruses

  • Baltimore extended this work and examined two RNA tumor viruses, Rauscher murine leukemia virus and Rous sarcoma virus. (


  • In contrast, we determined that VSV retained its infectivity in the presence of aqueous DSCG, and that greater than 74-82% of the HeLa cells survived contact with aqueous DSCG (depending on concentration of DSCG). (
  • citation needed], However, in contrast to paramyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses do not have hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities. (
  • In contrast, GP33 tetramers did not stain CD8 + T cells isolated from the spleens of B6 mice that had been infected 2 mo previously with LCMV above the background levels found in naive mice. (


  • Robert R. Wagner (1923-2001) was an American virologist who spent time on the faculty at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and finally the University of Virginia School of Medicine, from which he retired as professor emeritus in 1994. (
  • Wagner died of cancer in 2001. (
  • Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. (


  • J:182094 Huang ZP, Chen JF, Regan JN, Maguire CT, Tang RH, Dong XR, Majesky MW, Wang DZ, Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. (
  • He also met his future wife, Alice Huang, who began working with Baltimore at Salk in 1967. (
  • Alice S. Huang also moved to MIT to continue her research on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (
  • Alice Huang's father, Quentin K. Y. Huang, was orphaned at age 12 in Anhui, China and was taken in by a missionary. (
  • Alice Huang was born in Nanchang, the capital city of Jiangxi Province, in 1939. (
  • Huang emigrated to the U.S. in 1949. (
  • Huang received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. (in microbiology in 1966) degrees all from The Johns Hopkins University. (


  • This technique was validated by ( a ) staining CD8 + cells in the spleens of transgenic mice that express a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for H-2D b in association with peptide GP33-41, and ( b ) by staining virus-specific CTLs in the cerebrospinal fluid of C57BL/6 (B6) mice that had been infected intracranially with LCMV-DOCILE. (


  • These genetically distinct parasites show markedly different patterns of development within the New World sand flies when compared to those seen in the Old World Phlebotomus sand flies. (


  • Depletion of ARF from cytosol abolishes vesicle formation and inhibition by GTPgammaS, but transport in all assays is otherwise unaffected. (


  • Cancer in the brain is one of the deadliest diseases. (
  • Lentivirus are a family of viruses that are responsible for notable diseases like HIV. (


  • 1998) and has been implicated in intra-Golgi traffic. (
  • Hensley joined USAMRIID in 1998 as a research associate in the Pathology Division. (


  • Youngner identified that a difference in pH, as indicated by metabolic activity by other researchers, could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. (
  • Alternative more cost-effective approaches to the detection of HMPV by nucleic acid-based approaches have been employed and these include: detection of hMPV antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions by immunofluorescent-antibody test the use of immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies to detect HMPV in nasopharyngeal secretions and shell vial cultures immunofluorescence assays for detection of hMPV-specific antibodies the use of polyclonal antibodies and direct isolation in cultured cells. (


  • Using genetic approaches, miR-155 has been demonstrated to have an indispensable role in humeral and cellular immunity ( 9 - 15 ). (



  • This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. (
  • In healthy human cells the virus cannot reproduce, probably because of the interferon response. (
  • First, VSV was dispersed in aqueous C(14)AO+ D or DSCG, and then HeLa cells were inoculated by contacting the cells with the aqueous C(14)AO + D or DSCG containing VSV. (
  • Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. (
  • We have used quantitative immuno-EM on NRK cells to distinguish peri-Golgi vesicles from other vesicles in the Golgi region. (
  • The markers 6q+ and 15q+ occurred in most cells. (
  • These hypotheses were tested using cells from a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (
  • The cells were derived in 1961 by I. A. Macpherson and M. G. P. Stoker. (
  • This study describes an adaptation of this method for the identification of antigen-specific CD8 + cells in B6 (H-2 b ) mice infected with LCMV. (
  • it is very low in resting cells. (
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (
  • Even though the function of miR-155-3p has been largely ignored, several studies now suggest that, in some cases (astrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells), both miR-155-5p and -3p can be functionally matured from pre-mir-155. (


  • In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. (
  • Most marburgvirus infections were repeatedly associated with people visiting natural caves or working in mines. (
  • This isolation strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses and that visiting bat-infested caves is a risk factor for acquiring marburgvirus infections. (
  • The ability to clear infections with noncytopathic viruses is predominantly attributed to CD8 + CTLs. (
  • So far, it has not been possible to follow the kinetics of appearance and disappearance of antigen-specific effector CTLs during the acute phase of both low- and high-dose LCMV infections in non-TCR-transgenic mice. (
  • Youngner survived many infections as a young child which left him with a lifelong interest in infectious disease. (
  • HMPV is associated with 6% to 40% of respiratory tract infections in hospitalized and outpatient children. (


  • Chikungunya, Influenza, Nipah, and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain. (


  • It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further north and west to areas of higher humidity and leading to reproductive isolation. (
  • In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV and RAVV was reported from healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus) caught in caves. (

received his bachelor's degree

  • Wagner attended Columbia University as an undergraduate and received his bachelor's degree in 1943, after which he began medical school at Yale Medical School and received his M.D. in 1946. (


  • The human-sand fly-human cycle of transmission, known as anthroponotic, is limited to two Leishmania species endemic in the Old World and so does not involve Lutzomyia sand flies. (
  • An optimized 293FT producer cell line that stably expresses the SV40 large T antigen under the control of the human CMV promoter and facilitates optimal production of virus. (
  • Valine, not methionine, is amino acid 106 in human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1). (
  • Northern blot analysis found that miR-155 pri-miRNA was abundantly expressed in the human spleen and thymus and detectable in the liver, lung, and kidney. (
  • Additionally, PCR analyses found that while miR-155-3p was detectable in a number of human tissues the expression levels of this miRNA were 20-200 fold less when compared to miR-155-5p levels. (


  • Another risk factor is contact with nonhuman primates, although only one outbreak of MVD (in 1967) was due to contact with infected monkeys. (
  • In 1967 Wagner moved to the University of Virginia School of Medicine to serve as the chair of the Department of Microbiology. (


  • Nonreplicating viruses are used to deliver toxic or therapeutic genes. (
  • Transcription results in five monocistronic mRNAs being produced because the intergenic sequences act as both termination and promoter sequences for adjacent genes. (
  • Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR. (


  • There he made fundamental discoveries on virus replication and its effect on cell metabolism, including the first description of an RNA replicase. (


  • The first volume was reviewed in 1975 as somewhat difficult to understand for those unfamiliar to the field, but likely valuable as a reference work. (
  • Dr. Baltimore later received the Nobel Prize in 1975 for his discovery. (


  • Although the fact that miR-155 expression is induced by stimulation of poly(I:C) or IFN-β implies the involvement of miR-155 in antiviral responses, there is no report by now about the regulation and underlying mechanism of type I IFN signaling and subsequent type I IFN-mediated antiviral innate immunity by the inducible miR-155. (


  • The virus is distributed worldwide and, in temperate regions, has a seasonal distribution generally following that of RSV and influenza virus during late winter and spring. (
  • In some studies of hospitalizations and emergency room visits, HMPV is nearly as common and as severe as influenza in older adults. (

surface glycoproteins

  • Through this work on VSV she uncovered a mix of surface glycoproteins which resulted in a novel replication strategy for Negative Strand Viruses as well as Pseudotyping. (
  • In the first step the virus uses its surface glycoproteins for attachment to the outer surface of a cell. (


  • Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to create phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA sequences. (
  • No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council's (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. (
  • An important theme in the context of this research program is the parallel that occurs between normal development and recovery after neuronal injury. (
  • Lisa E. Hensley is the Associate Director of Science at the Office of the Chief Scientist, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Integrated Research Facility in Frederick, Maryland. (
  • She also held graduate teaching and research posts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. (
  • In Chapter 5, "A Woman With a Peaceful Life," Preston recounts Hensley's beginnings as a researcher with USAMRIID and her eventual recruitment to the CDC to collaborate on smallpox research. (
  • Thymidine kinase has been making a growing impact in the cancer research community. (
  • His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Under his leadership the department expanded dramatically, both in number of faculty and in breadth of research. (
  • During the early 1960s, while at Johns Hopkins, he became involved in research on interferons, which eventually entered clinical use. (
  • citation needed] After his PhD, Baltimore returned to MIT for postdoctoral research with James Darnell in 1963. (
  • In February, 1965, Baltimore was recruited by Renato Dulbecco to the newly established Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla as an independent research associate. (
  • Alice Huang's research focused on defective interfering particles (DIPs) which can be utilized to combat viruses. (
  • Although the sudden appearance of species and its relationship to speciation was proposed and identified by Mayr in 1954, historians of science generally recognize the 1972 Eldredge and Gould paper as the basis of the new paleobiological research program. (