Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Protein C Deficiency: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Postphlebitic Syndrome: A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion: Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Activated Protein C Resistance: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.Postthrombotic Syndrome: A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the LATERAL SINUSES. This condition is often associated with ear infections (OTITIS MEDIA or MASTOIDITIS) without antibiotic treatment. In developed nations, lateral sinus thrombosis can result from CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; THROMBOPHILIA; and other conditions. Clinical features include HEADACHE; VERTIGO; and increased intracranial pressure.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Antithrombin III Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor: An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Acenocoumarol: A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Antibodies, Anticardiolipin: Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.Enoxaparin: Low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, having a 4-enopyranosuronate sodium structure at the non-reducing end of the chain. It is prepared by depolymerization of the benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. Therapeutically, it is used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Nadroparin: A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Macedonia (Republic): Formerly a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, comprising the Yugoslav section of the region of Macedonia. It was made a constituent republic in the 1946 constitution. It became independent on 8 February 1994 and was recognized as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United States Board on Geographic Names 16 February 1994.Behcet Syndrome: Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices: Instruments that generate intermittent forces, uniformed or graduated, to facilitate the emptying of VEINS. These devices are used to reduce limb EDEMA and prevent venous THROMBOEMBOLISM, such as deep vein thrombosis in the legs.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors: Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Factor V Deficiency: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Thrombocythemia, Essential: A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Burns, Electric: Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Norgestrel: A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Plasminogen Activators: A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.May-Thurner Syndrome: A compression of ILIAC VEIN that results in a decreased flow in the vein and in the left LOWER EXTREMITY due to a vascular malformation. It may result in left leg EDEMA, pain, iliofemoral DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS and POSTTHROMBOTIC SYNDROME. Compression of the left common ILIAC VEIN by the right common ILIAC ARTERY against the underlying fifth LUMBAR VERTEBRA is the typical underlying malformation.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Dalteparin: A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Early Ambulation: Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Clopenthixol: A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Coagulation Protein Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Estrogens, Esterified (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of esterified estrogens derived from estrogen sulfates, principally from ESTRONE sulfate. Esterified estrogen content should be 75-85% of the estrone sulfate and 6-15% of the EQUILIN sulfate.Embolism, Paradoxical: Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.

*  Sex Difference in Risk of Second but Not of First Venous ThrombosisClinical Perspective | Circulation

venous thrombosis. Introduction. The incidence of first venous thrombosis has been assessed for men and women separately in ... venous thrombosis than women is as yet unknown.10-14 Risk factors for venous thrombosis can be genetic or acquired, and it is ... a population-based case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis, 2915 patients with a first venous thrombosis and ... Female reproductive factors are well-known provoking risk factors for venous thrombosis.18-20 To determine the OR for venous ...

*  Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis - Full Text View -

Deep Vein Thrombosis Venous Thrombosis Postphlebitic Syndrome Venous Thromboembolism Post Thrombotic Syndrome Drug: Recombinant ... Thrombosis. Thromboembolism. Venous Thromboembolism. Venous Thrombosis. Postthrombotic Syndrome. Postphlebitic Syndrome. ... deep vein thrombosis. deep venous thrombosis. post thrombotic syndrome. blood clot. thrombolysis. tissue plasminogen activator ... Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT). This study has been ...

*  Recurrent Thrombosis and Survival After a First Venous Thrombosis of the Upper Extremity | Circulation

One study included patients with an idiopathic venous thrombosis of the arm and reported only venous thrombosis of the arm as a ... Fifteen patients also were diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism or a venous thrombosis of the lower extremity. Venous thrombosis ... and the incidence or recurrence is lower compared with recurrent venous thrombosis in patients with a venous thrombosis of the ... Men with venous thrombosis of the leg clearly have a higher risk of recurrence than women.22-26 In contrast, in venous ...

*  The Silent Threat: Deep Vein Thrombosis

DVT and PE are 2 serious conditions categorized together as venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is becoming a national health ... Sparked by the tragic death of NBC reporter David Bloom last year, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has finally begun to receive the ... She had had previous thromboembolic episodes, including deep vein thrombosis and embolic stroke due to antiphospholipid ...

*  Venous thrombosis - Wikipedia

Superficial venous thromboses cause discomfort but generally not serious consequences, as do the deep venous thromboses (DVTs) ... Thrombosis is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel. A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein ... In contrast to the understanding for how arterial thromboses occur, as with heart attacks, venous thrombosis formation is not ... Superficial venous thrombosis[edit]. Trials suggest that fondaparinux, a factor Xa inhibitor, reduces extension and recurrence ...

*  Venous thrombosis - definition of venous thrombosis by The Free Dictionary

... venous thrombosis translation, English dictionary definition of venous thrombosis. Noun 1. venous thrombosis - thrombosis of a ... Define venous thrombosis. venous thrombosis synonyms, venous thrombosis pronunciation, ... Related to venous thrombosis: Venous thromboembolism, Cerebral venous thrombosis ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: ... Venous thrombosis - definition of venous thrombosis by The Free Dictionary ...

*  Does ethamsylate increase the incidence of venous thrombosis? | The BMJ

Does ethamsylate increase the incidence of venous thrombosis? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288 :899 ... Does ethamsylate increase the incidence of venous thrombosis?. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288 doi: ...

*  Superficial Venous Thrombosis - WellSpan Health Library

A superficial venous thrombosis is a blood clot in a vein that is close to the surface of the skin. A superficial thrombosis ...

* :: Deep Venous Thrombosis

Deep Venous Thrombosis: Symptoms and Risk Factors Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common medical syndrome that affects ...

*  Epidemiology of Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism - Tabular View -

Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism [ Time Frame: Yearly Follow up ]. venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism ... Venous thromboembolism, comprising deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a major contributor to ... Epidemiology of Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (LITE). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ... Epidemiology of Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism. Official Title Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology ...

*  Patients with cancer are at high risk of venous thrombosis | The BMJ

The study included 3220 volunteers aged 18 to 70 with a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism between ... Patients with cancer are seven times more likely to develop venous thrombosis than people without cancer, a Dutch study has ... Patients with cancer are at high risk of venous thrombosis BMJ 2005; 330 :326 ... Patients with cancer are at high risk of venous thrombosis. BMJ 2005; 330 doi: ( ...

*  Compensation for blood clots (venous thrombosis) - AAH

... venous thrombosis) can be caused by medical negligence; Accident Advice Helpline can help you claim personal injury ... You are here : Home » Blog » Other injury claims » Medical negligence claim » Compensation for blood clots (venous thrombosis) ... Compensation for blood clots (venous thrombosis). Every year some people develop a blood clot in a part of their body that ... Of course blood clots (venous thrombosis) can also form through no particular way. You may end up with symptoms of a clot that ...

*  Mesenteric venous thrombosis -

Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Mesenteric venous thrombosis. ... List of 6 disease causes of Mesenteric venous thrombosis, patient stories, diagnostic guides. ... Venous thrombosis *Mesenteric *Venous *Thrombosis *more symptoms...» Mesenteric venous thrombosis: Deaths. Read more about ... Mesenteric venous thrombosis: Introduction. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: Mesenteric venous thrombosis refers to a blood clot ...

*  Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) | Columbia University Department of Surgery

Blood clots may form in the blood vessels when the blood does not flow properly, as occurs in people with chronic venous ... Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a clot ('thrombus') in a vein deep in the body, usually in the lower leg, ... Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a clot ('thrombus') in a vein deep in the body, ... Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often first noticed as a "pulling" sensation in the calf of the lower leg, and it can be quite ...

*  Drinking alcohol to lower the risk of venous thrombosis?

Wine and beer in moderate doses may protect against venous thrombosis, but consumption of more than 14 standard drinks per week ... Drinking alcohol to lower the risk of venous thrombosis?. July 4, 2013, Schattauer Wine and beer in moderate doses may protect ... or arterial thrombosis, have an increased risk of venous thrombosis ... ... Major illness increases venous thrombosis risk. November 3, 2012 (HealthDay)-People with major illnesses, including liver or ...

*  Mechanisms of Venous Thrombosis and Resolution | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Venous Thromboembolism: Mechanisms, Treatment and Public Awareness. Mechanisms of Venous Thrombosis and Resolution. Thomas W. ... Selectins influence thrombosis in a mouse model of experimental deep venous thrombosis. J Surg Res. 2002; 108: 212-221. ... Neutropenia impairs venous thrombosis resolution in the rat. J Vasc Surg. 2003; 38: 1090-1098. ... D-dimer, P-selectin, and microparticles: novel markers to predict deep venous thrombosis. A pilot study. Thromb Haemost. 2005; ...

*  Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Venous Thrombosis' - List Results -

Recurrent objectively confirmed venous thrombosis or death related to venous thrombosis. *Major or clinically relevant non- ... The Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Etexilate for the Treatment of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. *Cerebral Venous Thrombosis ... Comparison of the Efficacy of Rivroxaban to Coumadin( Warfarin ) in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. *Cerebral Venous Thrombosis ... Outcome of Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy to Treat Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis. *Deep Venous Thrombosis ...

*  Genetic Variations Associated With Risk of Venous Thrombosis Identified ( Researchers have identified new genetic...)

Venous,Thrombosis,Identified,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest ... Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the thigh or leg) and pulmon... In this study Nicholas L. Smith Ph.D. M.P.H. from the ... venous thrombosis in postmenopausal women, according to a study. Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the thigh or leg) and ... The authors note that despite improved preventive treatments in high-risk patients, the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) has ...

*  Bleeding complications in venous thrombosis patients on well-managed warfarin

... Sandén, Per Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med ... Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis On the subject. Hematology Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... Venous thromboembolism, Bleeding, Warfarin, TTR National Category Hematology Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279583DOI: ... 2016 (English)In: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, ISSN 0929-5305, E-ISSN 1573-742X, Vol. 41, no 2, 351-358 p.Article in ...

*  Long-term sequelae of spontaneous axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis. | Base documentaire | BDSP

Objective : To determine the late sequelae of conventionally treated spontaneous axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis. Design ... The frequency and severity of post-thrombotic sequelae after spontaneous axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis remain poorly ... Long-term sequelae of spontaneous axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis. R f. 198527 Article - En anglais ... The overall clinical outcome of spontaneous axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis is good, and there is no relation between the ...

*  The Incidence of Perioperative Deep Venous Thromboses of the Lower Extremities - Full Text View -

The Incidence of Perioperative Deep Venous Thromboses of the Lower Extremities. This study is currently recruiting participants ...

*  Estimating the Probability of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Outpatients | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurs when blood clots form in the large veins of the legs. Pieces of the clots can break off and ... Estimating the Probability of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Outpatients Article, Author, and Disclosure Information Author, Article ... The summary below is from the full report titled "The Wells Rule Does Not Adequately Rule Out Deep Venous Thrombosis in Primary ... Management of Suspected Deep Venous Thrombosis in Outpatients by Using Clinical Assessment and d-dimer Testing Annals of ...

*  Heart Disease May Be a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism Without Peripheral Deep Venous Thrombosis | Circulation

... pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, or deep venous thrombosis alone. In this study, 45 282 patients had pulmonary ... 4680 had pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, and 59 790 had deep venous thrombosis alone; 541 561 were population ... Heart Disease May Be a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism Without Peripheral Deep Venous Thrombosis. Henrik T. Sørensen, ... Heart Disease May Be a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism Without Peripheral Deep Venous Thrombosis ...

*  Dr. Omotayo Fasan, MD - Charlotte, NC - Hematology & Internal Medicine |

Venous Embolism and Thrombosis. More. 7. Procedures. *Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Malignancy ...

*  Dr. Lisa Jennings, MD - Mc Cormick, SC - Family Medicine |

Venous Embolism and Thrombosis. *Venous Insufficiency. *Vertigo. *Viral Infection. *Vitamin D Deficiency ...

Superficial vein thrombosis: Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a type of venous thrombosis, or a blood clot in a vein, which forms in a superficial vein near the surface of the body. Usually there is an inflammatory reaction around the vein which presents as a painful induration with erythema.ThrombusPhlegmasia cerulea dolens: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (literally: painful blue edema) is an uncommon severe form of deep venous thrombosis which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion (blockage by a thrombus) of the major and the collateral veins of an extremity. It is characterized by sudden severe pain, swelling, cyanosis and edema of the affected limb.Impedance phlebographyExternal iliac vein: The external iliac veins are large veins that connect the femoral veins to the common iliac veins. Their origin is at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligaments and they terminate when they join the internal iliac veins (to form the common iliac veins).Great cerebral vein: The great cerebral vein is one of the large blood vessels in the skull draining the cerebrum (brain). It is also known as the "vein of Galen" (VG), named for its discoverer, the Greek physician Galen.Femoral vein: In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath. It begins at the adductor canal (also known as Hunter's canal) and is a continuation of the popliteal vein.Anticoagulant: Anticoagulants are a class of drugs that work to prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood. Such substances occur naturally in leeches and blood-sucking insects.Pulmonary angiography: Pulmonary angiography (or pulmonary arteriography) is a cardiological medical procedure. Pulmonary blood vessels are x-rayed to detect arteriovenous malformations.ThrombophiliaWeigh House (Leiden)Coronary thrombosisPratt Test: The Pratt Test is a simple test to check for deep vein thrombosis in the leg. It involves having the patient lie supine with the leg bent at the knee, grasping the calf with both hands and pressing on the popliteal vein in the proximal calf.Superior mesenteric vein: In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein.Low molecular weight heparin: In medicine, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications. They are used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and in the treatment of myocardial infarction.Prothrombin G20210A: Prothrombin G20210A (also the prothrombin 20210 mutation, the factor II mutation, or the prothrombin mutation) is a genetic variant that approximately doubles or triples the risk of forming blood clots in the veins. The variant is commonly associated with the disease venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.Paget–Schroetter diseaseAortocaval compression syndrome: Aortocaval compression syndrome is compression of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus when a pregnant woman lies on her back, i.e.Post-thrombotic syndrome: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), also called postphlebitic syndrome and venous stress disorder is a medical condition that may occur as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).Mesenteric ischemiaInferior vena cava filter: An inferior vena cava filter (IVC filter) is a type of vascular filter, a medical device that is implanted by interventional radiologists or vascular surgeons into the inferior vena cava to presumably prevent life-threatening pulmonary emboli (PEs). Their effectiveness and safety profile is not well established, and in general, they are only recommended in some high-risk scenarios.Medrad Inc.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Antithrombotic: An antithrombotic agent is a drug that reduces the formation of blood clots (thrombi).http://cancerweb.D-dimer: D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis. It is so named because it contains two crosslinked D fragments of the fibrin protein.Jugular venous pressureAmbesh maneuver: Ambesh maneuver is a technique that involves the simple external compression of internal jugular vein in supraclavicular fossa to prevent and diagnose misplacement of the subclavian vein catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJV). The subclavian vein is a big vessel that drains the blood from the hand, forearm and the upper arm into the right side of the heart through superior vena cava.Antiphospholipid syndrome: (ILDS D68.810)Coagulation testing: Blood clotting tests are the tests used for diagnostics of the hemostasis system.Peripheral venous catheterPylephlebitis: Pylephlebitis (also called pyelophlebitis and infective suppurative thrombosis of the portal vein) is an uncommon thrombophlebitis of the portal vein or any of its branches (ie a portal vein thrombosis) that is caused by infection. It is usually a complication of intraabdominal sepsis, most often following diverticulitis, perforated appendicitis, or peritonitis.Drotrecogin alfaThrombolytic drug: Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. They limit the damage caused by the blockage or occlusion of a blood vessel.WarfarinThrombosisSuperficial vein: Superficial vein is a vein that is close to the surface of the body. This differs from deep veins that are far from the surface.Antithrombin III deficiencyLupus anticoagulantElastic bandage: An elastic bandage is a "stretchable bandage used to create localized pressure". Elastic bandages are commonly used to treat muscle sprains and strains by reducing the flow of blood to a particular area by the application of even stable pressure which can restrict swelling at the place of injury.Hyperfibrinolysis: The fibrinolysis system is responsible for removing blood clots. Hyperfibrinolysis describes a situation with markedly enhanced fibrinolytic activity, resulting in increased, sometimes catastrophic bleeding.Budd–Chiari syndromeCentral venous catheter: In medicine, a central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein. Catheters can be placed in veins in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein), groin (femoral vein), or through veins in the arms (also known as a PICC line, or peripherally inserted central catheters).Puerperal disorderEmissary veins: The emissary veins connect the extracranial venous system with the intracranial venous sinuses. They connect the veins outside the cranium to the venous sinuses inside the cranium.Columbus Marion JoinerPartial thromboplastin time: The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that characterizes blood coagulation.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPulmonary hemorrhageNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.FibrinogenPerforator vein: Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.http://www.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Scott syndrome: Scott syndrome is a rare congenital bleeding disorder that is due to a defect in a platelet mechanism required for blood coagulation.Weiss HJ.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.InogatranList of birds of the Republic of Macedonia: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Macedonia. The avifauna of the Republic of Macedonia include a total of 335 species, none of which are introduced, accidental or endemic.Oral contraceptive pill: Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.Antiplatelet drug: An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation. They are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.Dialysis catheter

(1/2331) Inherited prothrombotic risk factors and cerebral venous thrombosis.

Fifteen patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were ascertained retrospectively. Their case notes were reviewed, and stored or new blood was assayed for factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin gene mutation 20201A, and 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation. A clinical risk factor was identified in 13 patients--the oral contraceptive pill (5), puerperium (1), HRT (1), mastoiditis (1), dehydration (1), lumbar puncture and myelography (1), carcinoma (1), lupus anticoagulant (2). In addition, two patients had the FVL mutation and five (one of whom also had the FVL mutation) were homozygous for the MTHFR mutation. The latter showed a higher than expected frequency compared to 300 healthy controls from South Wales (OR 3.15.95% Cl 1.01-9.83). No patient had the prothrombin 20201A mutation. Two patients died and three had a monocular visual deficit following anticoagulation (13) or thrombolytic (2) treatment, but there was no association between the presence of a primary prothrombotic risk factor and outcome. These results confirm the importance of investigating patients for both clinical predisposing factors and primary prothrombotic states.  (+info)

(2/2331) Aetiologies and prognosis of Chinese patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities is not frequently encountered in Oriental patients. We investigated its aetiology and prognosis in 143 patients (65 males, 78 females), presenting to the National Taiwan University Hospital over 4.3 years, diagnosed by colour Doppler ultrasonography. Swelling and pain of the lower extremities were the most frequent presenting symptoms. The left femoropopliteal veins were more frequently involved than other parts of the lower extremities. In these patients, malignancy with or without intravenous catheterization was the most frequent cause (39 patients, 27%). Other common aetiologies included coagulopathy (29 patients, 20%), immobilization (24 patients, 17%) and catheter-related (13 patients, 9%). No definite aetiology could be determined in 37 patients (26%). During follow-up, 27 patients (19%) died, mostly with malignancy. Pulmonary embolism was noted in 16 patients and was not significantly directly related to death. Compared to similar studies in Caucasian patients, there were significant differences in the aetiology of DVT, with malignancy and coagulopathy more common in these Chinese patients.  (+info)

(3/2331) Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility.

Despite the many studies on venous haemodynamics using duplex, only a few evaluated the normal values, variability and reproducibility. Therefore, the range and variability of venous diameter, compressibility, flow and reflux were measured. To obtain normal values, 42 healthy individuals (42 limbs, 714 vein segments) with no history of venous disease were scanned by duplex. To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis. Of the 714 normal vein segments, 708 (99%) were traceable, including the crural veins. Of the traceable vein segments, 675 (95%) were compressible and in 696 (98%) flow was present. Of the 42 common femoral vein segments, in 25 (60%) the reflux duration exceeded 1.0 s, but in the other proximal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 1.0 s (95% confidence interval 3.0-10.0). With the exception of the distal long saphenous vein, in the distal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 0.5 s (95% confidence interval 3.5-8.2). The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to 60%. The kappa-coefficient of the inter-observer variability in the classification of compressibility measurements in the patients was 0. 77 and that of the reflux measurements was 0.86. This study shows that almost all veins were compressible in healthy individuals, except the distal femoral veins. In healthy individuals the duration of reflux of the proximal veins was less than 1.0 s and in the distal veins it was less than 0.5 s. The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good.  (+info)

(4/2331) G20210A mutation in prothrombin gene and risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thrombosis in a large cohort of US men.

BACKGROUND: A single base pair mutation in the prothrombin gene has recently been identified that is associated with increased prothrombin levels. Whether this mutation increases the risks of arterial and venous thrombosis among healthy individuals is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort of 14 916 men, we determined the prevalence of the G20210A prothrombin gene variant in 833 men who subsequently developed myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thrombosis (cases) and in 1774 age- and smoking status-matched men who remained free of thrombosis during a 10-year follow-up (control subjects). Gene sequencing was used to confirm mutation status in a subgroup of participants. Overall, carrier rates for the G20210A mutation were similar among case and control subjects; the relative risk of developing any thrombotic event in association with the 20210A allele was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.6; P=0.8). We observed no evidence of association between mutation and myocardial infarction (RR=0.8, P=0.4) or stroke (RR=1.1, P=0.8). For venous thrombosis, a modest nonsignificant increase in risk was observed (RR=1.7, P=0.08) that was smaller in magnitude than that associated with factor V Leiden (RR=3.0, P<0. 001). Nine individuals carried both the prothrombin mutation and factor V Leiden (5 controls and 4 cases). One individual, a control subject, was homozygous for the prothrombin mutation. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of US men, the G20210A prothrombin gene variant was not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. For venous thrombosis, risk estimates associated with the G20210A mutation were smaller in magnitude than risk estimates associated with factor V Leiden.  (+info)

(5/2331) Low-molecular-weight heparin in outpatient treatment of DVT.

Patients with a diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis have traditionally been hospitalized and treated with unfractionated heparin followed by oral anticoagulation therapy. Several clinical trials have shown that low-molecular-weight heparin is at least as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin in the treatment of uncomplicated deep venous thrombosis. The use of low-molecular-weight heparin in an outpatient program for the management of deep venous thrombosis provides a treatment alternative to hospitalization in selected patients. Use of low-molecular-weight heparin on an outpatient basis requires coordination of care, laboratory monitoring, and patient education and participation in treatment. Overlapping the initiation of warfarin permits long-term anticoagulation. Advantages include a decreased incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and fewer episodes of bleeding complications. Future clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of complicated deep venous thrombosis will further define appropriate indications for use and strategies for outpatient management.  (+info)

(6/2331) Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option.

PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed.  (+info)

(7/2331) Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy.

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

(8/2331) Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting.

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

pulmonary embolism

  • The abbreviation DVT/PE refers to a VTE where a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has moved to the lungs (PE or pulmonary embolism). (
  • Herein we report a 57-year-old man with HES who presented with deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, portal thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and mesenteric venous thrombosis , which led to intestinal obstruction. (
  • Their topics include cilostazol and dipyridamole: much more than weak inhibition of platelets, unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin in ischemic heart disease, vitamin K antagonists, anti-thrombotic strategies in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions, and anti-thrombotic therapy in venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (
  • Several studies have assessed the risk of venous thrombosis (a collective term for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in women using oral contraceptive pills, but few studies have assessed the risk in users of non-oral hormonal contraceptives. (
  • Venous thromboembolism, comprising deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. (
  • Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism cases were identified and verified in order to estimate incident rates of hospitalized venous thromboembolism in the combined ARIC and CHS cohorts. (
  • The study included 3220 volunteers aged 18 to 70 with a first deep venous thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism between March 1999 and May 2002. (
  • Yet venous thromboembolism, deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are multifactorial diseases that share several risk factors with arterial thrombosis such as age, obesity and smoking. (
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant health care problem in the United States, with an estimated 900 000 cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) yearly, with approximately 300 000 deaths. (
  • Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the thigh or leg) and pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the arteries leading to the lungs) cause significant illness and death in adult women, according to the background information in the article. (
  • The control group of 1,680 women included perimenopausal and postmenopausal women of the same age range who had no prior history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. (
  • Together, DVT and pulmonary embolism are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • The disease term venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes the development of either DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE). (
  • This mutation (or more accurately, single-nucleotide polymorphism or variant), is commonly associated with increased risk of occurrence and recurrence of the disease venous thromboembolism (VTE), including both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). (
  • If the venous clots break off, these clots can travel through the right side of the heart to the lung where they block a pulmonary blood vessel and cause a pulmonary embolism. (
  • Up to 30 percent of patients who present with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism have this condition. (
  • Under these circumstances, anticoagulation with fondaparinux or enoxaparin is warranted though the benefit for preventing progression of the SVT to a deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolism is modest (number needed to treat of 88). (
  • Ultrasonography in suspected deep vein thrombosis focuses primarily on the femoral vein and the popliteal vein, because thrombi in these veins are associated with the greatest risk of harmful pulmonary embolism. (
  • Lower limbs venous ultrasonography is also indicated in cases of suspected pulmonary embolism where a CT pulmonary angiogram is negative but a high clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism remains. (
  • It may identify a deep vein thrombosis in up to 50% of people with pulmonary embolism. (
  • People with high levels of factor VIII are at increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (


  • The initial treatment for venous thromboembolism is typically with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin . (
  • When a blood clot breaks loose and travels in the blood, this is called a venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) refers to both DVTs and PEs. (
  • Venous thromboembolism occurs in 100-200 per 100,000 pregnant women every year. (
  • To investigate venous thromboembolism in two carefully conducted prospective epidemiologic studies of African American and white adults -- the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). (
  • The association of venous thromboembolism was determined prospectively with demographic and lifestyle factors, plasma lipids, medical history, and hemostatic components (including fibrinogen, platelet count, factors VIIc and VIIIc) using existing ARIC and CHS data. (
  • A nested case control study was conducted using stored pre-diagnosis blood and DNA specimens to determine the prospective associations of venous thromboembolism with the following: levels of procoagulant or anticoagulant factors and related genetic variants (including factor V Leiden), fibrinolytic factors (e.g., plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and related genetic variants, markers of thrombin activation, and other potentially important biochemical or related genetic factors (e.g., homocysteine). (
  • The study found a particularly high risk of venous thromboembolism in the first few months after a diagnosis of cancer and in people with distant metastases. (
  • When asked why she and her colleagues did the Danish follow-up study, the researcher explained that while it is well established that low to moderate drinking is associated with a lower risk of arterial thrombosis, data on its effect on venous thromboembolism are limited and the results are inconsistent. (
  • It was assumed that alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism because it exerts anti-thrombotic effects by decreasing platelet aggregation, increasing tissue plasminogen activator levels and lowering fibrinogen levels. (
  • Heavy drinking, however, may provoke venous thromboembolism if mediated through cancer. (
  • We aimed to assess the association between venous thromboembolism and average daily alcohol intake , types of alcohol, and alcohol drinking patterns in men and women," she said. (
  • Alcohol intake and risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Danish Follow-up Study. (
  • Venous thromboembolism is a significant health care problem in the US. (
  • Anticoagulation treatment is effective in preventing both death and recurrence in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), but at the same time confers a substantial risk of bleeding complications. (
  • Thromboembolism is a well-described complication of IBD, with a clinical incidence of up to 6% and a three-fold higher risk of disease, and the Factor V Leiden mutation further increases the risk of venous thrombosis. (


  • A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein . (
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a clot ('thrombus') in a vein deep in the body, usually in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis. (
  • In this review, we will discuss particular molecular and immunologic pathways for venous thrombosis and emphasize the role of inflammation in the process of thrombogenesis and thrombus resolution. (
  • 4 We have used both a rat and mouse model of inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis in studies of the basic mechanisms of thrombogenesis and thrombus resolution. (
  • Previous studies have established the ability of rt-PA to lyse venous thrombus in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and suggest that successful rt-PA mediated thrombolysis can prevent the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a morbid, late complication of DVT that occurs in nearly 50% of patients. (
  • rt-PA is delivered directly into venous thrombus using a catheter/device which is embedded within the thrombus by a physician under imaging guidance. (
  • The diagnosis is usually by computed tomography (CT/CAT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employing radiocontrast to demonstrate obstruction of the venous sinuses by thrombus. (
  • Cerebral edema and venous infarction may be apparent on any modality, but for the detection of the thrombus itself, the most commonly used tests are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both using various types of radiocontrast to perform a venogram and visualise the veins around the brain. (
  • Inflammation is thought to play a role as well as damage to the venous valves from the thrombus itself. (
  • This valvular incompetence combined with persistent venous obstruction from thrombus increases the pressure in veins and capillaries. (
  • The most reliable sign of thrombosis (even when a good image and color is present) is the absence of compressibility - A vein cannot be compressed when the blood is in a solid state, as with a thrombus, in the same way that a rubber pipe cannot be compressed if the water inside is frozen. (
  • In a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), or in a superficial vein thrombosis where the thrombus is floating, an emergency situation will be indicated. (

type of venous thrombosis

  • A common type of venous thrombosis is a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which is a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg. (
  • Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a type of venous thrombosis, or a blood clot in a vein, which forms in a superficial vein near the surface of the body. (


  • A deep vein thrombosis in the right leg. (
  • A superficial venous thrombosis is a blood clot in a vein that is close to the surface of the skin. (
  • Mesenteric venous thrombosis refers to a blood clot in a major vein that drains blood from the intestines. (
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often first noticed as a "pulling" sensation in the calf of the lower leg, and it can be quite painful. (
  • Also searched for Vein thrombosis . (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of adjunctive Pharmacomechanical Catheter Directed Thrombolysis, which includes the intrathrombus administration of rt-PA--Activase (Alteplase),can prevent the post-thrombotic syndrome(PTS)in patients with symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis(DVT)as compared with optimal standard DVT therapy alone. (
  • Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the thigh or leg) and pulmon. (
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs. (
  • It is also implicated in the formation of deep vein thrombosis. (
  • Having the prothrombin mutation increases the risk of developing a DVT (Deep vein thrombosis), known as a blood clot in the deep veins, often but not always in the legs. (
  • In medicine, Homans' sign (sometimes spelled as Homans sign) or the dorsiflexion sign is considered a sign of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (
  • The excessive clotting that occurs in this disorder is almost always restricted to the veins, where the clotting may cause a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (
  • Therefore, venous translumination is based on the incidence of luminosity on the vein, where part of the light is absorbed and another reflected (supplying a silhouette of the vein in question). (
  • SVT has a limited clinical significance (in terms of morbidity and mortality) when compared to a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which occurs deeper in the body, at the deep venous system level. (
  • Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), also called postphlebitic syndrome and venous stress disorder is a medical condition that may occur as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (
  • Those who have thrombosis of the vein may be treated with anticoagulation such as heparin and warfarin, with surgery used if they do not improve. (
  • The risk of deep vein thrombosis can be estimated by Wells score. (
  • Unlike arterial ultrasonography, venous ultrasonography is carried out with the probe in a transversal position, (perpendicular to the vein axis), displaying cross-sections of the veins. (
  • However, if the probe is parallel to the vein axis, when the examiner compresses it, the probe can slide to the right or to the left giving a false negative for thrombosis as the probe has moved away and the vein will not then be evident. (
  • The inability to compress the vein is one of the more reliable indications of venous thrombosis. (
  • Doppler ultrasonography of venous blood flow that correlates with respiration can be diagnostic of the absence of deep vein thrombosis. (

arterial thrombosis

  • G20210A can thus contribute to a state of hypercoagulability, but not particularly with arterial thrombosis. (

central venous ca

  • Although it is most often found in the legs, DVT can also occur in the upper extremities, especially in hospitalized patients with indwelling central venous catheters. (
  • Central venous catheters is the primary modality used for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. (
  • Central venous catheters (CVC) are catheters inserted into the large veins of the arm, neck, chest, or groin. (
  • Since the port must be accessed using a needle, if venous access is required on a frequent basis a catheter having external access is more commonly used Complications associated with central venous catheters include infection, pneumothorax, thrombosis, misplacement, and bleeding. (


  • See detailed information below for a list of 6 causes of Mesenteric venous thrombosis , Symptom Checker , including diseases and drug side effect causes. (
  • The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Mesenteric venous thrombosis. (
  • Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Mesenteric venous thrombosis, as listed in our database. (
  • Review further information on Mesenteric venous thrombosis Treatments . (
  • Read more about causes and Mesenteric venous thrombosis deaths . (
  • How Common are these Causes of Mesenteric venous thrombosis? (
  • This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Mesenteric venous thrombosis. (
  • The following list of conditions have ' Mesenteric venous thrombosis ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (

chronic venous insuff

  • Blood clots may form in the blood vessels when the blood does not flow properly, as occurs in people with chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • On the legs, ultrasonography of deep venous thrombosis focuses on the deep veins, while ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs focuses on more superficial veins. (
  • Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs, mainly targeting superficial veins. (


  • Does ethamsylate increase the incidence of venous thrombosis? (
  • The authors note that despite improved preventive treatments in high-risk patients, the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) has not decreased. (


  • Superficial venous thromboses cause discomfort but generally not serious consequences, as do the deep venous thromboses (DVTs) that form in the deep veins of the legs or in the pelvic veins. (
  • It is characterized by an acute and almost total venous occlusion of the entire extremity outflow, including the iliac and femoral veins. (
  • Cancer can grow in and around veins, causing venous stasis, and can also stimulate increased levels of tissue factor. (
  • Venous translucence is the process of reflective image visualization of veins by light, which reaches up to the superficial venous system. (
  • Peripherally-inserted central catheters Peripherally-inserted central catheters (PICC, pronounced "pick"), is a form of vascular access that is inserted at a peripheral site such as the veins of the arms and extends in the central venous system at the superior vena cava. (
  • Venous hypertension induces a rupture of small superficial veins, subcutaneous hemorrhage and an increase of tissue permeability. (
  • All collateral veins are better detected this way, including perforator veins, but of most importance is the detection of venous thrombosis. (


  • Ultrasonography for deep venous thrombosis must be performed to evaluate the situation: the degree of obstruction by clots, the location of these clots, and the detection of deep and/or superficial venous insufficiency. (

term venous

  • The term venous translucence (or translumination) has been used in phlebology since 1996 by surgeon Pedro Fernandes Neto during ambulatory clinical exams in Brazil. (


  • Review of Clinical Signs: Homans' Sign in the Diagnosis of Deep Venous Thrombosis" (PDF). (


  • Venous thrombi are caused mainly by a combination of venous stasis and hypercoagulability -but to a lesser extent endothelial damage and activation . (
  • Stasis by itself, although an important factor, is usually not enough to produce thrombosis and should be considered a permissive factor in thrombogenesis for the other events that are required for thrombosis to occur (M. Meissner, personal communication, 2005). (
  • The three factors of Virchow's triad-venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and changes in the endothelial blood vessel lining (such as physical damage or endothelial activation)-contribute to DVT and are used to explain its formation. (
  • In orthopedic surgery, venous stasis may be temporarily provoked by a cessation of blood flow as part of the procedure. (
  • Venous valvular stasis-associated hypoxia and thrombosis: what is the link? (

oral contraceptives

  • The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 100,000 woman years in current use of combined oral contraceptives is approximately 60, compared to 30 in non-users. (
  • Compared with combined oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG), and with the same dose of estrogen and duration of use, the rate ratio of deep venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with norethisterone is 0.98, with norgestimate 1.19, with desogestrel (DSG) 1.82, with gestodene 1.86, with drospirenone (DRSP) 1.64, and with cyproterone acetate 1.88. (
  • Public Citizen filed its petition in May asking the agency to pull Ortho Evra from the market in part because of the increased risk of venous thrombosis compared with combined oral contraceptives. (


  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of acute thrombosis (a blood clot) in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain. (
  • The headache may be the only symptom of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. (
  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is more common in particular situations. (
  • There are various neuroimaging investigations that may detect cerebral sinus thrombosis. (
  • In most patients, the direct cause for the cerebral sinus thrombosis is not readily apparent. (


  • In addition to the risk factors associated with venous disease and DVT in particular, abnormal clotting may occur in people with inherited clotting disorders called thrombophilias. (
  • Abnormal, recurrent venous thromboses. (


  • The inflammatory reaction and the white blood cells play a role in the resolution of venous clots. (
  • If you have surgery and you are confined to bed for a period of time afterwards, part of the aftercare should include procedures that are designed to minimise the potential for blood clots (venous thrombosis) to form. (
  • Of course blood clots (venous thrombosis) can also form through no particular way. (
  • Our helpline is always open so you can find out about making a claim for blood clots (venous thrombosis) now with our help. (

morbidity and morta

  • 1) The third type of HIT is associated with clinically significant arterial and/or venous thrombosis (HITT) with consequent high morbidity and mortality. (


  • Thrombosis is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel. (
  • Considering that aspect, we can deduce that venous blood has a light absorption different from arterial blood (in which sanguine viscosity is greater, due to the higher concentration of CO2. (
  • In that sense, venous blood has a greater ability to reflect light. (
  • It is performed on a sample of venous blood from the mother, and can provide information about the fetus early in pregnancy. (


  • Systemic embolisms of venous origin can occur in patients with an atrial or ventricular septal defect , through which an embolus may pass into the arterial system. (
  • In contrast to the understanding for how arterial thromboses occur, as with heart attacks, venous thrombosis formation is not well understood. (


  • Various risk factors increase the likelihood of any one individual developing a thrombosis. (
  • Drinking alcohol to lower the risk of venous thrombosis? (
  • The paper's main conclusions in a nutshell - The findings of the study were significant for men but not for women: There may be a small protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of venous thrombosis in men who drink between four to 14 drinks per week. (
  • Apparently they have a lower risk of venous thrombosis than those who consume more or less liquor. (
  • There was no history of risk factors for thrombosis, such as prolonged bed rest or long air travel. (
  • Genetic Variations Associated With Risk of Venous Thrombosis Identified ( Researchers have identified new genetic. (
  • Researchers have identified new genetic variations that may be associated with the risk of developing nonfatal // venous thrombosis in postmenopausal women, according to a study. (
  • In addition, temporary treatment with an anticoagulant may be required during periods of particularly high risk of thrombosis, such as major surgery. (


  • Several reports have described venous thrombosis in testicular cancer patients during chemotherapy. (
  • Patients with cancer are seven times more likely to develop venous thrombosis than people without cancer, a Dutch study has found ( JAMA 2005;293:715-22). (
  • A subsequent study, however, showed that 10% of patients with confirmed thrombosis had a normal D-dimer, and in those who had presented with only a headache 26% had a normal D-dimer. (
  • Ports are typically used on patients requiring only occasional venous access over a long duration course of therapy. (


  • The duration of central venous catheterization is dependent on the type of treatment given. (


  • PTS also causes lost work productivity: people with severe PTS and venous ulcers lose up to 2 work days per year. (


  • Computed tomography, with radiocontrast in the venous phase (CT venography or CTV), has a detection rate that in some regards exceeds that of MRI. (


  • This vascular response promotes leukocyte rolling and tethering onto the endothelium that initiates an inflammatory event which can lead to thrombosis. (


  • In angiology or vascular medicine, duplex ultrasound (B Mode vessels imaging combined with Doppler flow measurement) is daily used to diagnose arterial and venous disease all over the body. (


  • The leg is usually painful, tinged blue in color, and swollen, which may result in venous gangrene. (


  • In this review, the unique role of inflammation to the venous thrombotic process is emphasized as well as the potential role of abnormalities of fibrinolytic mechanisms to the thrombotic process. (
  • However, in the early 1970s, through the pioneering theories of Gwendylen Stewart, a relationship between thrombosis and inflammation was suggested. (
  • This event initiates and amplifies inflammation and thrombosis ( Figure 1 ). (


  • Contract notice: Supply of stockings for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis and medical gloves. (
  • Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common medical syndrome that affects 600,000 individuals per year. (


  • In a 55-year-old man with an 8 year history of intermittent knee osteoarthritis (OA), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed in his right lower leg. (
  • When an arterial-venous fistulae is transluminated, there are few reflected images because flow velocity is higher and sanguine viscosity lower than in the venous segment. (


  • Recent studies describe the co-occurrence between coeliac disease, in which IBD is common in venous thrombosis. (


  • 40% of people have seizures, although it is more common in women who develop sinus thrombosis peripartum (in the period before and after giving birth). (