User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectSystems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

*  AUR (en) - Packages

AUR packages are user produced content. Any use of the provided files is at your own risk. ... Algorithmia command line interface tools (git version). anowell alice. 2.4.3-1. 15. 0.85. An educational software that teaches ... students computer programming in a 3D environment. meZee alice-git. latest-1. 2. 0.48. A minimal Twitter client based on GTK+3. ... A ncurses based clone of the Alien: Isolation console interfaces.. brenns10 alienarena-svn. r4297-2. 7. 0.00. Multiplayer retro ...

*  Evaluation of Binocular Eye Trackers and Algorithms for 3D Gaze Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments - ...

Tracking user's visual attention is a fundamental aspect in novel human-computer interaction paradigms found in Virtual Reality ... Proceedings of the 1996 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Tech. (UIST'96), 1996, pp. 95-96, isbn 0-89791-798-7. ... Tracking user's visual attention is a fundamental aspect in novel human-computer interaction paradigms found in Virtual Reality ... Anywhere, Seattle, USA, 2001, Julie Jacko, Andrew Sears, Michel Beaudouin-Lafon, and Robert J. K. Jacob (Eds.), pp. 301-308, ...

*  Graphical user interface and arrays, Basic Computer Science

Graphical user interface and arrays, In this program, you are going to write a program for playing the game of Hangman. In this ... game, the computer will pick a word and display a sequence of blanks to be filled in; one for each letter. The player will make ... Related Discussions:- Graphical user interface and arrays, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Graphical user interface and arrays ... Graphical user interface and arrays Discussions Write discussion on Graphical user interface and arrays. Your posts are ...

*  Patent US6293801 - Adaptive motivation for computer-assisted training system - Google Patents

The stimuli are specifically selected to challenge and improve a cognitive ability of the user, e.g., the ability to perceive ... As a result, the stimuli cannot be changed or adapted to motivate the user through entertainment. Motivation is therefore ... Randomly appearing animations and variations in rewards and immediate feedback add to the surprise and curiosity of the user ... Context is changed at achievement milestones to indicate progress to the user. ...,502,797

*  Intelligent Virtual Patients for Training Clinical Skills - JVRB - Journal of Virtual Reality and...

The system allowed a computer user to interact with a virtual therapist by typing simple sentence responses to the computerized ... KLD08] A. Kotranza, B. Lok, Adeline Deladisma, and Carla M. Pugh, Virtual Human + Tangible Interface = Mixed Reality Human. An ... A human user talks to the system using a head-mounted close-capture USB microphone. The user's speech is converted into text by ... When a user question is sent from the speech recognition module, the system uses the mapping between the answers and sample ...

*  Running the Customization Wizard

User settings that are stored in a central location can follow users as they log on from computer to computer. This feature can ... You can use the following basic settings to determine which elements of the Outlook Express interface are included in the ... you can delete existing channels on the user's computer. You can also set up the Channel bar on the user's desktop if you are ... the name of the program to use for printing tasks, and the name of the program to use when the user views the HTML source of ...

*  Patent US20040070629 - Graphical user computer interface - Google Patents

A graphical user computer interface enables a user to open at least one menu and to select an item of the menu by means of a ... a graphical user computer interface, a computer, a computer program product and a method for enabling a user to open at least ... This embodiment of the graphical user computer interface enables a user to open at least one menu displayed on a computer ... A graphical user computer interface enables a user to open at least one menu and to select an item of the menu by means of a ...,587,403

*  Experiment on a novel user input for computer interface utilizing tongue input for the severely disabled.

This haptic interface device employs the use of inductive sensors to track the position of the user's tongue. RESULT: The ... or to be used as a viable PC Human Computer Interface (HCI) by tongue control. CONCLUSION: The operating principle and set-up ... Computer Peripherals*. Disabled Persons*. Electronics / instrumentation. Equipment Design. Humans. Quadriplegia. Task ... is that the sensor employed is passive which means it requires no powered electrical sensor to be inserted into the user's ...

*  Patent US5140678 - Computer user interface with window title bar icons - Google Patents

Disclosed is a computer system user interface that includes a window frame with a window title bar icon. The title bar icon ... bar and it increases the usable client area of the window without decreasing the number of functions available to the user. ... The present invention relates generally to computer system user interfaces, and more particularly to a computer system user ... Apple Computer, Inc.. Desk drawer user interface. US5838315 *. 24 Nov 1997. 17 Nov 1998. Apple Computer, Inc.. Support for ...

*  A P300 Brain Computer Interface Keyboard to Control Assistive Technology For Use by People With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -...

Experimental: P300 Brain Computer Interface for people with ALS Intervention: Device: P300 Brain Computer Interface Keyboard ... A P300 Brain Computer Interface Keyboard to Control Assistive Technology For Use by People With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. ... A P300 Brain Computer Interface Keyboard to Control Assistive Technology For Use by People With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. ... Subjects will wear an EEG cap for 1-4 hours (1-2 hours typical) per session and use the brain-computer interface to operate ...

*  Graphical User Interface @

Computer terminology definitions including hardware, software, equipment, devices, jargon abbreviations and more. Computer- ... Graphical User Interface ,operating system, (GUI) The use of pictures rather than just words to represent the input and output ... Contact the Computer Dictionary Online :: Link to the Computer Dictionary Online :: Disclaimer for Computer Dictionary Online ... Computer Dictionary Online. Medical Dictionary Law Dictionary Legal Dictionary Website Design 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f g ... User Interface

*  Sensors | Free Full-Text | Enhanced Perception of User Intention by Combining EEG and Gaze-Tracking for Brain-Computer...

3 area centered on the user's gaze position) are highlighted. Fourth, by analyzing the P300 EEG signal that is obtained only ... Enhanced Perception of User Intention by Combining EEG and Gaze-Tracking for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Jong-Suk Choi 1 ... "Enhanced Perception of User Intention by Combining EEG and Gaze-Tracking for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs)." Sensors 13, no ... Enhanced Perception of User Intention by Combining EEG and Gaze-Tracking for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Sensors 2013, 13 ...

*  The System Computer and User Interface

... The system computer has two principal roles as part of the data-acquisition system: * ... On completion of an exposure, the data is normally transferred from the DMS to the system computer, via a DR-11W interface. The ... The system computer is networked to various data reduction computers (currently a VAX 3500 plus several VAXstations). Data can ... The system computer, running the ADAM control system, is responsible for coordinating the entire data acquisition process. The ...

*  Mid Career User Interface Designer (Computer Software Applications) Salary in Pune, Maharashtra (India)

Computer Software Applications) in Pune, is Rs 650,715 annually. ... the average pay for an User Interface Designer ( ... Mid-Career User Interface Designer (Computer Software Applications) in Pune Salary (India) (India) *India Home ... Is User Interface Designer (Computer Software Applications) your job title? Get a personalized salary report!. Location:. ... The average salary for a Mid-Career User Interface Designer (Computer Software Applications) in Pune, Maharashtra is Rs 650,715 ...

*  Patent USD691168 - Computer having graphical user interface - Google Patents

User interface on a display device. USD615988. 22 Jan 2009. 18 May 2010. Dreambox Learning Inc.. User interface for a computer ... User interface for a computer display. USD620948. 27 Mar 2009. 3 Aug 2010. Location Based Technologies, Inc.. User interface ... Computer having graphical user interface. USD674403. 26 Oct 2011. 15 Jan 2013. Mcafee, Inc.. Computer having graphical user ... Computer having graphical user interface. USD677687. 27 Oct 2011. 12 Mar 2013. Mcafee, Inc.. Computer display screen with ...

*  Innovative learning capabilities in a natural language user interface for computer based measurement systems - IEEE Conference...

The goal of this approach is to give the final user not on ... present a natural-language approach to the problem of the user- ... Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. ... Publications

*  Cross-Disciplinary Advances in Human Computer Interaction: User Modeling, Social Computing and Adaptive Interfaces, 1st Edition...

Cross-Disciplinary Advances in Human Computer Interaction: User Modeling, Social Computing and Adaptive Interfaces ... Cross-Disciplinary Advances in Human Computer Interaction: User Modeling, Social Computing and Adaptive Interfaces, 1st Edition ... Accurate pricing information will only be displayed once you are a registered user. Please Register Now. You will receive an e- ... Covers numerous issues within the field of human computer interaction (HCI). Explores new models and methodologies for ...

*  Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces V, Buch - ReadRate

Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces V und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf Bücher können hier direkt online ... research teams and leading organizations involved in computer-aided design of user interfaces of interactive applications. This ...

*  A multiscale model of the electrophysiological basis of the human electrogastrogram.

User-Computer Interface. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: R01 DK064775/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK64775/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS ... 25354665 - Use of an agent-based simulation model to evaluate a mobile-based system for supporting.... 24175605 - Uncertainty ...

*  A laboratory training and evaluation technique for computer-aided oral implant surgery.

... and use of surgical navigation systems. To improve teaching and training, a laboratory training and evaluat ... User-Computer Interface. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Dental Implants From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... METHODS: The technique uses a surgical navigation system, a dental dummy and anonymous data of previously treated patients, ... Computer Simulation. Dental Implantation / education*, instrumentation, methods*. Dental Implants*. Educational Measurement / ...

*  Mindfulness Meditation for Subjects With Severe Speech and Physical Impairments - Full Text View -

Participants use a brain-computer interface system (with EEG) designed for letter-detection ... Computer-based working memory task, classically titled 'N-Back' task. Participants watch a series of letters presented on a ... intervention or audio training improves performance on an adaptive communication system that utilizes brain-computer interface ... Syndrome&rank=1

*  Abstract] Brain-Computer Interface Virtual Keyboard for Accessiblity

This paper describes our experiences in building a virtual keyboard implemented using a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) that ... Brain-Computer Interface, Virtual Keyboard, Accessibility, User Interface Development. Abstract. This paper describes our ... Brain-Computer Interface Virtual Keyboard for Accessiblity. Jonathan Corley, Dustin Heaton, Jeff Gray, Jeffrey C. Carver, and ... experiences in building a virtual keyboard implemented using a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) that interacts with the eMotiv ...

*  Eye Movement Research, Volume 6 - 1st Edition

Eye-gaze determination of user intent at the computer interface (J.H. Goldberg, J.C. Schryver). Knowledge engineering in the ... A novel computer interface and its application to psychological research (D.M. Stampe, E.M. Reingold). Eye movement recordings ...

*  Recent Articles | Emulsion Pcr And Neuroscience | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 36

A brain-computer interface uses the animals' brain activity to steer them to a food reward. ... Chronic Weed Use Shrinks Brain Region. By Bob Grant , November 12, 2014 ...,11/tags/emulsion-PCR,neuroscience/pageNo/36/


The user interface 112 can include a touchscreen interface, a keyboard, buttons, pads, or the like for receiving user input. ... Code modules may be stored on any type of non-transitory computer-readable medium, such as physical computer storage including ... The user interface 112 can be configured to allow a user to tune or modify one or more coefficients in the pitch rating model, ... In some embodiments, the display 110 includes a user interface 112 which allows a user to select and/or tune the pitch rating ...

Immersive technologyBrain–computer interface: A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.Reaction coordinateMac OS X Server 1.0Air sensitivity: Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air. Most often, reactions occur with atmospheric oxygen (O2) or water vapor (H2O),Handling and Storage of Air-Sensitive Reagents, Technical Bulletin AL-134, Sigma-Aldrich although reactions with the other constituents of air such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are also possible.Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Chemically induced dimerization: Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent. Genetically engineered CID systems are used in biological research to control protein localization, to manipulate signalling pathways and to induce protein activation.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.IEC 60446: International standard IEC 60446 Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations and conductors defines basic safety principles for identifying electrical conductors by colours or numerals, for example in electricity distribution wiring. The standard has been withdrawn; the fourth edition (IEC 60446:2007) was merged in 2010 into the fifth edition of IEC 60445 along with the fourth edition, IEC 60445:2006.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.Coles PhillipsList of molecular graphics systems: This is a list of software systems that are used for visualizing macromolecules.Protein–protein interactionClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Human Proteinpedia: Human Proteinpedia is a portal for sharing and integration of human proteomic data,.Kandasamy et al.PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.AdsorptionRDF query language: An RDF query language is a computer language, specifically a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.SciDBBrittlenessInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
List of software development philosophies: This is a list of approaches, styles, and philosophies in software development not included in the category tree of software development philosophies. It contains also software development processes, software development methodologies and single practices, principles and laws.CS-BLASTIce Ih: [showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on Earth.Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Key word signing: Key word signing is a technique of Simultaneous Communication whereby the communication partner of the user will use both natural speech and also produce signs for the words that carry the most important information.Windsor, J.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Model lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Protein subcellular localization prediction: Protein subcellular localization prediction (or just protein localization prediction) involves the computational prediction of where a protein resides in a cell.Dentin sialophosphoprotein (protein): Dentin sialophosphoprotein is the only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts, the cells that produce tooth dentin. It is a non-collagenous SIBLING protein that is later cleaved into three functional proteins: dentin phosphoprotein (also known as phosphophoryn), taken from the C-terminal end, dentin sialoprotein from the N-terminal end, and dentin glycoprotein from the middle of the molecule.Knotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Ductility: In materials science, ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.Ethyl group

(1/7649) A new filtering algorithm for medical magnetic resonance and computer tomography images.

Inner views of tubular structures based on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data sets may be created by virtual endoscopy. After a preliminary segmentation procedure for selecting the organ to be represented, the virtual endoscopy is a new postprocessing technique using surface or volume rendering of the data sets. In the case of surface rendering, the segmentation is based on a grey level thresholding technique. To avoid artifacts owing to the noise created in the imaging process, and to restore spurious resolution degradations, a robust Wiener filter was applied. This filter working in Fourier space approximates the noise spectrum by a simple function that is proportional to the square root of the signal amplitude. Thus, only points with tiny amplitudes consisting mostly of noise are suppressed. Further artifacts are avoided by the correct selection of the threshold range. Afterwards, the lumen and the inner walls of the tubular structures are well represented and allow one to distinguish between harmless fluctuations and medically significant structures.  (+info)

(2/7649) Image processing strategies in picture archiving and communication systems.

An image processing strategy is presented that assures very similar soft-copy presentation on diagnostic workstations of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) over the lifetime of an image file and simultaneously provides efficient work-flow. The strategy is based on rigid partitioning of image processing into application- and display-device-specific processing. Application-specific processing is optimized for a reference display system. A description of this system is attached to the file header of the application-specifically processed image which is stored in the PACS. Every diagnostic display system automatically reproduces the image quality for which the application-specific processing was optimized by adjusting its properties by display-system-specific processing so that the system becomes effectively equal to the reference display system.  (+info)

(3/7649) Spatial- and task-dependent neuronal responses during real and virtual translocation in the monkey hippocampal formation.

Neuropsychological data in humans demonstrated a pivotal role of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampal formation (HF) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PH), in allocentric (environment-centered) spatial learning and memory. In the present study, the functional significance of the monkey HF and PH neurons in allocentric spatial processing was analyzed during performance of the spatial tasks. In the tasks, the monkey either freely moved to one of four reward areas in the experimental field by driving a cab that the monkey rode (real translocation task) or freely moved a pointer to one of four reward areas on the monitor (virtual translocation task) by manipulating a joystick. Of 389 neurons recorded from the monkey HF and PH, 166 had place fields that displayed increased activity in a specific area in the experimental field and/or on the monitor (location-differential neurons). More HF and PH neurons responded in the real translocation task. These neurons had low mean spontaneous firing rates (0.96 spikes/sec), similar to those of rodent HF place cells. The remaining nonresponsive neurons had significantly higher mean firing rates (8. 39 spikes/sec), similar to interneurons or theta cells in the rodent HF. Furthermore, most location-differential neurons showed different responses in different tasks. These results suggest that the HF and PH are crucial in allocentric information processing and, moreover, that the HF can encode different reference frames that are context or task-dependent. This may be the neural basis of episodic memory.  (+info)

(4/7649) Imagene: an integrated computer environment for sequence annotation and analysis.

MOTIVATION: To be fully and efficiently exploited, data coming from sequencing projects together with specific sequence analysis tools need to be integrated within reliable data management systems. Systems designed to manage genome data and analysis tend to give a greater importance either to the data storage or to the methodological aspect, but lack a complete integration of both components. RESULTS: This paper presents a co-operative computer environment (called Imagenetrade mark) dedicated to genomic sequence analysis and annotation. Imagene has been developed by using an object-based model. Thanks to this representation, the user can directly manipulate familiar data objects through icons or lists. Imagene also incorporates a solving engine in order to manage analysis tasks. A global task is solved by successive divisions into smaller sub-tasks. During program execution, these sub-tasks are graphically displayed to the user and may be further re-started at any point after task completion. In this sense, Imagene is more transparent to the user than a traditional menu-driven package. Imagene also provides a user interface to display, on the same screen, the results produced by several tasks, together with the capability to annotate these results easily. In its current form, Imagene has been designed particularly for use in microbial sequencing projects. AVAILABILITY: Imagene best runs on SGI (Irix 6.3 or higher) workstations. It is distributed free of charge on a CD-ROM, but requires some Ilog licensed software to run. Some modules also require separate license agreements. Please contact the authors for specific academic conditions and other Unix platforms. CONTACT: imagene home page:  (+info)

(5/7649) Stem Trace: an interactive visual tool for comparative RNA structure analysis.

MOTIVATION: Stem Trace is one of the latest tools available in STRUCTURELAB, an RNA structure analysis computer workbench. The paradigm used in STRUCTURELAB views RNA structure determination as a problem of dealing with a database of a large number of computationally generated structures. Stem Trace provides the capability to analyze this data set in a novel, visually driven, interactive and exploratory way. In addition to providing graphs at a high level of ion, it is also connected with complementary visualization tools which provide orthogonal views of the same data, as well as drawing of structures represented by a stem trace. Thus, on top of being an analysis tool, Stem Trace is a graphical user interface to an RNA structural information database. RESULTS: We illustrate Stem Trace's capabilities with several examples of the analysis of RNA folding data performed on 24 strains of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV sequences around the HIV dimerization region. This dimer linkage site has been found to play a role in encapsidation, reverse transcription, recombination, and inhibition of translation. Our examples show how Stem Trace elucidates preservation of structures in this region across the various strains of HIV. AVAILABILITY: The program can be made available upon request. It runs on SUN, SGI and DEC (Compaq) Unix workstations.  (+info)

(6/7649) E-CELL: software environment for whole-cell simulation.

MOTIVATION: Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the dynamic behavior of living cells. Previous work in biochemical and genetic simulation has isolated well-characterized pathways for detailed analysis, but methods for building integrative models of the cell that incorporate gene regulation, metabolism and signaling have not been established. We, therefore, were motivated to develop a software environment for building such integrative models based on gene sets, and running simulations to conduct experiments in silico. RESULTS: E-CELL, a modeling and simulation environment for biochemical and genetic processes, has been developed. The E-CELL system allows a user to define functions of proteins, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, regulation of gene expression and other features of cellular metabolism, as a set of reaction rules. E-CELL simulates cell behavior by numerically integrating the differential equations described implicitly in these reaction rules. The user can observe, through a computer display, dynamic changes in concentrations of proteins, protein complexes and other chemical compounds in the cell. Using this software, we constructed a model of a hypothetical cell with only 127 genes sufficient for transcription, translation, energy production and phospholipid synthesis. Most of the genes are taken from Mycoplasma genitalium, the organism having the smallest known chromosome, whose complete 580 kb genome sequence was determined at TIGR in 1995. We discuss future applications of the E-CELL system with special respect to genome engineering. AVAILABILITY: The E-CELL software is available upon request. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The complete list of rules of the developed cell model with kinetic parameters can be obtained via our web site at:  (+info)

(7/7649) A proposal for a standard CORBA interface for genome maps.

MOTIVATION: The scientific community urgently needs to standardize the exchange of biological data. This is helped by the use of a common protocol and the definition of shared data structures. We have based our standardization work on CORBA, a technology that has become a standard in the past years and allows interoperability between distributed objects. RESULTS: We have defined an IDL specification for genome maps and present it to the scientific community. We have implemented CORBA servers based on this IDL to distribute RHdb and HuGeMap maps. The IDL will co-evolve with the needs of the mapping community. AVAILABILITY: The standard IDL for genome maps is available at http:// l. The IORs to browse maps from Infobiogen and EBI are at and CONTACT:,  (+info)

(8/7649) GRASS: a server for the graphical representation and analysis of structures.

GRASS (Graphical Representation and Analysis of Structures Server), a new web-based server, is described. GRASS exploits many of the features of the GRASP program and is designed to provide interactive molecular graphics and quantitative analysis tools with a simple interface over the World-Wide Web. Using GRASS, it is now possible to view many surface features of biological macromolecules on either standard workstations used in macromolecular analysis or personal computers. The result is a World-Wide Web-based, platform-independent, easily used tool for macromolecular visualization and structure analysis.  (+info)

assistive technology

  • People with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) will use a P300 based brain computer interface (BCI) keyboard to type in assistive technology devices. (
  • Subjects will wear an EEG cap for 1-4 hours (1-2 hours typical) per session and use the brain-computer interface to operate assistive technology. (
  • A plug-and-play brain-computer interface to operate commercial assistive technology. (
  • Our main search terms included brain-computer interface, direct neural interface, brain machine interface, neural assistive technology, and various others. (


  • Baykara E, Ruf CA, Fioravanti C, Käthner I, Simon N, Kleih SC, Kübler A, Halder S (2015) Effects of training and motivation on auditory P300 brain-computer interface performance. (
  • Käthner I, Kübler A, Halder S (2015) Rapid P300 brain-computer interface communication with a head-mounted display. (
  • Käthner I, Wriessnegger SC, Müller-Putz GR, Kübler A, Halder S (2014) Effects of mental work- load and fatigue on the P300, alpha and theta band power during operation of an ERP (P300) brain- computer interface. (
  • Prediction of Auditory and Visual P300 Brain-Computer Interface Aptitude. (
  • A portable auditory P300 brain-computer interface with directional cues. (


  • It consisted of an exoskeleton driven by a brain-computer interface (BCI) that used neural activity from the unaffected brain hemisphere to control the movement of the affected hand. (
  • Development of a Neural-Machine Interface for Lower-Limb Prosthesis Control. (


  • The last couple of decades have on the other hand seen the emergence of a new promising technology in such context, namely the brain computer interface (BCI). (
  • Instead alterations in brain signals are transmitted directly between the brain and a computer, where changes in the signals are detected and associated with a command or user intetion. (
  • Halder S, Käthner I, Kübler A (2015) Training leads to increased auditory brain-computer interface performance of end-users with motor impairments. (
  • Käthner I, Kübler A, Halder S (2015) Comparison of eye tracking, electrooculography and an auditory brain-computer interface for binary communication: a case study with a participant in the locked-in state. (
  • Pasqualotto E, Matuz T, Federici S, Ruf CA, Bartl M, Olivetti Belardinelli M, Birbaumer N, Halder S (2015) Usability and workload of access technology for people with severe motor impairment: A comparison of brain-computer interfacing and eye tracking. (
  • Simon N, Käthner I, Ruf CA, Pasqualotto E, Kübler A, Halder S (2015) Ana uditory multiclass brain-computer interface with natural stimuli: Usability evaluation with healthy participants and a motor impaired end user. (
  • De Massari D, Matuz T, Furdea A, Ruf CA, Halder S, Birbaumer N (2013) Brain-computer interface and semantic classical conditioning of communication in paralysis. (
  • Prediction of brain-computer interface aptitude from individual brain structure. (
  • Semantic classical conditioning and brain-computer interface (BCI) control: Encoding of affirmative and negative thinking. (
  • Evolution has endowed human race with the most adroit brain, and to harness its potential to the fullest the concept of brain computer interface (BCI) has emerged. (
  • In this edition of reSearch we explore the topic of brain-computer interface (BCI), looking at some of the latest developments and their potential benefit to people with disabilities. (
  • In particular, Brain Computer Interfaces, which are basically computers which are made to help people, like making someone who is paralyzed able to control a machine through thought and by doing so increasing the individuals mobility and independence. (
  • Brain-computer interface technologies - abbreviated BCI throughout this document - offer persons with disabilities new opportunities for rehabilitation, and expanded use of adaptive and assistive devices, especially for individuals with neurological and communication disorders such as locked-in syndrome (LIS) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • BCI technologies provide a direct connection between the user's brain and computer device, either through implantation of electrodes in the brain or electrodes placed on the scalp similar to an electro encephalogram (EEG). (
  • This connection can be one way from either the computer device to the user or the user's brain to the computer. (
  • In addition to document searches, we searched our NIDRR Program Database to locate grantees/projects related to brain-computer interface and related assistive technologies. (
  • Dr. Rajesh Rao of the University of Washington has created a brain-computer interface that allows a human to control a small humanoid robot (video link) through brain activity alone. (
  • when can I order my 30-story brain-interfaced city crushing Manga robot? (
  • However, Dr. Rao's novel use of the fact that 'the brain responds differently when the object being attended to flashes' is really interesting. (


  • Two-way BCI technologies allow for communication between the computer device and the user. (


  • Tracking user's visual attention is a fundamental aspect in novel human-computer interaction paradigms found in Virtual Reality. (
  • Although they are not yet approved for human use, they have been showing interesting beneficial effects in pre-clinical research. (
  • A [ La Paillasse] and [ /tmp/lab] project in Science/Education, Art and human interfaces fields. (


  • These commands then let the user control electrical and mechanical devices connected to the system. (


  • Eye tracking has also become part of the standard toolkit of applied research, e.g., for interface evaluation. (


  • For example, multimodal interfaces or dialogue-based communications with virtual and real agents greatly benefit from the analysis of the user's visual attention as a vital source for deictic references or turn-taking signals. (


  • Special offers not for use by distributors or book sellers. (


  • Zickler C, Halder S, Kleih SC,Herbert C, Kübler A(2013) Brainpainting: Usability testing according to the user-centered design in end users with severe motor paralysis. (


  • Knowledge about the visual attention of users is a highly attractive benefit for information interfaces. (


  • Two algorithms are compared which derive depth information as required for visual attention-based 3D interfaces. (
  • Basic Mind Music is a basic software that use Pure Data to produce music according to your attention. (