Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

*  Lesson 8. The Human Urogenital Systems - Basic Human Anatomy

The human urogenital systems are made up of the urinary organs, which pro- ... Home > Medical Reference and Training Manuals > > Lesson 8. The Human Urogenital Systems - Basic Human Anatomy ... This system includes two kidneys, two ureters (one connecting each kidney to the ... poisonous (toxic) if allowed to accumulate in large amounts. The urinary system of the ...

*  Overview of Urogenital Disorders | Health Information | MedCentral Health System

the genital tract or reproductive system in the male. Urologists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment ... Other health professionals who treat urinary or urogenital problems include primary care phy... ... Urogenital is a word that refers to the urinary and genital organs. Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with: the ... of conditions related to the urinary tract and the male reproductive system. ...

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Urogenital System:. Infrequent: Hematuria, renal stone, kidney infection, glycosuria, dysuria, polyuria, nocturia, pyuria, ... Because the enzyme system involved can be saturated at relatively low doses, a larger fraction of a high dose of tacrine will ... Cardiovascular System:. Frequent: Hypotension, hypertension. Infrequent: Heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris ... Digestive System:. Infrequent: Glossitis, gingivitis, mouth or throat dry, stomatitis, increased salivation, dysphagia, ...

*  Biology & Biomedicine

Urinary system - [Article] Urogenital system - [Article] Uropygial gland - [Article] Uterus - [Article] Vertebra - [Article] ... Cardiovascular system - [Article] Carotid body - [Article] Cartilage - [Article] Central nervous system - [Article] Colon - [ ... Reproductive system - [Article] Respiratory system - [Article] Reticular formation - [Article] Salt gland - [Article] Scale ( ... Digestive system - [Article] Dwarfism and gigantism - [Article] Ear (vertebrate) - [Article] Endocrine system (vertebrate) - [ ...

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Urogenital System. Frequent was hot flashes. Infrequent were urinary frequency, polyuria, and menstruation disorder. Rare was ... Events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following ... intracranial blood vessels that become dilated during a migraine attack and on nerve terminals in the trigeminal system. ... and monitoring and support of the cardiovascular system. ... from sensory nerve endings in an activated trigeminal system. ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Overview of Urogenital Disorders

What causes problems in the urinary system?. Problems in the urinary system may include conditions such as kidney failure, ... Overview of Urogenital Disorders. What does urogenital mean?. Urogenital is a word that refers to the urinary and genital ... The urinary tract or system includes the organ system primarily responsible for cleaning and filtering excess fluid and waste ... Are urogenital diseases common in the United States?. Diseases of the kidney and urinary tract remain a major cause of illness ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20033811 - Cutting off the nose to save the penis.

... saddle has been associated with urogenital paresthesia and sexual dysfunction. Aim. The objective of this study was to assess ... Police-officers; Emergency-responders; Bicycles; Ergonomics; Urogenital-system-disorders; Men; Humans; Reproductive-system- ... Perineal pressure, urogenital numbness, penile vibrotactile sensitivity threshold, erectile function as measure by ... saddle has been associated with urogenital paresthesia and sexual dysfunction. Aim. The objective of this study was to assess ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20024135 - Excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality among styrene...

Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Cancer; Urogenital-system-disorders; Liver-cancer; Liver-disorders ...

*  Premarin (Conjugated Estrogens): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Urogenital system. Breast disorder. 6 (2). 3 (1). 3 (1). 6 (2). ... Central nervous system. Headache, migraine, dizziness , mental ... Genitourinary system. Abnormal uterine bleeding; dysmenorrheal or pelvic pain, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, ... Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and ...

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Urogenital System: Urinary incontinence, vaginitis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, urinary frequency.. Post-Marketing Experience. ... Musculoskeletal System: Myalgia, twitching, arthralgia, leg cramps, myasthenia.. Nervous System: Anxiety, confusion, abnormal ... Cardiovascular System: Tachycardia, hypertension, palpitation.. Digestive System: Increased appetite, flatulence, hematemesis, ... Valproate induced malformations of multiple organ systems, including skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital defects. In mice, in ...

*  Common Side Effects of Pexeva (Paroxetine Mesylate) Drug Center - RxList

Urogenital System: infrequent: amenorrhea, breast pain, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, menorrhagia, nocturia, pyuria, polyuria, ... Endocrine System: rare: diabetes mellitus, goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis. Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: ... Body System. Preferred Term. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Panic Disorder. Paroxetine. (n=542). Placebo. (n=265). Paroxetine. ... Digestive System: infrequent: bruxism, colitis, dysphagia, eructation, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gingivitis, glossitis, ...

*  Urogenital apparatus definition | Drugs.com

Definition of urogenital apparatus. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... urogenital apparatus. Synonym(s): urogenital system. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on GooglePlus Print this page ...

*  Clindamax - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Urogenital system: dysuria, metrorrhagia, vaginal pain, and trichomonal vaginitis.. Body as a whole: upper respiratory ... Urogenital system: vaginal discharge, metrorrhagia, urinary tract infection, endometriosis, menstrual disorder, vaginitis/ ... Respiratory system: epistaxis.. Skin: pruritus (non-application site), moniliasis, rash, maculopapular rash, erythema, and ... Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal disorder.. Endocrine ...

*  Amabelz (Estradiol And Norethindrone Acetate Tablets): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Urogenital System. Breast Pain. 24%. 10%. 21%. 0%. 17%. 8%. Post-Menopausal Bleeding. 5%. 15%. 10%. 3%. 11%. 0%. ... Genitourinary System. Changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow; breakthrough bleeding; ... Central Nervous System. Headache; migraine; dizziness; mental depression; chorea; insomnia; nervousness; mood disturbances; ... Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and ...

*  Common Side Effects of Invanz (Ertapenem Injection) Drug Center - RxList

Urogenital System: renal impairment, oliguria/anuria, vaginal pruritus, hematuria, urinary retention, bladder dysfunction, ... Musculoskeletal System: leg pain. Nervous System & Psychiatric: anxiety, nervousness, seizure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], ... Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: genital rash. Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: wheezing, ... Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis including anaphylactoid reactions. Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: ...

*  Fluoxetine Solution - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Urogenital System - Frequent: micturition disorder; Infrequent: dysuria, gynecological bleeding 2.. 1 MedDRA dictionary term ... Cardiovascular System - Frequent: palpitation; Infrequent: arrhythmia, hypotension 1.. Digestive System - Infrequent: dysphagia ... involves the CYP2D6 system, concomitant therapy with drugs also metabolized by this enzyme system (such as the TCAs) may lead ... Body System/. Adverse Reaction. Fluoxetine. (N=1728). Placebo. (N=975). Fluoxetine. (N=266). Placebo. (N=89). Fluoxetine. (N= ...

*  Vandazole (Metronidazole Vaginal Gel): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Urogenital System: breast enlargement, dysuria, female lactation, labial edema, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, pyleonephritis, ... Metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in a number of in vitro assay systems. In addition, a dose dependent increase in the ... Nervous System: The most serious adverse reactions reported in patients treated with metronidazole have been convulsive ... Central and Peripheral Nervous System Effects. Use of oral or intravenous metronidazole is associated with convulsive seizures ...

*  Actigall (Ursodiol, USP Capsules): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Urogenital System Urinary Tract Infection. 10. (6.5). 7. (4.4). GALLSTONE PREVENTION. Actigall 600 mg. (N = 322). Placebo. (N ...

*  Eszopiclone - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Urogenital System: Infrequent: amenorrhea,. breast engorgement, breast enlargement, breast neoplasm, breast pain, cystitis, ... Cardiovascular System: Frequent: migraine; Infrequent: hypertension; Rare:thrombophlebitis.. Digestive System: Infrequent: ... Hemic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: anemia, lymphadenopathy.. Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: peripheral edema; ... Respiratory System: Infrequent: asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, epistaxis, hiccup, laryngitis.. Skin and Appendages: Infrequent: ...

*  Tasmar (Tolcapone): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Musculoskeletal System - frequent: myalgia; infrequent: tenosynovitis, arthrosis, joint disorder.. Urogenital System - frequent ... Hemic and Lymphatic System - infrequent: anemia; rare: leukemia, thrombocytopenia.. Endocrine System - infrequent: diabetes ... Nervous System - frequent: depression, hypesthesia, tremor, speech disorder, vertigo, emotional lability; infrequent: neuralgia ... Respiratory System - frequent: bronchitis, pharyngitis; infrequent: cough increased, rhinitis, asthma, epistaxis, ...

*  These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Lamotrigine tablets safely and effectively. See full...

Urogenital System: Infrequent: Abnormal ejaculation, hematuria, impotence, menorrhagia, polyuria, and urinary incontinence. ... Endocrine System: Rare: Goiter and hypothyroidism. Hematologic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: Ecchymosis and leukopenia. ... 17.5 Central Nervous System Adverse Effects 17.6 Pregnancy and Nursing 17.7 Oral Contraceptive Use 17.8 Discontinuing ... Body System/Adverse Reaction. Percent of Patients Receiving Lamotrigine (n = 168). Percent of Patients Receiving Placebo (n = ...


Urogenital System: Acute renal failure, oliguria, anuria, uremia, progressive azotemia, renal dysfunction, (see PRECAUTIONS and ... Nervous System/Psychiatric: Stroke, ataxia, memory impairment, tremor, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., dysesthesia), spasm, ... As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in ... Respiratory System: Malignant lung neoplasms, hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates, bronchospasm, asthma, pleural effusion, ...

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(1/381) Paracrine-mediated apoptosis in reproductive tract development.

In mammalian development, the signaling pathways that couple extracellular death signals with the apoptotic machinery are still poorly understood. We chose to examine Mullerian duct regression in the developing reproductive tract as a possible model of apoptosis during morphogenesis. The TGFbeta-like hormone, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), initiates regression of the Mullerian duct or female reproductive tract anlagen; this event is essential for proper male sexual differentiation and occurs between embryonic days (E) 14 and 17 in the rat. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs during Mullerian duct regression in male embryos beginning at E15. Female Mullerian ducts exposed to MIS also exhibited prominent apoptosis within 13 h, which was blocked by a caspase inhibitor. In both males and females the MIS type-II receptor is expressed exclusively in the mesenchymal cell layer surrounding the duct, whereas apoptotic cells localize to the epithelium. In addition, tissue recombination experiments provide evidence that MIS does not act directly on the epithelium to induce apoptosis. Based on these data, we suggest that MIS triggers cell death by altering mesenchymal-epithelial interactions.  (+info)

(2/381) COUP-TF upregulates NGFI-A gene expression through an Sp1 binding site.

The formation of various tissues requires close communication between two groups of cells, epithelial and mesenchymal cells. COUP-TFs are transcription factors which have been shown to have functions in embryonic development. COUP-TFI is expressed mainly in the nervous system, and its targeted deletion leads to defects in the central and peripheral nervous systems. COUP-TFII is highly expressed in the mesenchymal component of the developing organs. A null mutation of COUP-TFII results in the malformation of the heart and blood vessels. From their expression pattern, we proposed that COUP-TFs regulate paracrine signals important for mesenchymal cell-epithelial cell interactions. In order to identify genes regulated by COUP-TF in this process, a rat urogenital mesenchymal cell line was stably transfected with a COUP-TFI expression vector. We found that NGFI-A, a gene with important functions in brain, organ, and vasculature development, has elevated mRNA and protein levels upon overexpression of COUP-TFI in these cells. A study of the promoter region of this gene identified a COUP-TF-responsive element between positions -64 and -46. Surprisingly, this region includes binding sites for members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors but no COUP-TF binding site. Mutations that abolish the Sp1 binding activity also impair the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter by COUP-TF. Two regions of the COUP-TF molecule are shown to be important for NGFI-A activation: the DNA binding domain and the extreme C terminus of the putative ligand binding domain. The C-terminal region is likely to be important for interaction with coactivators. In fact, the coactivators p300 and steroid receptor activator 1 can enhance the transactivation of the NGFI-A promoter induced by COUP-TFI. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TF can directly interact with Sp1. Taken together, these results suggest that NGFI-A is a target gene for COUP-TFs and that the Sp1 family of transcription factors mediates its regulation by COUP-TFs.  (+info)

(3/381) Prostate development requires Sonic hedgehog expressed by the urogenital sinus epithelium.

The prostate gland develops from the urogenital sinus by a testosterone-dependent process of ductal morphogenesis. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the urogenital sinus epithelium and the time course of expression coincides with the formation of the main prostatic ducts. Expression is most abundant in the lumen of the urogenital sinus and in the contiguous proximal duct segments. The initial upregulation of Shh expression in the male urogenital sinus depends on the presence of testosterone. The function of Shh was examined in the male urogenital sinus which was transplanted under the renal capsule of an adult male host mouse. Blockade of Shh function by a neutralizing antibody interferes with Shh signaling and abrogates growth and ductal morphogenesis in the transplanted tissue. These observations show that testosterone-dependent Shh expression in the urogenital sinus is necessary for the initiation of prostate development.  (+info)

(4/381) Studies of the specificity of ureaplasmas for marmosets.

Marmosets, from which endogenous ureaplasmas had been eradicated by treatment with minocycline, were tested for susceptibility to infection by ureaplasmas from the genital and respiratory tracts of other animal species. They could be infected with ureaplasmas of human and simian origin, but were resistant to bovine and canine ureaplasmas. The results indicated that human, marmoset and squirrel-monkey ureaplasmas may form a biological subgroup, distinct from bovine and canine ureaplasmas, and that host range should not be ignored as a parameter for classification.  (+info)

(5/381) Comparative developmental aspects of selected organ systems. II. Gastrointestinal and urogenital systems.

A brief description of the basic patterns of mammalian organogenesis of the gastrointestinal and urogenital systems is presented based on events as they occur in human beings. The emphasis is not on the details of this development, but rather on its organization and timing, with tables of comparative development providing a comparison of similar events in man, rat, mouse, and chick.  (+info)

(6/381) Antibody responses in the lower respiratory tract and male urogenital tract in humans after nasal and oral vaccination with cholera toxin B subunit.

Nasal vaccine delivery is superior to oral delivery in inducing specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract. Although an antibody response in the nasal passages is important in protecting against primary colonization with lung pathogens, antibodies in the lungs are usually required as well. We immunized 15 male volunteers twice nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine before and 2 weeks after immunization. Nasal immunization induced fivefold increases in the levels of specific IgA antibodies in BAL fluid of most volunteers, whereas there were no significant specific IgA responses after oral immunization. The specific IgG antibody level increased eightfold in BAL fluid in the nasally vaccinated subjects, and the major part of IgG had most probably been transferred from serum. Since the specific IgG response in serum was lower in the individuals vaccinated orally, the IgG response in BAL fluid in this group was also lower and not significant. In conclusion, nasal immunization is also preferable to the oral route when vaccinating against lower respiratory tract infections, and a systemic immune response is considerably more important in the lower than in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, both nasal and oral immunizations were able to stimulate 6- to 10-fold specific IgA and IgG responses in urine in about half of the individuals, which indicates that distant mucosal vaccination might be used to prevent adhesion of pathogens to the urogenital tract.  (+info)

(7/381) Distinct but overlapping expression patterns of two vertebrate slit homologs implies functional roles in CNS development and organogenesis.

The Drosophila slit gene (sli) encodes a secreted leucine-rich repeat-containing protein (slit) expressed by the midline glial cells and required for normal neural development. A putative human sli homolog, SLIT1, has previously been identified by EST database scanning. We have isolated a second human sli homolog, SLIT2, and its murine homolog Slit2. Both SLIT1 and SLIT2 proteins show approximately 40% amino acid identity to slit and 60% identity to each other. In mice, both genes are expressed during CNS development in the floor plate, roof plate and developing motor neurons. As floor plate represents the vertebrate equivalent to the midline glial cells, we predict a conservation of function for these vertebrate homologs. Each gene shows additional but distinct sites of expression outside the CNS suggesting a variety of functions for these proteins.  (+info)

(8/381) Evaluation of the Etest for susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

The Etest was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolates and the results were compared with those obtained with the broth microdilution method. For 50 clinical isolates of M. hominis the MICs of doxycycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin agreed within +/- one dilution and +/- two dilutions in 82-98% and 98-100% of cases, respectively. The MICs of erythromycin, azithromycin, doxycycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were evaluated for 50 clinical isolates of U. urealyticum. The corresponding levels of agreement were 70-98% and 94-100%, respectively. Reference isolates M. hominis PG-21 and U. urealyticum T-960 were also used. The Etest seems to be an alternative method for determination of MICs of antibiotics with M. hominis and U. urealyticum.  (+info)


  • See figure 8-1 for the major parts of the human urinary system. (tpub.com)
  • The human urinary system. (tpub.com)
  • Urogenital is a word that refers to the urinary and genital organs. (nyhq.org)
  • Urologists are doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary tract and the male reproductive system. (nyhq.org)
  • Other health professionals who treat urinary or urogenital problems include primary care doctors, pediatricians, gynecologists, urogynecologists, and nephrologists. (nyhq.org)
  • What causes problems in the urinary system? (nyhq.org)
  • Problems in the urinary system may include conditions such as kidney failure, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and bladder control problems. (nyhq.org)


  • The genital tract or reproductive system in the male. (nyhq.org)


  • Perineal pressure, urogenital numbness, penile vibrotactile sensitivity threshold, erectile function as measure by International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF) and Rigiscan. (cdc.gov)
  • Eszopiclone is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients at the higher doses (2 mg or 3 mg), even when used as prescribed. (drugs.com)