Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.LithuaniaIndiaCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.PortugalPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.BrazilPolandUrban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).BaltimoreChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.RussiaAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.IranEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.GreeceNew York CityBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.BostonPakistanMarital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Leisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)United StatesChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

*  Farm population and total population by rural and urban population, by province, (2001 and 2006 Census of Agriculture and...
2001 and 2006 Census of Agriculture and Census of Population) (Canada) ... Summary table contains Farm population and total population by rural and urban population, by province, ( ... Farm population and total population by rural and urban population, by province, (2001 and 2006 Census of Agriculture and ... Farm population and total population by rural and urban population, by province, (2001 and 2006 Census of Agriculture and ...
*  Epidemiology of HIV Infection in Large Urban Areas in the United States
Overall, 0.3% to 1% of the MSA populations were living with HIV at the end of 2007. In each MSA, prevalence was ,1% among ... We describe the epidemiology of HIV in large urban areas with the highest HIV burden. Methods/Principal Findings We used data ... HIV epidemic continues to be primarily concentrated in urban area, local epidemiologic profiles may differ and require ... Urban areas Is the Subject Area "Urban areas" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
*  PPT - College Notes UNIT 3 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6522190
Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were: Slideshow 6522190 by leila-thornton ... CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population. Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:. *Immigration from ... Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos. ... CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population. Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:. ...
*  WHO | Urban population growth
Urban population growth. Situation. The urban population in 2014 accounted for 54% of the total global population, up from 34% ... The urban population growth, in absolute numbers, is concentrated in the less developed regions of the world. It is estimated ... The global urban population is expected to grow approximately 1.84% per year between 2015 and 2020, 1.63% per year between 2020 ... that by 2017, even in less developed countries, a majority of people will be living in urban areas. ...
*  List of countries by urban population - Wikipedia
This is a list of countries by urban population. List of countries by population Urbanization by country Urban population by ... country 2015 World Bank Data Urban population (most recent) by country Figure refers to Mainland China only. It excludes the ...
*  Urban population in Liechtenstein
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using ... an economic calendar and news for Urban population in Liechtenstein. ... World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.This page has the latest ... Urban population in Liechtenstein was last measured at 5363 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ...
*  Urban population in Bangladesh
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using ... an economic calendar and news for Urban population in Bangladesh. ... World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the ... Urban population in Bangladesh was last measured at 55184476 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ... Population in the largest city (% of urban population). 31.94 % Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million. ...
*  Urban population in Mauritania
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using ... an economic calendar and news for Urban population in Mauritania. ... World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the ... Urban population in Mauritania was last measured at 2434803 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ... Mauritania - Urban population Urban population in Mauritania was reported at 2599793 in 2016, according to the World Bank ...
*  China's urban population higher than rural areas - SFGate
... a professor at the Institute of Population and Labor Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Science, said Tuesday. ... China's urban population surpassed that of rural areas for the first time in the country's history after three decades of ... China's urban population surpassed that of rural areas for the first time in the country's history after three decades of ... Urban dwellers now represent 51.27 percent of China's entire population of nearly 1.35 billion -- or 690.8 million people -- ...
*  Urban Population Map | Pearltrees
Population Division special updated estimates of urban population as of October ... Urban - urban space - Urban design - Megacities, Mega regions - Urban - Urban Studies - Urban Rooftop - Urban - Urban food - ... World's population increasingly urban with more than half living in urban areas Today, 54 per cent of the world's population ... Related: Urban Growth and Megacities Urban population boom poses massive challenges for Africa and Asia Two-thirds of the ...
*  European countries by percentage of urban population - Wikipedia
"Urban population (% of total)". The World Bank. Retrieved 11 August 2015. ... countries by military expenditure as a percentage of government expenditure European countries by percent of population aged 0- ...
*  Urban population in Antigua and Barbuda
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using ... an economic calendar and news for Urban population in Antigua and Barbuda. ... World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.This page has the latest ... Urban population in Antigua and Barbuda was last measured at 21828 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ...
*  Urban population growth (annual %) in Syria
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using ... an economic calendar and news for Urban population growth (annual %) in Syria. ... World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.This page has the latest ... Urban population growth (annual %) in Syria was last measured at -0.75 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ...
*  Urban population France 2005-2020 | Forecast
In 2017, the share of the French urban population should reach nearly 80 per cent. ... The share of French residents living in urban aeras continuously rose between 2005 and 2014 and is expected to further increase ... This graphic depicts the share of the urban population in France from 2005 to 2014 with forecasts from 2016 to 2020. ... Urban population growth in Gulf Cooperation Council in 2015, by country *Annual urban population growth in Oman from 1990 to ...
*  Most populous countries with < 25% urban population Quiz - By...
Can you name the most populous countries whose population is at least 75% rural? Test your knowledge on this geography quiz to ... Geography Quiz / Most populous countries with < 25% urban population. Random Geography or Population Quiz ... Tags:Africa Quiz, Country Quiz, Population Quiz, rural, urban. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Geography. *North ... Can you name the most populous countries whose population is at least 75% rural?. by ahlasny ...
*  Chromosomal polymorphism in urban populations of Drosophila paulistorum
VALIATI, Victor Hugo and VALENTE, Vera Lucia S.. Chromosomal polymorphism in urban populations of Drosophila paulistorum. Braz ... Drosophila paulistorum populations colonizing the urban area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were studied with the objective ... Despite being geographically and ecologically marginal and the fact that the colonization of the urban area seems to be a ... recent event, the populations showed a large number of inversions on all chromosome arms. Differences regarding inversion ...
*  Urban population shifts spark environmental tech partnership - Laredo Morning Times
Urban population shifts spark environmental tech partnership. STEPHEN SINGER, Hartford Courant. Published 5:28 am, Monday, ... And grant recipients will focus on projects related to urban population growth. ... www.lmtonline.com/texas/article/Urban-population-shifts-spark-environmental-tech-10707437.php ... The world's population of more than 7 billion is expected to rise to nearly 10 billion by 2050, with 66 percent living in ...
*  Population in the largest city (% of urban population) in Australia
Population in largest city is the percentage of a country's urban population living in that country's largest metropolitan area ... an economic calendar and news for Population in the largest city (% of urban population) in Australia. ... of urban population) in Australia was last measured at 21.19 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ... Australia - Population in the largest city (% of urban population) Population in the largest city (% of urban population) in ...
*  A Wave-Spectrum Analysis of Urban Population Density: Entropy, Fractal, and Spatial Localization
Simulating the spatial dynamics of urban population is an interesting but a difficult project. Urban population density can be ... but for urban population dynamics, the things may be more complicated because that urban population models are not one and only ... Suppose that the total population in the urban field of a monocentric city is , and the urban growth is considered to be a ... Locality is to urban population what action at a distance is to urban land use. The former relates to the negative exponential ...
*  Geographic Distribution of Stroke Incidence Within an Urban Population | Stroke
Geographic Distribution of Stroke Incidence Within an Urban Population. Gunnar Engström, Ingela Jerntorp, Hélène Pessah- ... Geographic Distribution of Stroke Incidence Within an Urban Population. Gunnar Engström, Ingela Jerntorp, Hélène Pessah- ... Marked geographic differences occurred in stroke incidence within this urban population, and a substantial proportion of the ... Marked differences occurred in stroke incidence between residential areas within this urban population. High-rate areas were ...
*  Improved sanitation facilities - urban (% of urban population with access) in Mauritius
... urban (% of urban population with access) in Mauritius. ... of urban population with access) in Mauritius was last measured ... Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta ... of urban population with access) Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access) in Mauritius was ... Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access). 93.9 % Exclusive breastfeeding (% of children under ...
*  Improved sanitation facilities - urban (% of urban population with access) in Australia
... urban (% of urban population with access) in Australia. ... of urban population with access) in Australia was last measured ... Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta ... Population in the largest city (% of urban population). 21.01 % Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million. ... of urban population with access) Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access) in Australia was ...
*  Improved water source - urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde
... urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde. ... of urban population with access) in Cape Verde was last ... Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of ... Cape Verde - Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access) Improved water source, urban (% of urban ... Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access). 94 % Improved water source (% of population with access). ...
*  Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population) in Azerbaijan
... an economic calendar and news for Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population) in Azerbaijan. ... Urban poverty rate is the percentage of the urban population living below the national urban poverty line.This page has the ... Population in the largest city (% of urban population). 45.33 % Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million. ... of urban population) Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population) in Azerbaijan was reported at 55.7 ...
*  Urban Population Now a Majority in China | TheCityFix
That's a rise of 3 percent in urban population and a decrease of 2.2 percent in rural population in comparison to the previous ... Last year marked the first time in China's history when the urban population exceeded the rural population, according to the ... However, a rapidly rising urban population without development at an equal speed also risks fueling an urban underclass of ... This new urban population, The New York Times reminds us, is a ready labor force for the factories that power China's export- ...

Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Drainage basins of Lithuania: There are six major drainage basins in Lithuania: the rivers Neman (Lithuanian:Nemunas), Lielupe, Venta, Daugava, Pregolya, and a strip along the Baltic where rivers flow directly into the sea.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityLampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Ladies Open of Portugal: The Ladies Open of Portugal was a women's professional golf tournament on the Ladies European Tour that took place Portugal.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Hesquiaht First NationUniversity of CampinasKatowice International Fair: Katowice International Fair () is an international trade fair in Katowice and one of the largest in Poland (the largest being the Poznań International Fair). Few dozen events are organized there each year, with the participation of some 4,500 companies.Renewable energy in the Czech Republic: Renewable energy in the Czech Republic describes the renewable energy related development in the Energy in the Czech Republic.Low vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.William Donald SchaeferLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Pulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.List of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Athens–Lavrion Railway: Athens–Lavrion Railway was a (metric gauge) railway line connecting downtown Athens with Eastern Attica and the mining town of Lavrion in Greece.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Boston University Medical Campus: The Boston University Medical Campus (BUMC) is one of the two campuses of Boston University, the other being the Charles River Campus. The campus is situated in the South End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States.Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.HypertensionThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingEpidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Australian National BL classMortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Cancer screeningPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.

(1/7134) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(2/7134) Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations.

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

(3/7134) Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people.

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

(4/7134) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

(5/7134) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(6/7134) Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia.

BACKGROUND: Although a family history of schizophrenia is the best-established risk factor for schizophrenia, environmental factors such as the place and season of birth may also be important. METHODS: Using data from the Civil Registration System in Denmark, we established a population-based cohort of 1.75 million persons whose mothers were Danish women born between 1935 and 1978. We linked this cohort to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and identified 2669 cases of schizophrenia among cohort members and additional cases among their parents. RESULTS: The respective relative risks of schizophrenia for persons with a mother, father, or sibling who had schizophrenia were 9.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 7.24 to 11.96), 7.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.10 to 10.16), and 6.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.38 to 9.09), as compared with persons with no affected parents or siblings. The risk of schizophrenia was associated with the degree of urbanization of the place of birth (relative risk for the capital vs. rural areas, 2.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.70). The risk was also significantly associated with the season of birth; it was highest for births in February and March and lowest for births in August and September. The population attributable risk was 5.5 percent for a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling, 34.6 percent for urban place of birth, and 10.5 percent for the season of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling is associated with the highest relative risk of having the disease, the place and season of birth account for many more cases on a population basis.  (+info)

(7/7134) Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.  (+info)

(8/7134) Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency.

Growth curve models were used to examine the effect of genetic and ecological factors on changes in height and weight of 225 children from low income, urban families who were assessed up to eight times in the first 6 y of life. Children with early growth deficiency [failure to thrive (FTT)] (n = 127) and a community sample of children without growth deficiency (n = 98) were examined to evaluate how genetic, child and family characteristics influenced growth. Children of taller and heavier parents, who were recruited at younger ages and did not have a history of growth deficiency, had accelerated growth from recruitment through age 6 y. In addition, increases in height were associated with better health, less difficult temperament, nurturant mothers and female gender; increases in weight were associated with better health. Children with a history of growth deficiency demonstrated slower rates of growth than children in the community group without a history of growth deficiency. In the community group, changes in children's height and weight were related to maternal perceptions of health and temperament and maternal nurturance during feeding, whereas in the FTT group, maternal perceptions and behavior were not in synchrony with children's growth. These findings suggest that, in addition to genetic factors, growth is dependent on a nurturant and sensitive caregiving system. Interventions to promote growth should consider child and family characteristics, including maternal perceptions of children's health and temperament and maternal mealtime behavior.  (+info)