Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Systems Plans: Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)LebanonQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.New York CityHealth Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Great BritainHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.IndiaHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.United StatesAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).EnglandHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.LondonOrganizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Nursing Services: A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)BrazilQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.

*  Accessibility, affordability and use of health services in an urban area in South Africa

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*  Zimbabwe | MSF USA

Endemic/epidemic disease Social violence Health care exclusion ... sexual violence and health services to adolescents in the urban ... MSF supported the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and TB and provided mental health services. In Harare central hospital, MSF ... non-communicable diseases and mental health issues. The health sector faced numerous challenges, including shortages of ... In Mwenezi, MSF worked with the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) to implement the "test and start" strategy for 18,000 ...
doctorswithoutborders.org/country-region/zimbabwe?id=83&qt-news_and_stories=0

*  WHO | WHO Asian Civil Society Conference on Macroeconomics and Health - April 2004

... increasing access to essential health services for the rural and urban poor; giving relief to households that experience ... People's Charter for Health [pdf 287kb] [new window] * People's Health Movement Response to the Commission on Macroeconomics ... While there is wide knowledge of the value of a primary health care movement, the technical interventions, the public health ... and Health. pdf, 27kb Conference papers. * Papers, WHO Asian Civil Society Conference on Macroeconomics and Health - April 2004 ...
who.int/macrohealth/events/civil_society_asia/en/

*  Clip Housing Urban Development 2012 Budget Request | C-SPAN.org

Health and Human Services 2012 Budget Request. Secretary Sebelius testified on the fiscal year 2012 Health and Human Services ... Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan testified on the financial health of the Federal Housing… ... Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs CommitteeSenate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee ... Clip: Housing and Urban Development 2012 Budget Request. 1 View Program ID:. 299352-1. Category:. Senate Committee. Format:. ...
https://c-span.org/video/?c4226950/clip-housing-urban-development-2012-budget-request

*  Africa: International Medical Group Awarded Peace Corps Health Care Benefit Services Contract - allAfrica.com

... a leader in global benefits and assistance services, was recently awarded a five-year contract with the Peace Corps. ... Africa: Rural-Urban Exodus Slowing Progress of Fight Against Hunger(East African) ... short-term health insurance program once they return from service. IMG's services for Peace Corps invitees, volunteers, and ... The Health Care Benefit Services contract, which includes one base year and four option years, is scheduled to take effect on ...
allafrica.com/stories/201704180909.html

*  Choice as governance in community mental health services

Markström, Urban, Professor. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.. Eklund, ... 1. Frames for choice and market characteristics - a Swedish case study of community mental health services in change. Öppna ... 2. Freedom of choice or cost efficiency?: the implementation of a free-choice market system in community mental health services ... freedom of choice systems, community mental health services Nationell ämneskategori Socialt arbete Identifikatorer. URN: urn: ...
umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?dswid=4621&pid=diva2:1095831&c=1&searchType=SIMPLE&language=sv&query=maria fjellfeldt&af=[]&aq=[[]]&aq2=[[]]&aqe=[]&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

*  Plus it

SETTING--Newcastle and Gateshead Family Health Services Authorities. Two urban practices with eight doctors and combined list ... Effect of index on relation between practice data and family health services authority average. RESULTS--The number of items ... prescribing data and family health services authority average. ... Health in South Asia. *Women's, children's & adolescents' ...
bmj.com/content/306/6876/496

*  Lead Poisoning Data | Wisconsin Department of Health Services

Geography (rural, urban). *Changes in the medical field (diagnosis patterns, reporting requirements) ... Wisconsin Department of Health Services - Lead-Safe Wisconsin. *Wisconsin Department of Health Services - Occupational Lead ... Interested in environmental health data?. Join the environmental health listserv by sending a blank e-mail to join-envhealth@ ... This fact sheet (PDF) provides more information about the health effects of lead poisoning. Visit the Prevention and ...
https://dhs.wisconsin.gov/epht/lead.htm

*  UNHCR - UNHCR Global Appeal 1999 - Regional Overview: Southern Africa

Approximately 2,500 others only use UNHCR-assisted health services. Most urban refugees in Zambia come from the Democratic ... Even then, education for their children, health and other services are still required. Persons with special needs, such as the ... In Zambia, UNHCR participated in a UNFPA project on reproductive health peer education targeting urban refugees. Care has ... Public Health *Safeguarding Individuals *Shelter *Solutions *Towards a global compact on refugees ...
unhcr.org/3eaff44032.html

*  Burkina Faso - Wikipedia

... as access to health services in rural areas is much more limited and awareness and education of children's nutritional needs is ... Since 2000, nearly 2 million more people have access to water in the four principal urban centres in the country; the company ... Health[edit]. Main article: Health in Burkina Faso. In 2012, the average life expectancy was estimated at 57 for male and 59 ... While services remain underdeveloped, the National Office for Water and Sanitation (ONEA), a state-owned utility company run ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burkina-Faso

*  Many Australians At Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease Not Receiving Best Practice Care - Redorbit

... rural and remote Indigenous health services.. "There remains significant gain that can be achieved in reducing the enormous ... program and involved a random health record audit for routinely attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in urban ... Medical Director Inala Indigenous Health service, Kanyini Chief Investigator and external reference group member on the ... The studies give a comprehensive snapshot of the state of cardiovascular care in the primary health care system for both ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1756183/many_australians_at_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease_not_receiving_best/

*  Building Resilience After School for Early Adolescents in Urban Poverty: Open Trial ofLeaders @ Play | SpringerLink

Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(1), 32-43.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle ... An ecological model of school-based mental health services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health ... 2011). A collaboratively designed child mental health service model: Multiple family groups for urban children with conduct ... Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. November 2015. , Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 723-736 ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10488-014-0608-7

*  Hawaii preparing to turn mental health services over to insurers | The Honolulu Advertiser | Hawaii's Newspaper

Advertiser Urban Honolulu Writer. The Health Department worked to assure mental health providers yesterday that a plan to shift ... Patti Bazin, Department of Human Services health care services branch administrator, said the key is that though providers ... though she also stressed that health plans will make assessments, like the Health Department does, to make sure services are ... deputy director of the state Health Department, which provides services to about 15,700 people through its Adult Mental Health ...
the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2010/Apr/30/ln/hawaii4300337.html

*  Department of Health and Human Services | Government Grants

National Urban Indian Behavioral Health Awareness. Posted on - 2017-05-22. Tribal Management Grant Program. Posted on - 2017-05 ... Department of Health and Human Services Grants The Department of Health and Human Services is the Federal government's ... Health Resources and Services Administration. Rural Health Care Services Outreach Program. Posted on - 2017-10-06 ... Accountable Health Communities Track 1 - Awareness. Posted on - 2016-09-08. More Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ...
topgovernmentgrants.com/grants_active.php?agency=Department of Health and Human Services

*  National, State, and Urban Area Vaccination Coverage Levels Among Children Aged 19-35 Months -- United States, July 1996-June...

Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 1996. *. CDC. Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for ... Moreover, 13 states and 10 urban areas have not achieved the 1995 interim goal for MCV (90%); two urban areas have not achieved ... and private-sector health-care providers for children who qualify (7). State and local public health officials should encourage ... coverage differed substantially by state and urban area, and many states and urban areas did not meet the 1996 CII goals for ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00051399.htm

*  Trichomonas vaginalis: underdiagnosis in urban Australia could facilitate re-emergence | Sexually Transmitted Infections

Ethics approval was granted by the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee and ... The objective of this study was to determine the true prevalence of TV in an Australian urban sexual health setting using ... Methods A cross-sectional study investigating the aetiology of cervicitis in women attending two urban sexual health clinics in ... Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service Human Research ...
sti.bmj.com/content/86/3/227

*  Blacks, Jews and Social Justice: An Inside Look into Seth Limmer, an Activist Rabbi! Thursday, October 1, 2015

... level and empowering women and communities to find ways to bring education and health services to rural and poor urban girls, ... He feels that if we believe in a "right to health" for all, then we need a universal single-payer health care system for all. ... for 25 years while also serving as the Director of Community Services at JFS of San Diego and the Director of Health Services ... Program Director of Recovery Services and Program Director of Children and Family Services. She has been promoted several times ...
https://voiceamerica.com/episode/87844/blacks-jews-and-social-justice-an-inside-look-into-seth-limmer-an-activist-rabbi

*  Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for...

Trends in urban violence: a comparison of accident department and police records. J R Soc Med1993;86:87-9. ... Main outcome measures Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and ... Design Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and ... Conclusion An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered ...
bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d3313.long

Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Ford SHO V6 engine: The Ford SHO V6 is a family of DOHC V6 engines fitted to the Ford Taurus SHO from 1989 to 1995. The designation SHO denotes Super High Output.Luigi Frari: Luigi Frari (Lat. Aloysius) (Šibenik, Dalmatia, now Croatia 1813-1898) was the Chief Municipal Physician and the mayor and political and social activist of Šibenik, Dalmatia.Wolf Dittus: Wolfgang Peter Johann Dittus (born 1 June 1943) is a primatologist and behavioral ecologist based in Sri Lanka.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Global Health Delivery ProjectAssociation Residence Nursing HomeSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Northeast Community Health CentrePublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Maternal Health Task ForceHalfdan T. MahlerBeit Beirut: Beit Beirut (; literally "the house of Beirut") is a museum and urban cultural center that was scheduled to open in 2013 in Beirut's Ashrafieh neighborhood. The cultural center is in the restored Barakat building, also known as the "Yellow house", a historic landmark designed by Youssef Aftimus.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Science Translational Medicine: Science Translational Medicine is an interdisciplinary medical journal established in October 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.United States Public Health ServiceNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board: The Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board (NPAIHB) is a non-profit tribal advisory organization in Portland, Oregon, run and organized by participating tribes. It was established in 1972 to focus on four areas as they pertain to the health of Native people: health promotion and disease prevention, legislative and policy analysis, training and technical assistance, and surveillance and research.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversitySchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mental disorderBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Minati SenIntegrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Standard evaluation frameworkWomen's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.

(1/621) The relationship between census-derived socio-economic variables and general practice consultation rates in three town centre practices.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between socio-economic factors and consultation rates is important in determining resource allocation to general practices. AIM: To determine the relationship between general practice surgery consultation rates and census-derived socio-economic variables for patients receiving the same primary and secondary care. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was taken of computerized records in three general practices in Mansfield, North Nottinghamshire, with 29,142 patients spread over 15 electoral wards (Jarman score range from -23 to +25.5). Linear regression analysis of surgery consultation rates at ward and enumeration district levels was performed against Jarman and Townsend deprivation scores and census socio-economic variables. RESULTS: Both the Townsend score (r2 = 59%) and the Jarman score (r2 = 39%) were associated with surgery consultation rates at ward level. The Townsend score had a stronger association than the Jarman score because all four of its component variables were individually associated with increased consultations compared with four out of eight Jarman components. CONCLUSIONS: Even in practices not eligible for deprivation payments there were appreciable differences in consultation rates between areas with different socio-economic characteristics. The results suggest that the variables used to determine deprivation payments should be reconsidered, and they support suggestions that payments should be introduced at a lower level of deprivation and administered on an enumeration district basis.  (+info)

(2/621) General practitioners' knowledge and experience of the abuse of older people in the community: report of an exploratory research study in the inner-London borough of Tower Hamlets.

A pioneering study aimed to quantify general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of cases of elder abuse in the community. The research found that elder abuse is a problem encountered by GPs, and that a large majority of responders would welcome training in the identification and management of the problem.  (+info)

(3/621) Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. METHODS: Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. RESULTS: At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction.  (+info)

(4/621) House calls in Lebanon: reflections on personal experience.

BACKGROUND: Home health services play an important role in decreasing hospital admissions and physicians' medical house calls play an integral role in home health services. There is no national survey of physicians' house call practice in the Lebanon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide some information about house call practice in the Lebanon. METHOD: Data on patients examined during house call visits between 1 January and the end of December 1995 were reviewed. RESULTS: During this period, 137 patients were seen at their home. Eighty-four patients (62%) were female and 53 patients (38%) were male. Ages ranged from 1 to 85 years. The number of cases seen in 1 month averaged 11. The diagnosis differed according to the age group of patients examined. Most of the house call visits occurred between 6.30 p.m. to 12.00 p.m. (47%). Fifteen patients (11%) were admitted to the hospital. CONCLUSION: The rate of cases per month was similar to those reported elsewhere. Physicians might feel reluctant to conduct house calls out of hours. Our study revealed that the majority of patients were seen between 6 p.m. and 12 p.m., and only 6% were seen after 12 a.m. It is our belief that house calls are an integral part of family practice and need to be stressed during the internships of all primary care physicians.  (+info)

(5/621) Partner notification for gonorrhoea: a comparative study with a provincial and a metropolitan UK clinic.

OBJECTIVE: To compare partner notification practice and outcomes at a provincial and a metropolitan clinic. DESIGN: Prospective study, following standardisation of partner notification policy. SETTINGS: Sheffield Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital and Jefferiss Wing Centre for Sexual Health, St Mary's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: Consecutive patients with culture positive gonorrhoea between October 1994 and March 1996 who were interviewed by a health adviser. RESULTS: In Sheffield, 235 cases reported 659 outstanding contacts, of whom 129 (20%) were subsequently screened, and 65 (50%) had gonorrhoea. At St Mary's 510 cases reported 2176 outstanding contacts, of whom 98 (5%) were known to have been screened, and 53 (54%) had gonorrhoea. Patient or provider referral agreements appeared more productive in Sheffield, where 60% resulted in contact attendance, compared with 13% at St Mary's. Provider referral was used more frequently in Sheffield, for 44% of referrals, compared with 1% at St Mary's. Multivariate analysis showed that partner notification was less effective for casual and short term (< 7 days) partnerships in both centres, and for homosexual men at St Mary's. CONCLUSION: Partner notification outcomes were better in the provincial setting where contact attendance could be recorded more reliably and provider referral was used more extensively. The high proportion of contacts who remained untraced in both settings indicates the need for complementary screening and prevention initiatives.  (+info)

(6/621) Sources and implications of dissatisfaction among new GPs in the inner-city.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the factors that were most stressful for new principals in inner-city general practice. In addition, given the concerns about retention of new principals, to ascertain whether high perceived stress translated into regret that they had joined their practice and factors that might protect from regret. METHODS: A questionnaire survey, within an inner-city Health Authority. The subjects were 101 GPs appointed as principals between 1992 and 1995. RESULTS: Eighty-three out of 101 GPs replied. The greatest sources of stress were, in order, patient expectations, fear of complaint, out-of-hours stress and fear of violence. Although these stresses were scored highly, 61% expressed no regret at having joined their practice with just 4% reporting considerable regret. Stress within the partnership and stress arising from patient expectations accounted for 23% of the variation in regret. Holders of the MRCGP were significantly protected against regret; there was no evidence that other factors such as medical positions outside the practice, membership of a young principals support group, fundholding status or training practices offered significant protection against regret. CONCLUSION: Despite reported difficulties in recruiting new young principals to the inner-city-and despite their reported high levels of stress-few have regrets about their decision to join their practice. For those who did regret joining their practice, the three principal associations were partnership stress, patient expectations and not possessing the MRCGP. Each of these factors may be amenable to intervention by policies geared to improve GP retention.  (+info)

(7/621) Responding to out-of-hours demand: the extent and nature of urgent need.

BACKGROUND: Little research has been undertaken concerning GPs' perceptions about urgent or 'appropriate' out-of-hours demand. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure GPs' perceptions about patients' need for urgent out-of-hours general medical help according to indicators of physical, psychological/emotional and social need, and the medical necessity of a home visit. METHODS: Twenty-five practices participated in an audit and research study whereby GPs completed an audit form for all contacts during November/December 1995 and February/March 1996. Each contact was assessed according to the indicators of urgent need and GPs commented on reasons for making such assessments. RESULTS: Audit forms were completed on 1862 patients, and GPs considered that 66.6% (1027) of contacts had either a physically, psychologically/emotionally or socially urgent need for help and were uncertain about a further 10.7% (165). Over half (53.0%) were considered to have an urgent physical need, almost one-third (31.0%) to have an urgent psychological/emotional need and 10.1% (119) to have an urgent social need for help. Over half (55.2%) of visits were considered to be medically necessary, the majority of which (89.9%) were assessed as having an urgent physical need for help. CONCLUSIONS: The findings raise questions about the strategic direction of newer forms of service delivery (GP Co-operatives) and suggest the need for further research to inform the strategic reduction in home visiting, particularly in inner-city areas where many residents have little access to transport out-of-hours to enable them to attend a primary care centre. GP co-operatives are, however, well placed to improve interagency working and cross-referral to other health and social service personnel, and respond more 'appropriately' to some psychological/emotional and social problems.  (+info)

(8/621) Pathways to care for alcohol use disorders.

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine access to care for people with alcohol use disorders. METHOD: An alcohol screening questionnaire was completed by 444 respondents in a community survey. During a designated week, 1009 patients presenting in primary care were assessed by their doctor and 773 of these completed the same questionnaire. Over a six month period 223 people with alcohol use disorders were identified using specialist addiction and psychiatric services, of whom 58 were admitted to hospital. One month prevalence rates of alcohol morbidity were determined for people aged between 16 and 64 years at all five levels in the pathways to care model. RESULTS: Around half the people with alcohol morbidity in the community never consulted their general practitioner and of those who did only half had their problem identified. Case recognition was particularly poor for women, young people and Asians. The main filter to people accessing specialist services came at the point of referral from primary care. This was especially marked for young people and for ethnic minorities. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are required to improve the identification and treatment of alcohol morbidity in primary care. Deficits in access to specialist services for women, young people and ethnic minorities need to be addressed.  (+info)



2017


  • The Health Care Benefit Services contract, which includes one base year and four option years, is scheduled to take effect on May 1, 2017. (allafrica.com)

Equitable


  • Equitable access to urban sanitation services is necessary for populations' welfare and well-being and is one of the Millennium Development Goals. (cgiar.org)
  • Strengthening the call for equitable access to primary health care was the overarching goal of the first inter-regional civil society conference on Macroeconomics and Health, organized by the World Health Organization on 27 and 28 April in Colombo, Sri Lanka. (who.int)

1997


  • An initiative which aims to enhance the quality and accessibility of government services by improving efficiency and accountability to the recipients of public goods and services (Department of Public Service and Administration 1997). (scielo.org.za)

Primary Heal


  • The Primary Health Care (PHC) Package for South Africa includes accessibility and affordability of health services to all South Africans (Department of Health 2000). (scielo.org.za)
  • While there is wide knowledge of the value of a primary health care movement, the technical interventions, the public health measures, the system requirements, and the cost for scaling up access, there has still not been real change for the world's poor. (who.int)
  • It has also supported national efforts in expanding primary health care. (who.int)

Department


  • Parents who would like to have their child tested for lead poisoning should contact their doctor or the local health department. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The website provides data from the Wisconsin Childhood Lead Poisoning Preventing Program at the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. (wisconsin.gov)

efficiency


  • The conclusion was that the freedom of choice system was implemented as atechnology of governance to increase financial efficiency of services.Individual choice was not experienced as increased in any aspect except forthe choice of where to go. (diva-portal.org)

Environmental


  • Interested in environmental health data? (wisconsin.gov)
  • How is lead poisoning related to environmental health? (wisconsin.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies lead as the number one environmental health threat to young children. (wisconsin.gov)

Authority


  • Comparison of effect of prescribing unit and new index on relation between 80 practices' prescribing data and family health services authority average. (bmj.com)

Search


  • This category is for site related to Urban Search and Rescue teams, or which provide information about Urban Search and Rescue. (dmoztools.net)
  • Urban Search and Rescue team from Orange County. (dmoztools.net)
  • Montgomery County Urban Search and Rescue. (dmoztools.net)
  • Beverly Urban Search and Rescue. (dmoztools.net)
  • Miami Valley Urban Search and Rescue. (dmoztools.net)

organization


  • Non-profit organization providing worldwide urban heavy rescue support. (dmoztools.net)

mental health s


  • In Chikurubi maximum security prison, MSF supported the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and TB and provided mental health services. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • This thesis describes and analyses the implementation of afreedom of choice system within community mental health services. (diva-portal.org)

rural


  • The refugees who benefit from the protection and assistance programmes of UNHCR can be grouped into two main categories: rural, camp-based refugees and urban refugees and asylum-seekers. (unhcr.org)
  • In Namibia, refugees of urban origin are accommodated together with refugees of rural background, mainly Angolans, at Osire Camp which houses some 2,500 refugees. (unhcr.org)

care


  • Our people want to improve access to health care for all, not limit it. (urbanmilwaukee.com)
  • Comprehensive lawn care, plant care and tree removal services for residential/ commercial customers in New Hampshire, Maine and Massachusetts. (gatewaytomaine.org)
  • Mandatory Seasonal Influenza Immunizations for Civilian Health Care Personnel. (ihs.gov)
  • MSF ran projects in partnership with the Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC), providing treatment for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), non-communicable diseases and mental health issues. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • In Mwenezi, MSF worked with the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) to implement the "test and start" strategy for 18,000 people, where patients diagnosed with HIV were immediately put on ARV treatment. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • In Beitbridge, teams provided mental health support and medical care to Zimbabweans who had been deported from South Africa. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • IMG will manage the Peace Corps self-funded Health Care Benefit Services Program while volunteers are actively serving, then will manage up to a three-month Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (RPCV) short-term health insurance program once they return from service. (allafrica.com)
  • IMG's services for Peace Corps invitees, volunteers, and returned volunteers will include customer service, claims processing, telehealth solutions and health care provider and pharmacy network access. (allafrica.com)
  • IMG already provides a range of services to similar government-sponsored health care programs, including AmeriCorps Volunteers in Service to America, and AmeriCorps National Civilian Community Corps and AmeriCorps Federal Emergency Medical Act. (allafrica.com)

removal


  • Notice to Rescind Special General Memorandum No. 99-03, Unlawful Removal and Destruction of Official Indian Health Service Records. (ihs.gov)

access


  • This study highlights how the lack of access to urban waste management infrastructure and services impacts human health and the environment. (cgiar.org)

medical


  • About International Medical Group, Inc. International Medical Group® (IMG®), an award-winning provider of global insurance benefits and assistance services for more than 25 years, enables its members to worry less and experience more by delivering the protection they need, backed by the support they deserve. (allafrica.com)
  • IMG offers a full line of international medical insurance products, as well as trip cancellation programs, stop loss insurance, medical management services and 24/7 emergency medical and travel assistance -- all designed to provide members Global Peace of Mind® while they're away from home. (allafrica.com)

family


  • And once again we are trying to keep women from birth control and family planning services. (urbanmilwaukee.com)
  • SETTING--Newcastle and Gateshead Family Health Services Authorities. (bmj.com)

Provides


  • This fact sheet (PDF) provides more information about the health effects of lead poisoning. (wisconsin.gov)

essential


  • It was therefore essential that a scientific investigation be undertaken to determine whether there was a relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by urban 22- to 50-year-old mixed-race (coloured) people of the Western Cape. (scielo.org.za)
  • The health sector faced numerous challenges, including shortages of essential medicines. (doctorswithoutborders.org)

Countries


  • The governments of 12 countries engaged in carrying forward the recommendations of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) were also represented in the conference, which examined how civil society organizations could contribute to improving the health of the poor in their respective countries within a macroeconomics framework. (who.int)
  • Today, with the exception of one country (Zambia), the displaced population is primarily made up of asylum-seekers, a significant percentage of whom originate from countries outside the region, and refugees living in urban areas. (unhcr.org)

similar


  • Instead, services tended to be more similar than specialised.Concerning new providers, they were characterised as committedprofessionals running companies with strained economies. (diva-portal.org)

areas


  • Proposed 'Right-to-Carry' legislation disastrous for urban areas by Ald. (urbanmilwaukee.com)
  • There are nearly 20,000 refugees of varying nationalities who live dispersed in urban areas throughout the region. (unhcr.org)

issues


  • and analysis and strategic planning of Macroeconomics and Health issues through research. (who.int)

Social


  • The health status, accessibility, affordability and utilisation of healthcare seem to be related to both social and economic factors. (scielo.org.za)

support


  • In Harare, MSF offered comprehensive support to survivors of sexual violence and health services to adolescents in the urban district of Mbare. (doctorswithoutborders.org)

individual


  • Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. (scielo.org.za)

population


  • The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured) population in the Western Cape, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Sixty-eight per cent of the population lives below the poverty line, while HIV/AIDS is taking its own grim toll (28.9 per cent of the urban population is HIV positive). (unhcr.org)

content


  • Daycentre services were in focus, and a case study was conducted of a majormunicipality that sought to be a "world-class city" in regard to citizens' choice.The experiences of policy makers, managers, professionals, and participantswere explored in interviews, and documents on a national, municipal, and citydistrict level, as well as homepages of providers of community mental healthservices, were all part of the study and were analysed using content-analysismethods. (diva-portal.org)

system


  • Participantsaffected by the reform expressed anxiety and worries due to theunpredictability and uncertainty embedded in the competitive choice model.Choice within the system concerned where to go, whereas participantsemphasised a wish to be able to influence the choice aspects of who carriedout the service and how much time to attend the services. (diva-portal.org)

Policy


  • The scientific evidence obtained in this study may enable policy makers in healthcare to take informed decisions in providing an accessible and affordable health service to the communities in an urban context in the Western Cape. (scielo.org.za)

influence


  • The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. (scielo.org.za)

Statement


  • In the unanimous consensus statement discussed at the closing session, participants committed themselves to participate in national Macroeconomics and Health processes and asked their governments to ensure full involvement of civil society and NGOs. (who.int)

international


  • It was noted that civil society has contributed greatly toward moving health and poverty reduction higher on the international agenda. (who.int)