Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Health Systems Plans: Statements of goals for the delivery of health services pertaining to the Health Systems Agency service area, established under PL 93-641, and consistent with national guidelines for health planning.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.LebanonNew York CityHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)IndiaOral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.EnglandHealth Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.BrazilMedical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.

*  UIC College of Medicine Urban Health Program Events | Eventbrite

Check out UIC College of Medicine Urban Health Program's events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... UIC College of Medicine Urban Health Program is using Eventbrite to organize upcoming events. ... The College of Medicine Urban Health Program (COM-UHP) is the largest and oldest of the six (6) Urban Health Programs in the ... into the health professions [...] with the goals of eliminating health disparities and advancing health equity. ...
https://eventbrite.com/o/uic-college-of-medicine-urban-health-program-1565449976

*  Citation Machine: Journal Of Urban Health format citation generator for film / online video

Cite your film / online video in Journal of Urban Health format for free. ...
citationmachine.net/journal-of-urban-health/cite-a-film

*  Copyright Information: Journal of Urban Health

... It is the policy of Springer to own the copyright of all contributions it ...
springer.com/psychology?SGWID=0-10126-9-11524-print_view=copyrightInformation

*  September 2009 - Institute on Urban Health Research

http://www.northeastern.edu/iuhrp/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/healthy_futures.jpg 165 141 Antoinette Devlin http://www.northeastern.edu/iuhrp/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/northeastern-iuhrp.png Antoinette Devlin2009-09-01 14:42:202013-10-15 15:31:31A focus on prevention: Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures ...
northeastern.edu/iuhrp/2009/09/

*  WHO | WHO, WMO, World Bank support international symposium on urban health and meteorology

WHO, WMO, World Bank support international symposium on urban health and meteorology. 12 - 15 April 2011, Shanghai, China ... The Health and Climate Foundation, New York City Department of Health, University of Auckland, and the Queensland University of ... The symposium was hosted by the Vice Mayor of Shanghai, and included presentations by representatives of the health and climate ... will deliver operational demonstration projects to improve protection from a range of weather-related health risks in urban ...
who.int/globalchange/mediacentre/events/2011/international_symposium_on_urban_health_and_meteorology/en/

*  Blog | Urban Health Plan | Org

All Urban Health Plan Sites will be open on Wednesday, March 15 All Urban Health Plan sites in the Bronx, Queens and Manhattan ... Urban Health Plan statement about Melissa Vanderhall: The Urban Health Plan family is grief-stricken at the tragic loss of our ... to be inducted into Urban Health Plan's Wall of Fame Contact: Robin West Urban Health Plan (347) 604-0063 Bronx, NY - The ... will be celebrated by his beloved Bronx community when he is inducted into Urban Health Plan's Wall of Fame, on Friday, May 19 ...
https://urbanhealthplan.org/blog/

*  Global Urban Health | New York Academy of Medicine

The ISUH is a leader in improving urban health around th ... is the home of the International Society for Urban Health (ISUH ... Urban Health Matters. Follow along with the leading voices in Urban Health, as we find solutions to making cities healthier. ... The International Society for Urban Health (ISUH). The International Society for Urban Health (ISUH) was founded by the Academy ... with special interest in the positive consequences of urban health interventions. The conference "Urban Health for a ...
nyam.org/institute-urban-health/policy-programs/global-health/

*  Institute for Urban Health | New York Academy of Medicine

... and practice focused on addressing the critical health needs of the world's urba ... The Academy's Institute for Urban Health is a center for research, policy, ... Urban Health Matters. Follow along with the leading voices in Urban Health, as we find solutions to making cities healthier. ... we publish the Journal of Urban Health and are the home of the International Society for Urban Health. ...
https://nyam.org/institute-urban-health/

*  Citation Machine: Journal Of Urban Health format citation generator for preface / foreword

Cite your preface / foreword in Journal of Urban Health format for free. ...
citationmachine.net/journal-of-urban-health/cite-a-introduction

*  Urban Health Collaborative Research Seminar: Hannah LawmanDetails - Dornsife School of Public Health - Drexel University

The Drexel Urban Health Collaborative works to improve health in cities by increasing scientific knowledge and public awareness ... of health and health variation within cities, and by promoting urban policies and partnerships that promote health and reduce ... This Urban Health Collaborative research seminar will feature Hannah Lawman, PhD, Director of Research and Evaluation, Division ... The research seminar series provides opportunities to learn about new areas in urban health research and explores ways research ...
drexel.edu/dornsife/news/events/details/?eid=12520&iid=37901

*  An Urban Health Immersion | Geisel Med Blog

This entry was posted in Global Health Equity,Urban Health Scholars and tagged Class of 2017,Class of 2018 by Amos Esty. ... An Urban Health Immersion. Posted on September 16, 2014. by Amos Esty ... Geisel's Urban Health Scholars capped an immersion weekend with the valuable lesson in the importance of true integration into ... Smith spoke to us about the overlap between urban and global health and gave us a presentation about the qualities required to ...
sites.dartmouth.edu/medexperience/an-urban-health-immersion/

*  Urban Dictionary: health

Noise kid 1: Dude did you see Health and Captain Ahab at the smell last night? Noise kid 2: Yeah Jupiter from Health is so ... HEALTH produced a remix album titled HEALTH// DISCO. The line reads 'ALL THE HITS REMIXED'. The album featured ... Dude 2: Aww man thats health! Frank: Yo, son, Jenny wants to do you, and i hear shes totally health in bed! ... HEALTHmusic. A four piece noise rock band from Los Angeles, CA. First started playing together in 2006 at the Smell; an all ...
urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=health

*  Symposium - URBAN HEALTH - URBAN LIVING: Global and local perspectives </span>

... health-urban living" will bring researchers and urban planners together in order to review key issues in urban health and ... Quelle: Symposium - URBAN HEALTH - URBAN LIVING: Global and local perspectives - Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies - ... www.frias.uni-freiburg.de/en/events/current-events/workshop-ursula-wittwer-backofen-urban-health-urban-living-global-and-local- ... With the intention of integrating biological, psychosocial and ecological concepts of health in urban areas we have to go ...
frias.uni-freiburg.de/en/events/current-events/workshop-ursula-wittwer-backofen-urban-health-urban-living-global-and-local-perspectives

*  Urban Science Health | Urban Science

Urban Science data-driven health solutions to drive better outcomes on a human & business level ... The strongest predictor was Health Systems with a Blood Specialty. By analyzing the patient mix within those health systems and ... Urban Science France S.A.R.L. 76 rue du Maréchal Lyautey. 78100 Saint Germain en Laye. France Tel +33 (0)1 80 10 10 75. GET ... Urban Science Japan. 7th Toranomon 40MT Bldg.. 5-13-1 Toranomon, Minato-ku. Tokyo 105-0001 Japan. Tel +81 (0)3 4530 9635. Fax + ...
urbanscience.com/au/health/

*  Seminar mulls over health of urban poor | india | Hindustan Times

TO DISCUSS challenges associated with and to evolve strategies for improving health of the urban poor, a three-day Bhopal ... Seminar mulls over health of urban poor TO DISCUSS challenges associated with and to evolve strategies for improving health of ... Sharing initiatives of the Government of Madhya Pradesh in improving health of the urban poor in the State, he said that urban ... Giving an overview of the situation of urban poverty in Madhya Pradesh, Urban Health Resource Centre Executive Director Dr ...
hindustantimes.com/india/seminar-mulls-over-health-of-urban-poor/story-awnMxSjZbSEhA2P319o3AN.html

*  Urban Mama & Urban Baby, Health in Stafford, Health in Staffordshire

Health Stafford, Health Staffordshire. Urban Mama & Urban Baby are listed in; Health Directory : Health in Staffordshire : ... Health Listings : Urban Mama & Urban Baby Search for Health by Town - search for Health by County ... Urban Mama & Urban Baby. Urban Baby is an online store specialising in products for pregnancy, labour and childbirth, postnatal ... Urban Baby is an online store specialising in products for pregnancy, labour and childbirth, postnatal recovery, breastfeeding ...
https://uksmallbusinessdirectory.co.uk/listing/116309/

*  Urban Social Context, Health and Health Disparities

... (ICPSR 34452) Principal Investigator(s): House, James S., University of ... Subject Terms: community health, health behavior, health status, racial discrimination, social environment ... National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... The goal of this project was to capitalize on, extend, and enhance the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS), which was ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/DSDR/studies/34452

*  Health Books - Urban Faith

Health & Wellness. Holy Wholesale!. Movies & Documentaries. Music. Personal Growth. Social Justice. Women's History Month. ...
https://urbanfaith.com/health-books/

*  Landscape and Urban Design for Health and Well-Being

... (BOK) Gayle Souter Brown Del ... In this book Gayle Souter-Brown explores the social, economic and environmental benefits of developing greenspace for health ... Using principles from sensory, therapeutic and healing gardens, Souter-Brown focuses on landscape's ability to affect health, ...
https://platekompaniet.no/bok/landscape-and-urban-design-for-health-and-well-being-using-healing-sensory-and-therapeutic-gardens-gayle-souter-brown/

*  urban | Association of Health Care Journalists

... urban, water on April 7, 2016. by Susan Heavey. Health Journalism 2016 panel to look at cities tackling health and turmoil ... urban, water on December 5, 2016. by Susan Heavey. Health officials talk about cities in crisis, disparities in health #AHCJ16 ... Association of Health Care Journalists. Center for Excellence in Health Care Journalism , Better coverage. Better health.. Menu ... acting director of health/commissioner of health, City of St. Louis, Abdul El-Sayed, M.D., the executive director and health ...
healthjournalism.org/blog/tag/urban/

*  Latin America's cities sweat over health risks from urban heat | Reuters

Christovam Barcellos, coordinator of the climate and health observatory at Brazil's Fiocruz government health institute, noted ... HEALTH HAZARDS While high-rise city centers can generate their own heat islands as glass sky-scrapers reflect the sun, block ... Urban development is linked to this trend, although the warming of the planet may be a larger contributor, said Lettenmaier, a ... Longer-term, urban planners and architects should focus on expanding green areas, using less glass and positioning buildings to ...
reuters.com/article/us-latam-cities-temperature-idUSKBN15U1V8

*  Health Care for the Urban Poor (Complete) | Asia Society

Health Care for the Urban Poor (Complete). NEW YORK, May 19, 2010 - Naya Jeevan founder and CEO Asher Hasan outlines his novel ... plan for providing quality, low-cost health insurance to Pakistan's underclass. (1 hr., 21 min.) ...
asiasociety.org/video/health-care-urban-poor-complete

*  Evidence of a Causal Role of Winter Virus Infection during Infancy in Early Childhood Asthma

It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life ... peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. ... The children were from urban (48%), suburban (23%), and rural ... 4Center for Health Services Research, 5Institute for Medicine and Public Health, 6Department of Preventive Medicine, 7 ... Bull World Health Organ 2004;82:914-922. [PubMed]. 3. Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory syncytial ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2588491/?lang=en-ca

*  LIVE EARTH INDIA HOME CLUB - WORLDS LARGEST MEDICINAL PLANT GARDEN & AYURVEDIC TREATMENT CENTER

The preventive, corrective and curative approaches of health is the basic strength of these systems of medicine. THE AYURVEDA ... Centella asiatica (Linn) Urban.. Lippia nodiflora Mich.. Strychnos potatorum Linn. f.. Centipeda minima (Linn.) A.Br. et ... THE UNANI SYSTEM OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE UNANI is derived from the Greek word 'Ionia', the Greek name of the Asia Minor ... THE SIDDHA SYSTEM OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE Siddha medicine is the oldest medical system in the world. Siddha is a Tamil word ...
indiahomeclub.com/medicinal_plant_garden/medicinal_plants_uesd_in_ays.php

Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Ford SHO V6 engine: The Ford SHO V6 is a family of DOHC V6 engines fitted to the Ford Taurus SHO from 1989 to 1995. The designation SHO denotes Super High Output.Luigi Frari: Luigi Frari (Lat. Aloysius) (Šibenik, Dalmatia, now Croatia 1813-1898) was the Chief Municipal Physician and the mayor and political and social activist of Šibenik, Dalmatia.Wolf Dittus: Wolfgang Peter Johann Dittus (born 1 June 1943) is a primatologist and behavioral ecologist based in Sri Lanka.Association Residence Nursing HomeSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Northeast Community Health CentrePublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Global Health Delivery ProjectBeit Beirut: Beit Beirut (; literally "the house of Beirut") is a museum and urban cultural center that was scheduled to open in 2013 in Beirut's Ashrafieh neighborhood. The cultural center is in the restored Barakat building, also known as the "Yellow house", a historic landmark designed by Youssef Aftimus.List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Science Translational Medicine: Science Translational Medicine is an interdisciplinary medical journal established in October 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversitySchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Minati SenResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Maternal Health Task ForceDenplanBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Health management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromGay Men's Health Crisis: The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected."

(1/2788) Why do dyspeptic patients over the age of 50 consult their general practitioner? A qualitative investigation of health beliefs relating to dyspepsia.

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of late-diagnosed gastric cancer is poor, yet less than half of dyspeptic patients consult their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To construct an explanatory model of the decision to consult with dyspepsia in older patients. METHOD: A total of 75 patients over the age of 50 years who had consulted with dyspepsia at one of two inner city general practices were invited to an in-depth interview. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and analysed using the computer software NUD.IST, according to the principles of grounded theory. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 interviews were conducted. The perceived threat of cancer and the need for reassurance were key influences on the decision to consult. Cues such as a change in symptoms were important in prompting a re-evaluation of the likely cause. Personal vulnerability to serious illness was often mentioned in the context of family or friends' experience, but tempered by an individual's life expectations. CONCLUSION: Most patients who had delayed consultation put their symptoms down to 'old age' or 'spicy food'. However, a significant minority were fatalistic, suspecting the worst but fearing medical interventions.  (+info)

(2/2788) Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults.

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

(3/2788) Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups.

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

(4/2788) Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

(5/2788) Prevention of stroke in urban China: a community-based intervention trial.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke has been the second leading cause of death in large cities in China since the 1980s. Meanwhile, the prevalences of hypertension and smoking have steadily increased over the last 2 decades. Therefore, a community-based intervention trial was initiated in 7 Chinese cities in 1987. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at reducing multiple risk factors for stroke. The primary study objective was to reduce the incidence of stroke by 25% over 3.5 years of intervention. METHODS: In May 1987 in each of 7 the cities, 2 geographically separated communities with a registered population of about 10 000 each were selected as either intervention or control communities. In each community, a cohort containing about 2700 subjects (>/=35 years old) free of stroke was sampled, and a survey was administered to obtain baseline data and screen the eligible subjects for intervention. In each city, a program of treatment for hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes was instituted in the intervention cohort (n approximately 2700) and health education was provided to the full intervention community (n approximately 10 000). A follow-up survey was conducted in 1990. Comparisons of intervention and control cohorts in each city were pooled to yield a single summary. RESULTS: A total of 18 786 subjects were recruited to the intervention cohort and 18 876 to the control cohort from 7 cities. After 3.5 years, 174 new stroke cases had occurred in the intervention cohort and 253 in the control cohort. The 3.5-year cumulative incidence of total stroke was significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort (0.93% versus 1.34%; RR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.84). The incidence rates of nonfatal and fatal stroke, as well as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, were significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort. The prevalence of hypertension increased by 4.3% in the intervention cohort and by 7.8% in the control cohort. The average systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased more in the control cohort than in the intervention cohort. Among hypertensive individuals in the intervention cohort, awareness of hypertension increased by 6.7% and the percentage of hypertensives who regularly took antihypertensive medication increased 13.2%. All of these indices became worse in the control cohort. The prevalence of heart diseases and diabetes increased significantly in the both cohorts (P<0.01). The prevalence of consumption of alcohol increased slightly, and that of smoking remained constant in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based intervention for stroke reduction is feasible and effective in the cities of China. The reduction, due to the intervention, in the incidence of stroke in the intervention cohort was statistically significant after 3.5 years of intervention. The sharp reduction in the incidence of stroke may be due to the interventions having blunted the expected increase in hypertension that accompanies aging as well as to better and earlier treatment of hypertension, particularly borderline hypertension. Applied health education to all the residents of the community may have prevented some normotensive individuals from developing hypertension and improved overall health awareness and knowledge.  (+info)

(6/2788) The relationship between census-derived socio-economic variables and general practice consultation rates in three town centre practices.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between socio-economic factors and consultation rates is important in determining resource allocation to general practices. AIM: To determine the relationship between general practice surgery consultation rates and census-derived socio-economic variables for patients receiving the same primary and secondary care. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was taken of computerized records in three general practices in Mansfield, North Nottinghamshire, with 29,142 patients spread over 15 electoral wards (Jarman score range from -23 to +25.5). Linear regression analysis of surgery consultation rates at ward and enumeration district levels was performed against Jarman and Townsend deprivation scores and census socio-economic variables. RESULTS: Both the Townsend score (r2 = 59%) and the Jarman score (r2 = 39%) were associated with surgery consultation rates at ward level. The Townsend score had a stronger association than the Jarman score because all four of its component variables were individually associated with increased consultations compared with four out of eight Jarman components. CONCLUSIONS: Even in practices not eligible for deprivation payments there were appreciable differences in consultation rates between areas with different socio-economic characteristics. The results suggest that the variables used to determine deprivation payments should be reconsidered, and they support suggestions that payments should be introduced at a lower level of deprivation and administered on an enumeration district basis.  (+info)

(7/2788) General practitioners' knowledge and experience of the abuse of older people in the community: report of an exploratory research study in the inner-London borough of Tower Hamlets.

A pioneering study aimed to quantify general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of cases of elder abuse in the community. The research found that elder abuse is a problem encountered by GPs, and that a large majority of responders would welcome training in the identification and management of the problem.  (+info)

(8/2788) Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of unmodified cows' milk and iron supplemented formula milk on psychomotor development in infants from inner city areas when used as the main milk source. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised intervention trial. SETTING: Birmingham health centre. SUBJECTS: 100 infants, mean age 7.8 months (range 5.7 to 8.6 months), whose mothers had already elected to use unmodified cows' milk as their infant's milk source. INTERVENTION: Changing to an iron supplemented formula milk from enrolment to 18 months of age, or continuing with unmodified cows' milk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Developmental assessments using Griffiths scales at enrolment and at 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: 85 participants completed the trial. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the two groups at enrolment, but by 18 months of age 33% of the unmodified cows' milk group, but only 2% of the iron supplemented group, were anaemic (P<0.001). The experimental groups had Griffiths general quotient scores that were not significantly different at enrolment, but the scores in both groups declined during the study. By 24 months the decrease in the mean scores in the unmodified cows' milk group was 14.7 whereas the decrease in the mean scores in the iron supplemented group was 9.3 (P<0.02, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 10.4). Mean subquotient scores were considerably lower in the unmodified cows' milk group at 24 months; significantly so for personal and social scores (P<0.02, 1.2 to 16.8 [corrected]). CONCLUSION: Replacing unmodified cows' milk with an iron supplemented formula milk up to 18 months of age in infants from inner city areas prevents iron deficiency anaemia and reduces the decline in psychomotor development seen in such infants from the second half of the first year.  (+info)



eliminating health disparities


  • with the goals of eliminating health disparities and advancing health equity. (eventbrite.com)
  • Working in our current priority areas of healthy aging, disease prevention, and eliminating health disparities, our expert professional staff pursues solutions that consider the social, physical, environmental, and economic conditions that impact the health of individuals and their communities. (nyam.org)

disparities


  • Finding solutions to ensure health and address health disparities in these complex, dense, and diverse urban environments is critical and a driving force behind the initiatives and programs conducted in the Academy's Institute for Urban Health. (nyam.org)
  • The goal of this project was to capitalize on, extend, and enhance the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS), which was designed to become a major prospective multi-level study of the impact of individual and social environmental factors on health, their role in understanding socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in health, and the biological and behavioral pathways that are involved. (umich.edu)

International Society for Urban Health


  • The International Society for Urban Health (ISUH) was founded by the Academy as a forum to encourage global collaboration among researchers, scholars, and practitioners interested in the health effects of urban environments and urbanization. (nyam.org)
  • In addition to conducting original research and implementing effective programs, we publish the Journal of Urban Health and are the home of the International Society for Urban Health. (nyam.org)

environments


  • Academy staff are sought-after speakers and consultants on the global stage addressing critical issues of health in urban environments such as healthy aging and effective governance for health. (nyam.org)

symposium


  • The symposium shared international experience in using meteorological information for public health, to inform the Shanghai Health Meteorology Service Programme. (who.int)
  • The symposium was hosted by the Vice Mayor of Shanghai, and included presentations by representatives of the health and climate communities at municipal and national level, and from the international steering committee, including the World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Bank, The Health and Climate Foundation, New York City Department of Health, University of Auckland, and the Queensland University of Technology. (who.int)
  • The symposium on "urban health-urban living" will bring researchers and urban planners together in order to review key issues in urban health and identify priority areas for research and capacity building and enhance networking and collaboration among partners. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Organised jointly by Shyam Institute, State Public Health and Family Welfare Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh and Urban Health Resource Centre, the symposium aims at brainstorming on issues related to health of urban poor in light of the general misconception that urban poor lived in better conditions as compared to their rural counterparts. (hindustantimes.com)

Centre


  • As a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre on Aging, Globalization and Urbanization, the Academy provides the WHO and its partners with technical assistance and helps to implement WHO programs for older adults throughout the world. (nyam.org)
  • The Academy has also served on the advisory group of the WHO Kobe Centre in Japan-the authors of the 2010 Global Urban Health Report-and as expert advisors to regional WHO offices in the Americas, Europe, and Western Pacific regions. (nyam.org)
  • Giving an overview of the situation of urban poverty in Madhya Pradesh, Urban Health Resource Centre Executive Director Dr Siddharth Agarwal said 38.4 per cent of the State's urban population or 6 million persons lived in slums. (hindustantimes.com)

interventions


  • The Academy hosted ICUH 2010, which focused on good governance for healthy cities, with special interest in the positive consequences of urban health interventions. (nyam.org)
  • They promote group health sessions, healthy lifestyles, and community-wide interventions to improve health in a lasting and effective way. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The underlying causes are multiple and successful interventions require analytical skills of many disciplines: A wide range of expertise is needed to combine analytical tools from epidemiological, biological and social sciences with strategies to enhance communication between political decision makers, researchers, urban developers, health planners and economists in order to develop cost-effective prevention and treatment strategies at scale. (uni-freiburg.de)

emphasizes


  • Dr. Lawman's work emphasizes multi-sectoral and population health approaches including changes to the built environment and policy approaches to chronic disease prevention, such as improving nutrition, physical activity, and access to smoke-free spaces. (drexel.edu)
  • GLFHC has adopted a patient-centered medical home model, which emphasizes teamwork among health professionals and addresses health issues from many perspectives. (dartmouth.edu)

risks


  • Along with this process specific health risks are emerging at a massive scale outweighing in many cases the obvious benefits of improved infrastructure, more accessible health services and faster communication. (uni-freiburg.de)

Academy


  • The Academy is committed to advancing global urban health and sharing lessons learned through our New York City and national initiatives. (nyam.org)
  • Academy President Jo Ivey Boufford, MD, and Dr. Francis Omaswa of Uganda recently completed a year-long Rockefeller Foundation-funded study of the needs and challenges of ministers of health around the world as they seek to strengthen health systems to improve the health of their people. (nyam.org)
  • The "City Voices: New Yorkers on Health" report series is based on a unique community needs assessment conducted by the Academy. (nyam.org)
  • A pioneer in shaping the field of urban health since 1847, the Academy has identified and implemented innovative solutions in New York City and around the world. (nyam.org)

partnerships


  • The Drexel Urban Health Collaborative works to improve health in cities by increasing scientific knowledge and public awareness of health and health variation within cities, and by promoting urban policies and partnerships that promote health and reduce health inequalities. (drexel.edu)

disease prevention


  • This Urban Health Collaborative research seminar will feature Hannah Lawman, PhD, Director of Research and Evaluation, Division of Chronic Disease Prevention, Get Healthy Philly, Philadelphia Department of Public Health. (drexel.edu)

Research


  • The Institute houses the Center for Health Policy and Programs -home to award-winning community-based programs as well as three research centers including-the Center for Cognitive Studies in Medicine & Public Health , the Center for Health Innovation and the Center for Evaluation and Applied Research . (nyam.org)
  • The research seminar series provides opportunities to learn about new areas in urban health research and explores ways research can impact practice and policy in urban settings. (drexel.edu)

operational


  • Sharing initiatives of the Government of Madhya Pradesh in improving health of the urban poor in the State, he said that urban health programmes had been operational in Bhopal, Indore and Jabalpur since 2002. (hindustantimes.com)

seminar


  • TO DISCUSS challenges associated with and to evolve strategies for improving health of the urban poor, a three-day Bhopal Seminar 2007 on `Contemporary Issues in Population and Health? (hindustantimes.com)
  • State Public Health and Family Welfare Department Director Dr Yogiraj Sharma inaugurated the seminar. (hindustantimes.com)

planners


  • The ISUH organizes the annual International Conference on Urban Health (ICUH), which brings together government officials, city planners, researchers, policy experts, and civil society leaders from around the world to address global urban health issues. (nyam.org)

areas


  • We serve as technical advisors to international organizations and cities around the world in the areas of urban health and creating age-friendly Cities. (nyam.org)
  • In early September, members of Geisel's Urban Health Scholars program traveled to Massachusetts to attend several events that would give them a sample of some of the challenges and rewards of working with underserved populations in urban areas. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The child death rate among the urban poor in the State is nearly equal to that in rural areas and is three times higher than the urban rich. (hindustantimes.com)

scholars


  • The Urban Health Scholars at the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center. (dartmouth.edu)

evaluation


  • Her talk is titled " Philadelphia Public Health Policy Wins in 2016: Evaluation plans for the Beverage Tax and Tobacco Retailer Permit Regulations . (drexel.edu)

global


  • Dr. Smith spoke to us about the overlap between urban and global health and gave us a presentation about the qualities required to deliver care in both settings while also managing to maintain optimism, idealism and compassion. (dartmouth.edu)

Family Health Center


  • Our first stop on our 2014 Boston immersion trip was the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center (GLFHC) in Lawrence, Mass., just north of Boston. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The Greater Lawrence Family Health Center offers programs for residency training and rotations in family medicine, with opportunities for Spanish language learning and immersion. (dartmouth.edu)

healthy


  • and the importance of embedding the system within the wider context of public health priority setting and surveillance systems, and within a vision of healthy, intelligent and sustainable cities. (who.int)

communities


  • Dr. Raser discussed the importance of health professionals being involved in the communities that they work and live in. (dartmouth.edu)
  • One in eight children born in urban slum communities of the State do not live up to the age of 5, Dr Agrawal pointed out. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Over 75 per cent of mothers in urban slum communities deliver at home in the absence of medical assistance, Dr Agrawal stated. (hindustantimes.com)

Programs


  • The College of Medicine Urban Health Program (COM-UHP) is the largest and oldest of the six (6) Urban Health Programs in the University of Illinois Health Science Colleges serving annually nearly 400 African-American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American students across all four of the College of Medicine sites. (eventbrite.com)

Institute


  • At the Academy's Institute for Urban Health, we're dedicated to finding multi-dimensional solutions to make cities healthier. (nyam.org)

impact


  • District Immunisation Officer, Indore Dr Mukesh Bachawat said it was important to improve coordination between various agencies such as health, municipalities, ICDS, urban development that were involved in slum development activities for greater impact on the lives of the urban poor. (hindustantimes.com)

Center


  • On our tour of the health center, Dr. Raser told us more about GLFHC and the type of medical care they provide. (dartmouth.edu)
  • We detoured along our tour of the health center to visit his shop, BiciCocina, which he started to fill the need of the city, which hasn't had an operating bike shop open in several years. (dartmouth.edu)
  • We took the scenic route back to the health center and had the opportunity to walk through some of the Lawrence center streets and the common park. (dartmouth.edu)

Department


  • Urban RCH officer in Indore Dr Gagan Gupta said his department joined hands with the NGOs for expanding immunisation coverage in slums of Indore. (hindustantimes.com)
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. (umich.edu)

social


  • In this book Gayle Souter-Brown explores the social, economic and environmental benefits of developing greenspace for health and well-being. (platekompaniet.no)

School


solutions


  • Follow along with the leading voices in Urban Health, as we find solutions to making cities healthier. (nyam.org)

problems


  • For 40 years, Urban Science has utilized data and analytics to solve problems. (urbanscience.com)

systems


  • The report, Strong Ministries for Strong Health Systems, was launched at the 2010 World Health Assembly in Geneva to excellent response. (nyam.org)

members


  • HEALTH have an internet television show which will feature members of the band called HEALTHvision. (urbandictionary.com)

conditions


Opportunities


  • Urban Health in Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges conference, September 2015. (nyam.org)

economic


  • Using principles from sensory, therapeutic and healing gardens, Souter-Brown focuses on landscape's ability to affect health, education and economic outcomes. (platekompaniet.no)

services


  • Bhopal District Chief Medical and Health Officer (CMHO) Dr Brahma Swaroop Ohri said a large number of slums were not official and therefore remained outside the purview of services because of their illegal nature. (hindustantimes.com)