Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Libraries, MedicalTurkeyMalaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.BrazilRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.SwitzerlandHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.NebraskaJapanHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.United StatesClinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.MichiganAcademies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.GermanySeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.LithuaniaPolandResearch Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.IranEducation, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.IndianaJordanEducation, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)TokyoEthiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Awards and PrizesAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.CaliforniaOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.PennsylvaniaSaudi ArabiaCommunity Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.TennesseePregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.TexasEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.AlabamaNobel PrizeNorth CarolinaCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)VirginiaEducational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.KansasSurvival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.PakistanIllinoisRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.KentuckyInterior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.OhioFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.WashingtonThailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.IowaCareer Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.LebanonMedical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.New YorkHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.

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Soonchunhyang University Hospital: Soonchunhyang University Hospital is a hospital in Bucheon, South Korea. It is affiliated with Soonchunhyang University.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.List of medical schools in the United KingdomAndrew Dickson WhiteLeiden International Medical Student ConferenceClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Brooks College of Health: The Brooks College of Health is a college at the University of North Florida. About 1,900 students are enrolled in the school,http://www.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.RaffinoseThe Flash ChroniclesUniversity of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Nihon UniversityUniversity of CampinasQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.KamaladalamTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBecky JamesUniversity Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentLausanne Marathon: The Lausanne Marathon or Marathon of Lausanne is an annual marathon race held in the Swiss city of Lausanne since 1993. This road running takes place in autumn (October) and the 20 km of Lausanne takes place in spring (April).Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Standard evaluation frameworkUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry: The University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry is located on the East Campus of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. The College offers degrees in Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) and Registered Dental Hygienist (RDH).Niigata UniversityNewington Green Unitarian ChurchList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Pre-health sciences: Pre-health sciences refers to the undergraduate courses to prepare American college students for admission in medical, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary, and physical therapy schools, and for training as a physician assistant. In the United States, colleges have moved away from the impractical designation of students as "Pre-med" majors, as only a small percentage of applicants actually achieve admission into medical schools.Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Walter Reed Army Institute of ResearchEden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.AllopurinolMichigan State University College of Nursing: The Michigan State University College of Nursing is the nursing college at Michigan State University. It is located on the southeastern side of campus in East Lansing, Michigan, USA.Toronto Western Research Institute: The Toronto Western Research Institute (TWRI) is a non-profit academic medical research institute located in Canada’s largest city, Toronto. The TWRI is one the principal research institutes of the University Health Network of academic teaching hospitals associated with the University of Toronto; the TWRI is also one of the largest research institutes in Canada focussing on human neurological disease from both a basic science and clinical research perspective.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Kiten (program)Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Drainage basins of Lithuania: There are six major drainage basins in Lithuania: the rivers Neman (Lithuanian:Nemunas), Lielupe, Venta, Daugava, Pregolya, and a strip along the Baltic where rivers flow directly into the sea.Katowice International Fair: Katowice International Fair () is an international trade fair in Katowice and one of the largest in Poland (the largest being the Poznań International Fair). Few dozen events are organized there each year, with the participation of some 4,500 companies.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Yo KobayashiBiological pathway: A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in a cell. Such a pathway can trigger the assembly of new molecules, such as a fat or protein.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.VII Photo Agency: VII is an international photo agency wholly owned and governed by its membership.Howard University College of DentistryVirtual microscope: The Virtual Microscope project is an initiative to make micromorphology and behavior of some small organisms available online. Images are from Antarctica and the Baltic Sea and available at no cost.List of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Bio Base EuropeGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Indiana University School of Dentistry: The Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) is the dental school of Indiana University. It is located on the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus in downtown Indianapolis.List of hospitals in Jordan: This is a list of hospitals in Jordan. (sorted by hospital name)Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.The Nippon Dental University College at Niigata

(1/2485) Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.

OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. METHODS: Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. RESULTS: The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.  (+info)

(2/2485) The Health Sciences and Human Services Library: "this is one sweet library".

The opening of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in April, 1998, was a highly anticipated event. With its unique architecture and stunning interior features, it is a signature building for the university in downtown Baltimore. The building is equipped with state-of-the-art technology, but has a warm, inviting atmosphere making it a focal point for the campus community. Its highly functional, flexible design will serve the staff and users well into the twenty-first century.  (+info)

(3/2485) Library residencies and internships as indicators of success: evidence from three programs.

This paper discusses post-master's degree internships in three very different organizations; the University of Illinois at Chicago, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress. It discusses the internships using several questions. Do the programs serve as a recruitment strategy? Do the programs develop key competencies needed by the participant or organization? Do the programs develop leaders and managers? Is acceptance into a program an indicator of future career success? A survey was mailed to 520 persons who had completed internships in one of the three programs. There was a 49.8% response rate. Responses to fifty-four questions were tabulated and analyzed for each program and for the total group. The results confirm the value of internships to the career of participants.  (+info)

(4/2485) Emergency medical training for dental students.

Twenty-four of the thirty-two German universities that have dental schools replied to a questionnaire survey that showed that all the schools responding held lectures on the topic "Medical Emergencies" although this is not mandatory for registration. All of the universities in the former East Germany also offered practical training sessions as part of the curriculum. The proportion of West German universities offering such courses is only 60%. The basic essentials of the theory and practice of emergency medicine should only be taught in courses with mandatory participation.  (+info)

(5/2485) Psychosocial and educational services for female college students with genital human papillomavirus infection.

CONTEXT: College-age women have a high risk of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which may have substantial psychosocial and physical effects. Young women who become infected need information and support from health care professionals, but little is known about providers' attitudes toward or provision of interventions for helping women cope with HPV. METHODS: A survey of 73 nurse practitioners and 70 physicians in college-based health clinics explored their perceptions of the need for psychosocial and educational interventions and their practices regarding such services for HPV patients. Analysis of variance and chi-square testing were used to examine differences by providers' type and gender. RESULTS: At least 86% of providers agree that HPV infection has a variety of psychosocial effects on young women, but only 54% spend at least 10 minutes providing education and counseling to all of their HPV patients. Roughly 80-90% routinely take a sexual history, explain the potential of HPV recurrence and discuss the risk of cancer with HPV patients; however, fewer than half always offer a variety of other interventions that could help patients cope with the diagnosis and promote preventive behaviors. Female providers are more aware of the psychosocial impact of HPV and the need for support than are male providers. However, nurse practitioners provide counseling and educational interventions more frequently than do physicians, even when gender is controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: College-based health providers need to improve the content of the counseling and education they offer to women with HPV, as well as the consistency with which they deliver those interventions. When they are unable to provide services, they should be able to refer patients elsewhere.  (+info)

(6/2485) Tales from the front lines: the creative essay as a tool for teaching genetics.

In contrast to the more typical mock grant proposals or literature reviews, we describe the use of the creative essay as a novel tool for teaching human genetics at the college level. This method has worked well for both nonmajor and advanced courses for biology majors. The 10- to 15-page essay is written in storylike form and represents a student's response to the choice of 6-8 scenarios describing human beings coping with various genetic dilemmas. We have found this tool to be invaluable both in developing students' ability to express genetic concepts in lay terms and in promoting student awareness of genetic issues outside of the classroom. Examples from student essays are presented to illustrate these points, and guidelines are suggested regarding instructor expectations of student creativity and scientific accuracy. Methods of grading this assignment are also discussed.  (+info)

(7/2485) Invasive meningococcal disease among university undergraduates: association with universities providing relatively large amounts of catered hall accommodation.

The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among UK university students and non-students of similar age was investigated. In addition, we sought to identify structural risk factors associated with high rates of IMD in individual universities. Cases were ascertained via Consultants in Communicable Disease Control (or equivalent officers) between September 1994 and March 1997. Data on individual universities were obtained from university accommodation officers. University students had an increased annual rate of invasive meningococcal disease (13.2/10(5), 95% CI 11.2-15.2) compared with non-students of similar age in the same health districts (5.5/10(5), CI 4.7-6.4) and in those health districts without universities (3.7/10(5), CI 2.9-4.4). This trend was highly significant. Regression analysis demonstrated catered hall accommodation to be the main structural risk factor. Higher rates of disease were observed at universities providing catered hall places for > 10% of their student population (15.3/10(5), CI 11.8-18;8) compared with those providing places for < 10% of students (5.9/10(5), CI 4.1-7.7). The majority of IMD amongst students was caused by serogroup B organisms. University students in the UK are at increased risk of IMD compared with non-students of a similar age. The incidence of IMD tends to be greatest at universities with a high provision of catered hall accommodation.  (+info)

(8/2485) Physical activity and risk of lung cancer.

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been proposed to decrease lung cancer risk; however, few data are available. Further, no studies have examined specific kinds and intensities of activities. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 13 905 male Harvard University alumni (mean age, 58.3 years), free of cancer. Men reported their walking, stair climbing and participation in sports or recreation on baseline questionnaires in 1977, and the occurrence of lung cancer on follow-up questionnaires in 1988 and 1993. Death certificates were obtained for decedents through 1992 to determine lung cancers not previously reported. RESULTS: During follow-up, 245 men developed lung cancer. Adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, and body mass index, the relative risks of lung cancer associated with <4200, 4200-8399, 8400-12 599 and > or =12 600 kJ/week of estimated energy expenditure at baseline were 1.00 (referent), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.64-1.18), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.52-1.11), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41-0.89), respectively; P trend = 0.0008. Similar trends were observed among non-smokers or former smokers in 1977 (82.7% of men) as well as among those who smoked >20 cigarettes a day in 1977 (8.0%), although the findings in the latter group were not statistically significant, possibly due to the small number. Walking, climbing stairs and participating in activities of at least moderate intensity (> or =4.5 MET, or multiples of resting metabolic rate) were each inversely associated with lung cancer risk, independent of the other activity components. However, light intensity activities (<4.5 MET) did not predict lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that physical activity may be associated with lower risk of lung cancer among men. An energy expenditure of 12 600 kJ/week, achievable by perhaps 6-8 hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity, may significantly lower risk. Further studies are required to confirm these observations.  (+info)

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  • List
  • List of territories occupied by Imperial Japan Golden triangle (universities) - grouping of leading English universities 学士会について (学士会) Changed its name to Kyongsong University after World War II, and dissolved on August 22, 1946, by U.S. Military Ordinance No. 102. (
  • formerly
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  • Health
  • Following her training at Columbia, Dr. Muraszko was a researcher at the National Institutes for Health for two years before joining the team at the University of Michigan. (