United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.AfricaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

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Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Crime in Haiti: Crime in Haiti is investigated by the Haitian police.Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran: This is the timeline of the nuclear program of Iran.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator: December 1991Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Al-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.Frida Lundell (missionary): Frida Lundell (6 March 1899 – 19 August 1934) was a Swedish missionary. She served with the Swedish Missionary Society in Chinese Turkestan (present day Xinjiang).Energy in Djibouti: Djibouti had no proven reserves of oil or natural gas, or refining capacity, as of 1 January 2003. In addition, Djibouti has no known reserves of coal.Global Health Security Initiative: The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an international partnership between countries in order to supplement and strengthen their preparedness to respond to threats of biological, chemical, radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN) and pandemic influenza.Lucretia MottList of military conflicts spanning multiple wars: Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader conflict or strategic campaign.Yugoslavia at the 1972 Summer Paralympics: The Republic of Yugoslavia sent a delegation to compete at the 1972 Summer Paralympics in Heidelberg, West Germany. They sent twenty two competitors, fifteen male and seven female.International Congress on Sleep ApneaMaternal Health Task ForceMeasles hemagglutinin: Measles hemagglutinin is a hemagglutinin produced by measles virus.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Injustice SocietyFood desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Sisterhood method: The Sisterhood Method is a household survey to estimate maternal deaths, which includes a series of four questions. The Sisterhood Method is one method recommended by the WHO.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasMeramec Conservation AreaUnited States Military Academy class ringUniversity Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.Global Health Delivery ProjectProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.List of U.S. states by life expectancy: This article presents a list of United States states sorted by their life expectancy at birth and by race/ethnicity in every state where the population of that racial or ethnic group is sufficiently large for robust estimates. The data is taken from the Measure of America's third national human development report, The Measure of America 2013–2014 width="25%" align="center" |MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Miss Asia Pacific 2005Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Andrew Dickson WhitePoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Breastfeeding promotion

(1/298) Candidate viral diseases for elimination or eradication.

This article discusses the possibilities for elimination or eradication of four viral diseases--measles, hepatitis B, rubella and yellow fever.  (+info)

(2/298) The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir.

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

(3/298) Medical surveillance of multinational peacekeepers deployed in support of the United Nations Mission in Haiti, June-October 1995.

BACKGROUND: Multinational peacekeepers, both military and civilian, often deploy to areas of the world where significant health threats are endemic and host country public health systems are inadequate. Medical surveillance of deployed personnel enables leaders to better direct health care resources to prevent and treat casualties. Over a 5-month period, June to October 1995, a medical surveillance system (MSS) was implemented in support of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). Information obtained from this system as well as lessons learned from its implementation and management may help decrease casualty rates during future multinational missions. METHODS: Over 90% of UNMIH personnel (80% military from over 11 countries and 20% civilian from over 70 countries) stationed throughout Haiti participated in the MSS. A weekly standardized reporting form included the number of new outpatient visits by disease and non-battle injury (DNBI) category and number of personnel supported by each participating UN medical treatment facility (MTF). Previously, medical reporting consisted of simple counts of patient visits without distinguishing between new and follow-up visits. Weekly incidence rates were determined and trends compared within and among reporting sites. The diagnoses and numbers of inpatient cases per week were only monitored at the 86th Combat Support Hospital, the facility with the most sophisticated level of health care available to UN personnel. RESULTS: The overall outpatient DNBI incidence rate ranged from 9.2% to 13% of supported UN personnel/week. Of the 14 outpatient diagnostic categories, the three categories consistently with the highest rates included orthopaedic/injury (1.6-2.5%), dermatology (1.3-2.2%), and respiratory (0.9-2.2%) of supported UN personnel/week. The most common inpatient discharge diagnoses included suspected dengue fever (22.3%), gastro-enteritis (15%), and other febrile illness (13.5%). Of the 249 patients who presented with a febrile illness, 79 (32%) had serological evidence of recent dengue infection. Surveillance results helped lead to interventions that addressed issues related to field sanitation, potable water, food preparation and vector control. CONCLUSIONS: Despite hurdles associated with distance, language, and communications, the MSS was a practical and effective tool for UNMIH force protection. UN requirements for standardized medical surveillance during deployments should be developed and implemented. Furthermore, planners should recognize that if ongoing medical surveillance and related responses are to be effective, personnel should be trained prior to deployment and resources dedicated to a sustained effort in theatre.  (+info)

(4/298) Counselling on breastfeeding: assessing knowledge and skills.

Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately after the course, as well as 3 months later. Immediately after the course the participants' knowledge of breastfeeding had increased significantly compared to controls. Both their clinical and counselling skills also improved significantly. When assessed 3 months later, the scores remained high with only a small decrease. The implementation of the course was also evaluated. The methods used were participatory observation, key interviews and focus group discussion. In the 33 sessions of the course, the average score was 8.43 out of 10. Scores were highest for content and methodology of the theory sessions, and lowest for "use of time", "clinical management of lactation", and "discussion of clinical practice". "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course" therefore effectively increases health workers' knowledge and their clinical and counselling skills for the support of breastfeeding. The course can be conducted adequately using the material and methodology proposed, but could be more satisfactory if the time allocated to exercises and clinical practice sessions were increased.  (+info)

(5/298) United nations estimates of HIV prevalence in Zambia under attack.


(6/298) Integrated management of childhood illness: a summary of first experiences.

The strategy of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) aims to reduce child mortality and morbidity in developing countries by combining improved management of common childhood illnesses with proper nutrition and immunization. The strategy includes interventions to improve the skills of health workers, the health system, and family and community practices. This article describes the experience of the first countries to adopt and implement the IMCI interventions, the clinical guidelines dealing with the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children, and the training package on these guidelines for health workers in first-level health facilities. The most relevant lessons learned and how these lessons have served as a basis for developing a broader IMCI strategy are described.  (+info)

(7/298) UN warns that AIDS deaths are set to reach record level.


(8/298) Reducing perinatal HIV transmission in developing countries through antenatal and delivery care, and breastfeeding: supporting infant survival by supporting women's survival.

In 1998, a joint UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO working group announced an initiative to pilot test an intervention to reduce perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), based on new guidelines on HIV and infant feeding. This intervention for developing countries includes short-course perinatal zidovudine (AZT) treatment and advice to HIV-positive women not to breastfeed their infants, where this can be done safely. The present paper raises questions about the extent of the public health benefit of this intervention, even though it may be cost-effective, due to the limited capacity of antenatal and delivery services to implement it fully. It argues that it is necessary to provide universal access to replacement feeding methods and support in their safe use, not only for women who have tested HIV-positive during pregnancy, but also for untested women who may also decide not to breastfeed, some of whom may be infected with HIV or may acquire HIV during the breastfeeding period. It further argues that additional funding, more staff, staff training, and improved capacity and resources are also needed to integrate this intervention successfully into antenatal and delivery care. The intervention will prevent some infants from getting HIV even in the absence of many of these changes. However, a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention and care in developing countries that includes both women and infants would promote better health and survival of women, which would in turn contribute to greater infant health and survival. If combination antiretroviral therapy in the latter part of pregnancy and/or during the breastfeeding period can be shown to be safe for infants, preliminary evidence suggests that it might reduce perinatal HIV transmission as effectively as the current intervention and, in addition, might allow the practice of breastfeeding to be preserved.  (+info)


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