Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.FinlandSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)SwedenEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.EnglandOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.WalesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.

*  Possibilities to reduce unemployment, increase USB usage

Unemployed loafers might do well to apply down at Nintendo, as they need a new lackey to take care of some business. That business might be very interesting, a...
https://engadget.com/2008/06/09/possibilities-to-reduce-unemployment-increase-usb-usage/

*  unemployment | Britannica.com

unemployment: The condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find any work. It is ... unemployment - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The condition of being without a job is known as unemployment. ... Unemployment, the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find any work. It is ... Statistics on unemployment are collected and analyzed by government labour offices in most countries and have come to be ...
https://britannica.com/topic/unemployment

*  Statistics in Category: Terrorism

TOP STATS: Salaries and benefits , Minimum wage, Unemployment rate, Labor force , By occupation and 374 more ... What are the unemployment details and benefits available? How long does an average person need to work to buy a loaf of bread? ...
nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Terrorism

*  Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report, Release Date: 2013-12-26 | ALFRED | St. Louis Fed

Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report, 221 real-time economic data series, ALFRED: Download and graph real-time economic ...
https://alfred.stlouisfed.org/release?rid=180&rd=2013-12-26

*  Counseling the Unemployed : Does it Lower Unemployment Duration and Recurrence ?

As a result, it is necessary to assess their impact on unemploymentrecurrence as well as unemployment duration. Using duration ... of the unemployed since the 2001 French unemployment policy reform(PARE). Several of the schemes are dedicated at improving the ... but the impact on unemploymentrecurrence is stronger than on unemployment duration. In particular, the program shiftsthe ... This illustratesthat labor market policies evaluations that consider unemployment duration alone canbe misleading. ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/crs/wpaper/2005-23.html

*  Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report, Release Date: 2012-09-27 | ALFRED | St. Louis Fed

Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report, 213 real-time economic data series, ALFRED: Download and graph real-time economic ...
https://alfred.stlouisfed.org/release?rid=180&ob=seid&od=asc&rd=2012-09-27&pageID=3

*  Parallel Lives: Birth, Childhood and Adolescent Influences on Career Paths

J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecm/ausm04/134.html

*  Local Area Unemployment Statistics Estimation Methodology

Four measures are produced for each geographic area: civilian labor force, employment unemployment, and the unemployment rate. ... unemployment, and the unemployment rate for approximately 7,500 subnational areas. Estimates for states are derived from signal ... Employment and unemployment are independently estimated. Civilian labor force is then summed from the employed and unemployed, ... These models are controlled, or forced to sum, to the national not-seasonally-adjusted employment and unemployment estimates ...
https://stats.bls.gov/lau/laumthd.htm

*  Natural Unemployment

Keynesians believe that a government can lower the rate of unemployment (i.e. employ more people) if it were willing to accept ... The lowest rate of unemployment that an economy can sustain over the long run. ... What is 'Natural Unemployment'. Natural unemployment, or the natural rate of unemployment, is the minimum unemployment rate ... which it contrasts with institutional unemployment. Catallactic unemployment is synonymous with market-generated unemployment, ...
investopedia.com/terms/n/naturalunemployment.asp

*  When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times

Variation in unemployment rates upon graduation can potentially explain a large fraction of the variance in gradients across ... We confirm that a higher unemployment rate at graduation is associated with lower income, lower life satisfaction, greater ... Further, education plays a protective role for these outcomes, especially when unemployment rates are high: the losses ...
nber.org/papers/w20156

*  Explaining Unemployment Duration in Australia

I examine what influences the probability that somebody will leave unemployment. The unemployment data used are derived from ... offers and lower reservation wages are associated with shorter durations of unemployment and that exit rates from unemployment ... What influences the probability that someone will leave unemployment? Informed by a search-theoretic framework and allowing for ... "The Determinants of Individual Unemployment Durations in an Era of High Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/auu/dpaper/483.html

*  Unemployment Could Hit 9% This Year: NABE

... unemployment rate -- now at 7.6 percent, the highest in more than 16 years -- is expected hit a peak of 9 percent this year, ... Unemployment Could Hit 9% This Year: NABE AP Published 4:51 AM ET Mon, 23 Feb 2009 Updated 11:45 AM ET Thu, 5 Aug 2010 The ... And the U.S. unemployment rate-now at 7.6 percent, the highest in more than 16 years-is expected hit a peak of 9 percent this ... The Fed said the unemployment rate could stay elevated into 2011.. Some analysts think the jobless rate won't drift down to a ...
https://cnbc.com/id/29344007

*  99ers and the Long-term Unemployed Are the Elephants in the Economic Recovery Room

Long-term unemployment is not only a national tragedy, but it is a personal tragedy as well. Rochelle Sevier was laid off in ... Long-term unemployment is not only a national tragedy, but it is a personal tragedy as well. Rochelle Sevier was laid off in ... "Any idea on what is happening with HR 589? My unemployment ends end of the month and I cannot get a job. I have tried ... "Any idea on what is happening with HR 589? My unemployment ends end of the month and I cannot get a job. I have tried ...
truth-out.org/opinion/item/1208

*  Afghanistan - Second to fourth periodic reports submitted by States parties [2009] UNCESCRSPR 9; E/C.12/AFG/2-4 (9 July 2009)

The unemployment rate in Afghanistan is estimated based on a Government survey, to be 33 per cent. The Government continues to ... The government also sends Afghan labourers abroad in order to prevent unemployment and achieving better income (art. 150), ... This can be possibly explained by the high unemployment rates in urban areas; in rural areas, most households engage in some ... make efforts to pursue economic development by reducing poverty and unemployment, with special attention to the needs of women ...
worldlii.org/int/other/UNCESCRSPR/2009/9.html

*  Brazil - Social Conflict and Participation

... growth and structural unemployment, which in turn worsen exclusion. At the same time, government authorities have stated their ... high unemployment levels, widespread informal economic activity, cutbacks in government spending on social programs, and ...
countrystudies.us/brazil/54.htm

*  Evolving Inflation Dynamics and the New Keynesian Phillips Curve - Economic Quarterly, Fall 2007 - Federal Reserve Bank of...

In economic policy discussions, the negative correlation between inflation rates and unemployment rates or output growth, also ...
https://richmondfed.org/publications/research/economic_quarterly/2007/fall/hornstein

*  Dayton running mate visits new DFL office in Bemidji | Bemidji Pioneer

"We might have one of the lowest unemployment rates... in the country in Minnesota, but there's still serious pockets of ... DFLers at the event touted new employment numbers released this week showing Minnesota at its lowest level of unemployment ... unemployment all over Minnesota, including here.". Republicans have criticized the Gov. Mark Dayton/Smith ticket as not ...
bemidjipioneer.com/news/local/3306312-dayton-running-mate-visits-new-dfl-office-bemidji

*  Unemployment rate by sex, age, migration status, citizenship and educational attainment level

... Visualisations. Timeline. ...
estatwrap.ontologycentral.com/page/lfso_14luner

*  Unemployment Rate

And then there are still different rates for unemployment that are used by Eurostat to compute their unemployment rate. The ... A snag to understanding German unemployment data comes from the fact that there are several measures of unemployment available ... The unemployment rate measures the number of unemployed as a percentage of the labor force for unified Germany. Financial ... Unemployment rates calculated by the Bundesbank are preferred but some German analysts check the unadjusted rates as well. ...
cmegroup.com/education/events/econoday/2016/09/feed473471.html

*  CPS Tables

Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, sex, and age (HTML) (PDF). *A-33. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment ... Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, sex, age, and duration of unemployment (HTML) (PDF) (XLSX) ... Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, sex, age, and duration of unemployment (HTML) (PDF) ... See also the BLS Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment.. On this Page:. *Annual average data - Complete set of all ...
https://stats.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm

*  Minimum wage and employment: Escaping the parametric straitjacket

The causal effect of NMW is higher for young workers and in periods of high unemployment and they have a stronger impact on job ... The causal effect of NMW is higher for young workers and in periods of high unemployment and they have a stronger impact on job ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/ifwedp/201617.html

*  Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report | ALFRED | St. Louis Fed

Unemployment Insurance Weekly Claims Report, 221 real-time economic data series, ALFRED: Download and graph real-time economic ...
https://alfred.stlouisfed.org/release?rid=180

*  Unemployment Fiscal Multipliers

... Tommaso Monacelli, Roberto Perotti, Antonella Trigari. NBER Working Paper No. 15931. Issued in ... "Unemployment fiscal multipliers," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(5), pages 531-553, July. citation courtesy ... An increase in government spending of 1 percent of GDP generates output and unemployment multipliers respectively of about 1.2 ... Extending the model to strengthen the complementarity in preferences, to include unemployment benefits, real wage rigidity and/ ...
nber.org/papers/w15931

*  Forecasting Asymmetric Unemployment Rates

1998 Abstract: Asymmetric behavior has been documented in postwar quarterly U.S. unemployment rates. This suggests that ... to whether a stationarity-inducing transformation is applied to the nonstationary unemployment rate series. © 1998 by the ... "Lessons for forecasting unemployment in the United States: use flow rates, mind the trend," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2015-1, ... "Is there a causal relationship between unemployment and informal economy in Tunisia: evidence from linear and non-linear ...
https://ideas.repec.org/r/tpr/restat/v80y1998i1p164-168.html

*  Appearance of stronger hiring masks unemployment woes - MarketWatch

long-term unemployment. • Full-time work proves elusive • Companies are wary of long-term unemployed • Economist Alan Krueger: ... The national unemployment rate remained unchanged at 6.7% in March with 10.5 million people unemployed, according to today's ... Failing to extend unemployment insurance would harm unemployed job seekers, their families, and the businesses whose sales ... This renders the overall unemployment rate lower than it would otherwise be if we counted as unemployed the nearly 6 million ...
marketwatch.com/story/appearance-of-stronger-hiring-masks-unemployment-woes-2014-04-04

Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Great Recession in Africa: As a direct result of the late 2000s recession, some economies in Africa have been primarily affected by reduced global demand and lower prices of commodities such as oil, platinum, nickel, gold, and copper. South Africa was the first African country to fall in recession.Pensioner: A pensioner is a person who collects a pension, most commonly because of a retirement from the workforce. This is a term typically used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia where someone of pensionable age may also be referred to as an 'old age pensioner', or OAP.Teenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.McCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.BankruptcyFlorida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation: Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation is a federal-state program in the U.S.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Supplemental Security Income: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled.(SSA "Supplemental Security Income (SSI)" p.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Meredith EatonClimate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association: United StatesRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Mental disorderPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney: Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney (ARV) is a not-for-profit public benevolent institution formed in 1959. This inception date places ARV as one of the founding entities of the social service now referred to as retirement or seniors living.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysMultiple disabilitiesSick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.General Educational Development: Ged}}Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.

(1/580) Unemployment pre-dates symptoms of depression and anxiety resulting in medical consultation in young men.

BACKGROUND: There is evidence to support a link between unemployment and lower levels of psychological well-being, but debate continues as to whether unemployment results in psychological morbidity, or whether the association is due to those who are more vulnerable to mental illness becoming unemployed. Here we assess the effect of recent and accumulated unemployment in young men on the risk of developing depression and anxiety leading to medical consultation. Adjustment was made for a measure of pre-existing tendency to depression, behavioural maladjustment, social class, qualifications and region of residence. METHODS: Some 3241 men from the National Child Development Study (the 1958 British birth cohort) with data from birth to age 33 years, collected at birth and ages 7, 11, 16, 23 and 33 years were used in these analyses. The outcome measure was onset age of anxiety or depression between ages 24 and 33 years, that resulted in consultation with a GP or a specialist. This was used in Cox proportional hazards models where two measures of unemployment were modelled as time varying covariates. Pre-existing tendency to depression was measured by the Malaise Inventory prior to the experience of unemployment at age 23 years. Two measures of unemployment were investigated: any unemployment in the year prior to onset (recent unemployment) and all accumulated unemployment prior to onset (divided into four categories: 0, 1-12, 13-36 and 37+ months of unemployment). RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors including pre-existing tendency to depression, the relative risk (RR) for developing symptoms resulting in consultation was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.21-3.63), when those who were unemployed in the year prior to onset were compared with those who were not. Accumulated unemployment was not statistically significantly related to onset of symptoms in all men after adjustment for the potential confounding factors: an RR of 1.63 (95% CI: 0.95-2.79) for men with 37+ months of accumulated unemployment when compared with none. However, exclusion of men with a pre-existing tendency to depression indicated by the Malaise Inventory score, increased the RR to 2.30 (95% CI: 1.44-3.65) for recent unemployment and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.17-3.54) for 37+ months of accumulated unemployment when compared with none. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment is a risk factor for psychological symptoms of depression requiring medical attention, even in those men without previous psychological vulnerability.  (+info)

(2/580) Predictors and consequences of unemployment in construction and forest work during a 5-year follow-up.

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated whether indicators of health, work conditions, or life-style predict subsequent unemployment and also the unemployment consequences related to health or life-style. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 781 male construction and 877 male forest workers (aged 20-49 years and working at the beginning of the study) in 1989 and 1994. Employment status during follow-up was ranked into the following 4 categories according to the employment status and unemployment time: continuously employed, re-employed, short-term (< or = 24 months) unemployed and long-term (> or =24 months) unemployed. RESULTS: The following base-line factors were associated with long-term unemployment during follow-up among the construction workers: age >40 years, poor subjective health, smoking, frequent heavy use of alcohol, low job satisfaction, marital status (single), and unemployment during the year preceding the initial survey. Among the forest workers, age >40 years, frequent stress symptoms, and preceding unemployment entered the model. In addition smoking predicted unemployment among the forest workers with no preceding unemployment. The proportion of regular smokers decreased among the long-term unemployed. Physical exercise was more frequent at the time of follow-up than it was initially, particularly among the unemployed. Stress symptoms increased among the construction workers, but musculoskeletal symptoms decreased significantly among the long-term unemployed. Among the forest workers stress symptoms decreased among the continuously employed and re-employed persons, but musculoskeletal symptoms decreased significantly for them all. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment among construction workers is to some extent dependent on life-style, health, and job satisfaction in addition to age, marital status, and unemployment history. For forest workers, unemployment is less determined by individual factors. Changes in distress and musculoskeletal symptoms are dependent on employment, particularly among construction workers.  (+info)

(3/580) Social differences of very preterm birth in Europe: interaction with obstetric history. Europop Group.

Social differences of very preterm birth (22-32 completed weeks of amenorrhea) were studied using data from a large case-control survey in Europe between 1994 and 1997; 1,675 very preterm births and 7,965 full-term births were included. The relation between social factors and very preterm birth was studied according to obstetric history and the mode of delivery onset. Very preterm birth was significantly related to low educational level among women with no previous adverse pregnancy outcome (odds ratio (OR) = 2.67, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.66-4.28) and among primigravid women and those with previous first-trimester abortion (OR = 2.01, 95 percent CI 1.56-2.58). In this group, unemployment of all household members was associated with a double risk of very preterm birth. No significant association between very preterm birth and socioeconomic status was observed among women with previous second-trimester abortion or preterm birth. Socioeconomic indicators remained significantly associated with both spontaneous and induced very preterm births among women with no previous late fetal loss or preterm birth. The results are consistent with social factors affecting the risk of very preterm birth, but the relation differs according to obstetric history.  (+info)

(4/580) Unemployment and foster home placements: estimating the net effect of provocation and inhibition.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought, first, to explain and reconcile the provocation and inhibition theories of the effect of rising unemployment on the incidence of antisocial behavior. Second, it tested the hypothesis, implied by the provocation and inhibition theories, that the relationship between unemployment and foster home placements forms an inverted "U." METHODS: The hypothesis was tested with data from California for 137 months beginning in February 1984. RESULTS: Findings showed that the hypothesis was supported. CONCLUSIONS: Rising joblessness increases the incidence of foster home placements among families that lose jobs or income. Levels of joblessness that threaten workers who remain employed, however, inhibit antisocial behavior and reduce the incidence of foster home placements. This means that accounting for the social costs of unemployment is more complicated than assumed under the provocation theory.  (+info)

(5/580) Premature mortality in the United States: the roles of geographic area, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined premature mortality by county in the United States and assessed its association with metro/urban/rural geographic location, socioeconomic status, household type, and availability of medical care. METHODS: Age-adjusted years of potential life lost before 75 years of age were calculated and mapped by county. Predictors of premature mortality were determined by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Premature mortality was greatest in rural counties in the Southeast and Southwest. In a model predicting 55% of variation across counties, community structure factors explained more than availability of medical care. The proportions of female-headed households and Black populations were the strongest predictors, followed by variables measuring low education, American Indian population, and chronic unemployment. Greater availability of generalist physicians predicted fewer years of life lost in metropolitan counties but more in rural counties. CONCLUSIONS: Community structure factors statistically explain much of the variation in premature mortality. The degree to which premature mortality is predicted by percentage of female-headed households is important for policy-making and delivery of medical care. The relationships described argue strongly for broadening the biomedical model.  (+info)

(6/580) Trends in medical employment: persistent imbalances in urban Mexico.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extreme medical unemployment and underemployment in the urban areas of Mexico. The conceptual and methodological approach may be relevant to many countries that have experienced substantial increases in the supply of physicians during the last decades. METHODS: On the basis of 2 surveys carried out in 1986 and 1993, the study analyzed the performance of physicians in the labor market as a function of ascription variables (social origin and gender), achievement variables (quality of medical education and specialty studies), and contextual variables (educational generation). RESULTS: The study reveals, despite some improvement, persistently high levels of open unemployment, qualitative underemployment (i.e., work in activities completely outside of medicine), and quantitative underemployment (i.e., work in medical activities but with very low levels of productivity and remuneration). The growing proportion of female doctors presents new challenges, because they are more likely than men to be unemployed and underemployed. CONCLUSIONS: While corrective policies can have a positive impact, it is clear that decisions regarding physician supply must be carefully considered, because they have long-lasting effects. An area deserving special attention is the improvement of professional opportunities for female doctors.  (+info)

(7/580) Unemployment, depression, and health: a look at the African-American community.

OBJECTIVES: While the unemployment rate of African-American people is more than twice that of the white population, the research on the impact of unemployment on the health of this population is scarce. This study analysed the impact of unemployment on depression and well being among African-American people, and the factors associated with well being. METHODS: Logistic and multiple regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households 1987-1992. African-American (1369) and white (6660) respondents were analysed separately. Outcome variables included an index of depression and self reported health status. MAIN FINDINGS: Differences between employment and unemployment groups were less significant for African-Americans than for the white population in predicting depression and well being. Health enhancing factors such as education and wealth were significantly associated with better health and lower depression indices among the white population but not consistently so among African-Americans. Satisfaction with personal relationships was the strongest predictor of well being for both groups. CONCLUSION: Research should focus on the special needs and circumstances of African-Americans, because protective factors may not have the same impact in different groups of the population.  (+info)

(8/580) The association of body mass index with social and economic disadvantage in women and men.

BACKGROUND: Although an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) is well documented, broad population studies focusing on the association between BMI and various forms of disadvantage such as unemployment, low income or social isolation are rare. METHODS: A nationwide, representative sample of 25-64-year-old Finnish subjects (n = 6016) was classified according to their BMI into four groups: 'thin' (BMI < 20), 'normal' (BMI 20-24.9), 'overweight' (BMI 25-29.9) and 'obese' (BMI > or = 30). Multivariable analyses using logistic regression were conducted with this BMI-grouping as an independent variable to predict social and economic disadvantage, controlling simultaneously for age, educational attainment, region of residence, and limiting long-standing illness. RESULTS: In women, overweight was associated with current unemployment and obesity with long-term unemployment as well as absence of close friends outside the family circle. Both overweight and obesity were associated with low individual earnings. Obese women were also most likely to have low household disposable and individual incomes; a similar pattern was seen among thin women. A small subgroup of thin men were socially and economically disadvantaged with all our indicators whereas excess body weight was not problematic for men. CONCLUSIONS: Deviant body weight is associated with social and economic disadvantage in a gender-specific and partly curvilinear way. In particular, obese women face multiple social and economic disadvantage.  (+info)



falling unemployment rate


  • While a falling unemployment rate sounds like a good thing, it can actually be indicative of people leaving the labor force because they can't find a job. (investopedia.com)

known as unemployment


  • Also known as unemployment insurance or unemployment benefits. (investopedia.com)
  • The condition of being without a job is known as unemployment. (britannica.com)

structural unemployment


  • What is the difference between structural unemployment and cyclical unemployment? (investopedia.com)
  • Discover how many years structural unemployment can last. (investopedia.com)
  • When does cyclical unemployment become structural unemployment? (investopedia.com)
  • Learn about the conditions under which cyclical unemployment becomes structural unemployment. (investopedia.com)
  • Over the centuries, different economists have called natural unemployment the long-run average unemployment rate, "frictional plus structural unemployment" and "catallactic unemployment. (investopedia.com)

Frictional


  • Frictional unemployment is one aspect of natural unemployment, which is unemployment caused by things other than an underperforming economy. (investopedia.com)

cyclical


  • Is there a natural rate of cyclical unemployment? (investopedia.com)
  • Any unemployment not considered to be natural is often referred to as cyclical, institutional or policy-based unemployment. (investopedia.com)

recession


  • But for blacks, the rate is still 8.8 percent - a bit lower than worst unemployment whites experienced in the recession. (npr.org)
  • February 5, 2016 The January jobs report indicated unemployment was at 4.9 percent, the lowest rate since the recession. (npr.org)
  • for example, a steep recession might increase the natural unemployment rate if workers begin to lose skills or the motivation to find full-time work again. (investopedia.com)

DEFINITION


  • Under this definition of natural unemployment, it is possible for institutional factors, such as the minimum wage or high degrees of unionization, to increase the natural rate over the long run. (investopedia.com)
  • The Austrian School of Economics prefers the definition of "catallactic unemployment," which it contrasts with institutional unemployment. (investopedia.com)

Eurostat


  • Eurostat provides an unemployment rate for each EU country as well as for the EMU and EU as a whole. (cmegroup.com)
  • And then there are still different rates for unemployment that are used by Eurostat to compute their unemployment rate. (cmegroup.com)

synonymous


  • Catallactic unemployment is synonymous with market-generated unemployment, meaning the unemployed voluntarily choose to not work at any present wage rate. (investopedia.com)
  • It should be pointed out that full employment is not necessarily synonymous with a zero unemployment rate , for at any given time the unemployment rate will include some number of persons who are between jobs and not unemployed in any long-term sense. (britannica.com)

Library of Congr


  • Use this page to browse bills in the U.S. Congress related to the subject Unemployment, as determined by the Library of Congress. (govtrack.us)

rate


  • A surge of job seekers sent the unemployment rate up 0.1 percentage point, to 5 percent, in March. (npr.org)
  • The unemployment rate is the percentage of people in the labor force who are unemployed but seeking a job. (investopedia.com)
  • Depending on how it's measured, the unemployment rate is open to interpretation. (investopedia.com)
  • Yes, the unemployment rate can be too low. (investopedia.com)
  • Natural unemployment, or the natural rate of unemployment, is the minimum unemployment rate resulting from real, or voluntary, economic forces. (investopedia.com)
  • The works of Friedman and Phelps were instrumental in developing the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU). (investopedia.com)
  • Such employment is actually undesirable, because a 0% long-run unemployment rate requires a completely inflexible labor market, where laborers are unable to simply quit their current job or leave to find a better one. (investopedia.com)
  • Many consider a 5% unemployment rate to be de facto full employment and not particularly concerning. (investopedia.com)
  • The unemployment rate measures the number of unemployed as a percentage of the labor force. (cmegroup.com)
  • A rising unemployment rate can be a warning sign of hard times while a low rate can be a warning of inflation as wages are bid up to attract labor. (cmegroup.com)
  • The unemployment rate is the percentage of unemployed persons over the total number of active persons in the labor market. (cmegroup.com)
  • It should be noted that the unemployment rate for a country will frequently differ with that reported by the national statistics agency. (cmegroup.com)
  • As a result, the unemployment rate dipped another tick to 5.6 percent, a new post-Reunification low. (cmegroup.com)
  • The unemployment rate is calculated by the Federal Employment Agency based on the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the number of all civilian members of the labour force (dependant civilian employed persons, the self-employed family workers and unemployed). (cmegroup.com)
  • The unemployment rate for people collecting unemployment benefits fell to 1.9 percent during the week ended June 7, the lowest since October 2007, from 2.0 percent the prior week. (cnbc.com)

economists


  • Ever since John Maynard Keynes wrote "The General Theory" in 1936, many economists believe there is a special and direct relationship between the level of unemployment in an economy and the level of inflation . (investopedia.com)
  • In 2016, economists are much more skeptical of the implied correlation between strong economic activity and inflation, or between deflation and unemployment. (investopedia.com)
  • There is, however, near-unanimity among modern-day economists that proposals to remedy unemployment by means of tariff increases are misguided. (britannica.com)

Economy


  • In the United States, unemployment compensation was ushered in by the Social Security Act of 1935, when the economy was struggling through the Depression. (investopedia.com)
  • Unemployment carries many costs, both obvious and hidden, for an economy. (investopedia.com)

percentage


  • April 1, 2016 The 0.1 percentage-point rise in unemployment was driven by some good news: More people who have been out of work started looking for a job again. (npr.org)
  • Unemployment data are expressed in both a numerical value and as a percentage of the labor force. (cmegroup.com)
  • An increase in government spending of 1 percent of GDP generates output and unemployment multipliers respectively of about 1.2 per cent (at one year) and 0.6 percentage points (at the peak). (nber.org)

inflation


  • During stagflation, unemployment climbs back up at the same time inflation increases. (investopedia.com)

differences


  • Trends in unemployment and statistical differences among groups in the population are studied for what they may reveal of general economic trends and as bases for possible governmental action. (britannica.com)

actively


  • Unemployment , the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work , but unable to find any work. (britannica.com)

search


  • A standard neoclassical model augmented with search and matching frictions in the labor market largely fails in reproducing the size of the output multiplier whereas it can produce a realistic unemployment multiplier but only under a special parameterization. (nber.org)

jobs


  • These jobs have low unemployment rates and high demand - both now and likely in the future. (investopedia.com)

percent


  • Unemployment is at 5 percent, but depending on where you live, your race or your education level, you still might not find work. (npr.org)

benefits


  • If you lose your job, be sure to apply for unemployment benefits. (investopedia.com)
  • Extending the model to strengthen the complementarity in preferences, to include unemployment benefits, real wage rigidity and/or debt financing with distortionary taxation only worsens the picture. (nber.org)
  • The number of Americans filing new claims for unemployment benefits dipped more than expected last week, pointing to strengthening labor market conditions. (cnbc.com)
  • Initial claims for state unemployment benefits slipped 6,000 to a seasonally adjusted 312,000 for the week ended June 14, the Labor Department said on Thursday. (cnbc.com)

include


  • Important contributors to the theory of natural unemployment include Milton Friedman, Edmund Phelps and F.A. Hayek, all Nobel winners. (investopedia.com)

means


  • A look at the demographics of unemployment, and what that means for workers around the nation. (investopedia.com)

data


  • Unemployment data are closely monitored by the financial markets. (cmegroup.com)
  • A snag to understanding German unemployment data comes from the fact that there are several measures of unemployment available. (cmegroup.com)

labor market


  • According to the general equilibrium model of economics, natural unemployment is equal to the level of unemployment of a labor market at perfect equilibrium. (investopedia.com)

Find


  • Unemployment compensation is meant to provide a source of income for jobless workers until they can find employment. (investopedia.com)

provides


  • Unemployment compensation provides partial income replacement only for a defined length of time or until the worker finds employment, whichever comes first. (investopedia.com)

economic


  • Statistics on unemployment are collected and analyzed by government labour offices in most countries and have come to be considered a chief indicator of economic health. (britannica.com)

system


  • The U.S. unemployment compensation system is jointly managed by the federal and state governments and financed through payroll taxes on employers in most states. (investopedia.com)
  • It can also be defined as the minimum level of calculable unemployment in the Walrasian system of general equilibrium, after accounting for labor and commodity movements, market imperfections, stochastic variability and other supply and demand considerations built into the model. (investopedia.com)
  • Like most of the rest of Europe, Germany in the 1990s confronted increased global competition, the increasing costs of its elaborate social welfare system, and stubborn unemployment, especially in its traditional industrial sector. (britannica.com)

rates


  • Unemployment rates calculated by the Bundesbank are preferred but some German analysts check the unadjusted rates as well. (cmegroup.com)

full employment


  • Because varying levels of unemployment are a major reason why expenditures may change without comparable change in the public sector output, the concept of a full-employment budget has emerged. (britannica.com)

likely


  • Any other unemployment is considered institutional, involuntary and likely based on poor policy. (investopedia.com)