Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia: Abnormally slow pace of regaining CONSCIOUSNESS after general anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, GENERAL) usually given during surgical procedures. This condition is characterized by persistent somnolence.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Stream of unconsciousness (narrative mode): In literary criticism, stream of unconsciousness is a narrative mode that portrays an individual's point of view by transcribing the author's unconscious dialogue or somniloquy during sleep, in connection to his or her actions within a dream."Episode 5: Recent Sleep Works.Qualia: In philosophy, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term "qualia" derives from the Latin neuter plural form (qualia) of the Latin adjective quālis () meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind").Propofol infusion syndrome: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. It can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, and is often fatal.Cranio-corpography: Cranio-Corpo-Graphy (CCG) is a medical investigation and measurement procedure developed in 1968 by German neurootologist Claus-Frenz Claussen. It documents and evaluates disorders of the equilibrium function measured by investigation procedures such as the Unterberger test, the LOLAVHESLIT test, the NEFERT test, the Romberg's test and the WOFEC test.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Anesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.PhysostigmineAuditory event: Auditory events describe the subjective perception, when listening to a certain sound situation. This term was introduced by Jens Blauert (Ruhr-University Bochum) in 1966, in order to distinguish clearly between the physical sound field and the auditory perception of the sound.Inhalational anaesthetic: An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation. They are administered by anaesthetists (a term which includes anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, and anaesthesiologist assistants) through an anaesthesia mask, laryngeal mask airway or tracheal tube connected to an anaesthetic vaporiser and an anaesthetic delivery system.Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.ElectrooculographyConditional quantum entropy: The conditional quantum entropy is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a generalization of the conditional entropy of classical information theory.
(1/281) Aphasic disorder in patients with closed head injury.
Quantitative assessment of 50 patients with closed head injury disclosed that anomic errors and word finding difficulty were prominent sequelae as nearly half of the series had defective scores on tests of naming and/or word association. Aphasic disturbance was associated with severity of brain injury as reflected by prolonged coma and injury of the brain stem. (+info)
(2/281) Stroke units in their natural habitat: can results of randomized trials be reproduced in routine clinical practice? Riks-Stroke Collaboration.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of acute stroke care have shown care in stroke units (SUs) to be superior to that in conventional general medical, neurological, or geriatric wards, with reductions in early case fatality, functional outcome, and the need for long-term institutionalization. This study examined whether these results can be reproduced in clinical practice. METHODS: A multicenter observational study of procedures and outcomes in acute stroke patients admitted to designated SUs or general medical or neurological wards (GWs), the study included patients of all ages with acute stroke excluding those with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who were entered into the Riks-Stroke (Swedish national quality assessment) database during 1996 (14 308 patients in 80 hospitals). RESULTS: Patients admitted to SUs who had lived independently and who were fully conscious on admission to the hospital had a lower case fatality than those cared for in GWs (relative risk [RR] for death, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.96) and at 3 months (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98). A greater proportion of patients cared for in an SU could be discharged home (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.10), and fewer were in long-term institutional care 3 months after the stroke (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.99). No difference was seen in outcome in patients cared for in SUs or GWs if they had impaired consciousness on admission. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in outcomes after stroke care in SUs compared with care in GWs can be reproduced in the routine clinical setting, but the magnitude of the benefit appears smaller than that reported from meta-analyses. (+info)
(3/281) Cerebral malaria versus bacterial meningitis in children with impaired consciousness.
Cerebral malaria (CM) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the two common causes of impaired consciousness in children presenting to hospital in sub-Sahara Africa. Since the clinical features of the two diseases may be very similar, treatment is often guided by the initial laboratory findings. However, no detailed studies have examined the extent to which the laboratory findings in these two diseases may overlap. We reviewed data from 555 children with impaired consciousness admitted to Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Strictly defined groups were established based on the malaria slide, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leucocyte count and the results of blood and CSF culture and CSF bacterial antigen testing. Our data suggests significant overlap in the initial CSF findings between CM and ABM. The absolute minimum proportions of children with impaired consciousness and malaria parasitaemia who also had definite bacterial meningitis were 4% of all children and 14% of children under 1 year of age. The estimated maximum proportion of all children with impaired consciousness and malaria parasitaemia in whom the diagnosis was dual or unclear was at least 13%. The finding of malaria parasites in the blood of an unconscious child in sub-Saharan Africa is not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of cerebral malaria, and acute bacterial meningitis must be actively excluded in all cases. (+info)
(4/281) Sophisticated hospital information system/radiology information system/picture archiving and communications system (PACS) integration in a large-scale traumatology PACS.
Picture archiving and communications system (PACS) in the context of an outpatient trauma care center asks for a high level of interaction between information systems to guarantee rapid image acquisition and distribution to the surgeon. During installation of the Innsbruck PACS, special aspects of traumatology had to be realized, such as imaging of unconscious patients without identification, and transferred to the electronic environment. Even with up-to-date PACS hardware and software, special solutions had to be developed in-house to tailor the PACS/hospital information system (HIS)/radiology information system (RIS) interface to the needs of radiologic and clinical users. An ongoing workflow evaluation is needed to realize the needs of radiologists and clinicians. These needs have to be realized within a commercially available PACS, whereby full integration of information systems may sometimes only be achieved by special in-house solutions. (+info)
(5/281) Risk factors for spread of primary adult onset blepharospasm: a multicentre investigation of the Italian movement disorders study group.
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about factors influencing the spread of blepharospasm to other body parts. An investigation was carried out to deterrmine whether demographic features (sex, age at blepharospasm onset), putative risk, or protective factors for blepharospasm (family history of dystonia or tremor, previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, ocular diseases, and cigarette smoking), age related diseases (diabetes, hypertension), edentulousness, and neck or trunk trauma preceding the onset of blepharospasm could distinguish patients with blepharospasm who had spread of dystonia from those who did not. METHODS: 159 outpatients presenting initially with blepharospasm were selected in 16 Italian Institutions. There were 104 patients with focal blepharospasm (mean duration of disease 5.3 (SD 1.9) years) and 55 patients in whom segmental or multifocal dystonia developed (mainly in the cranial cervical area) 1.5 (1.2) years after the onset of blepharospasm. Information was obtained from a standardised questionnaire administered by medical interviewers. A Cox regression model was used to examine the relation between the investigated variables and spread. RESULTS: Previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, age at the onset of blepharospasm, and female sex were independently associated with an increased risk of spread. A significant association was not found between spread of dystonia and previous ocular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, edentulousness, cigarette smoking, and family history of dystonia or tremor. An unsatisfactory study power negatively influenced the validity and accuracy of the negative findings relative to diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study confirm that patients presenting initially with blepharospasm are most likely to experience some spread of dystonia within a few years of the onset of blepharospasm and suggest that head or face trauma with loss of consciousness preceding the onset, age at onset, and female sex may be relevant to spread. The suggested association between edentulousness and cranial cervical dystonia may be apparent because of the confounding effect of both age at onset and head or face trauma with loss of consciousness. The lack of influence of family history of dystonia on spread is consistent with previous findings indicating that the inheritance pattern is the same for focal and segmental blepharospasm. (+info)
(6/281) Initial loss of consciousness and risk of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major cause of death and disability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We studied the prognostic value for DCI of 2 factors: the duration of unconsciousness after the hemorrhage and the presence of risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: In 125 consecutive patients admitted within 4 days after hemorrhage, we assessed the presence and duration of unconsciousness after the hemorrhage, the neurological condition on admission, the amount of subarachnoid blood, the size of the ventricles, and a history of smoking, hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The relationship between these variables and the development of DCI was analyzed by means of the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The univariate hazard ratio (HR) for the development of DCI in patients who had lost consciousness for >1 hour was 6.0 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.0) compared with patients who had no loss or a <1-hour loss of consciousness. The presence of any risk factor for atherosclerosis yielded an HR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 3.5). The HR for unconsciousness remained essentially the same after adjustment for other risk factors for DCI. The HR for a poor World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score (grade IV or V) on admission was 2.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 5. 5); that for a large amount of subarachnoid blood on CT was 3.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 7.3). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of unconsciousness after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a strong predictor for the occurrence of DCI. This observation may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of DCI and increased attention for patients at risk. (+info)
(7/281) Public understanding of medical terminology: non-English speakers may not receive optimal care.
INTRODUCTION: Many systems of telephone triage are being developed (including NHS Direct, general practitioner out of hours centres, ambulance services). These rely on the ability to determine key facts from the caller. Level of consciousness is an important indicator after head injury but also an indicator of severe illness. AIMS: To determine the general public's understanding of the term unconscious. METHODS: A total of 700 people were asked one of seven questions relating to their understanding of the term unconscious. All participants were adults who could speak sufficient English to give a history to a nurse. RESULTS: Correct understanding of the term unconscious varied from 46.5% to 87.0% for varying parameters. Those with English as their first language had a better understanding (p<0.01) and there was a significant variation with ethnicity (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding of the term unconscious is poor and worse in those for whom English is not a first language. Decision making should not rely on the interpretation of questions using technical terms such as unconscious, which may have a different meaning between professional and lay people. (+info)
(8/281) Complications from regional anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy.
The complications of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under cervical plexus blockade have yet to be fully evaluated. Two different cases are presented; both patients suffered sudden collapse following superficial and deep cervical plexus block in preparation for CEA. The causes, presenting signs and differential diagnoses are discussed. The safest cervical plexus anaesthetic block technique has not yet been established. (+info)