Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.

*  The antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine inhibits DNA repair and sensitizes non-small cell lung carcinoma cells to DNA double...

Tumor Stem Cell Assay National Category Medical and Health Sciences Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-15056DOI: 10.1158/1535 ... Cell Death/drug effects, Cell Line; Tumor, DNA Breaks; Double-Stranded/*drug effects, DNA Repair/*drug effects, Drug Synergism ... The antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine inhibits DNA repair and sensitizes non-small cell lung carcinoma cells to DNA double- ... repair pathway in mammalian cells. By using a clonogenic survival assay, we show here that concomitant administration of ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... Neuroscience, Issue 87, Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs), Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), Neural ... colon tumor cells digestion into single cells, embedding colon tumor cells into matrigel, and selective culture based on the ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Developmental Biology, Issue 56, CD133, liver stem cell, oval cell, liver cancer stem cell, stem cell, cell isolation, non- ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Stem Cell Biology, Issue 89, Pluripotent stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cell culture, ... Embryonic Stem Cells, ESCs, ES Cells, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, HSC, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, ... Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells, ESCs, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, iPSC, neural differentiation, ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... Cancer Biology, Issue 67, Stem Cell Biology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, BTIC (brain tumor initiating cells ... we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells ... imaging of T-cell interaction with tumor cells and tumor cells migration along the collagen IV of basement membrane. Taken ...

*  Identification and localization of KIAA1114 with a nove | Open-i

KIAA1114, a full-length protein encoded by the trophinin gene, is a novel surface marker for isolating tumor-initiating cells ... Tubulin was used as an internal control for Western blot assay. Mentions: The nomenclature for a full-length protein encoded by ... KIAA1114, a full-length protein encoded by the trophinin gene, is a novel surface marker for isolating tumor-initiating cells ... Identification of novel biomarkers for tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is of critical importance for developing diagnostic and ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... Cancer Biology, Issue 67, Stem Cell Biology, Medicine, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, BTIC (brain tumor initiating cells ... However, using HIV-1 infected primary T-cells as target cells in NK cell functional assays has been difficult due the presence ...

*  Predicting Tumor Responses to Mitomycin C on the Basis of DT-Diaphorase Activity or Drug Metabolism by Tumor Homogenates:...

Selby P. J., Buick R. N., Tannock I. A critical appraisal of the human tumor stem cell assay. N. Engl. J. Med., 308: 129-134, ... Tumor homogenates were washed twice with PBS, passed through sieves (200-50 μm), and viable tumor cells were counted. The assay ... Hamburger A. W., Salmon S. E. Primary bioassay of human tumor stem cells. Science (Washington DC), 197: 461-463, 1977. ... to DTD activity measurements were also tested for their response to MMC treatment in the tumor stem cell/clonogenic assay in ...

*  Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Monoclonal Antibody 1G8 Induces Cell Death In vitro and Inhibits Tumor Growth In vivo via a Fc...

Cell Killing Assays. LNCaP-PSCA cells (1.5 × 105-4 × 105) were cultured in triplicate in six-well plates in RPMI 1640 ... Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Monoclonal Antibody 1G8 Induces Cell Death In vitro and Inhibits Tumor Growth In vivo via a Fc- ... Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Monoclonal Antibody 1G8 Induces Cell Death In vitro and Inhibits Tumor Growth In vivo via a Fc- ... Anti-Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Monoclonal Antibody 1G8 Induces Cell Death In vitro and Inhibits Tumor Growth In vivo via a Fc- ...

*  In Vivo Programming of Tumor Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells to Promote Cancer Immunosurveillance |...

D, in vivo proliferation/cytotoxicity assay. CFSEhi (right peaks) and CFSElo (left peaks) target cells were pulsed with OVA257- ... ACT and tumor challenge. A total of 3 × 106 GFP+ DsRed+ iPS cells or bone marrow-derived CD117+ Lin− hematopoietic stem cells ( ... G7 tumor cells. A, Ag-specific T-cell persistence. Seven weeks post tumor challenge or 13 weeks without tumor challenge, CD8+ V ... tumor tissues were examined for tumor-reactive T-cell infiltration. A, H&E staining. Inflammatory cells infiltrated in tumor ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Processing of Primary Brain Tumor Tissue for Stem Cell Assays and Flow Sorting ... Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), ... Stem Cell Biology, Issue 91, Induced pluripotent stem cells; reprogramming; intermediates; fluorescent activated cells sorting ... Cell Alignment, Heart Progenitors, in vitro Differentiation, Transgenic Mice, Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, stem cells, ...

*  Systems and Network Pharmacology Approaches to Cancer Stem Cells Research and Therapy | OMICS International

... is increasingly being accepted as a model to explain for the functional heterogeneity that is commonly observed in solid tumors ... Park CH, Bergsagel DE, McCulloch EA (1971) Mouse myeloma tumor stem cells: a primary cell culture assay. J Natl Cancer Inst 46 ... Cell Stem Cell 10: 556-569.. *Jordan CT (2009) Cancer stem cells: controversial or just misunderstood? Cell Stem Cell 4: 203- ... Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived from a non-pluripotent cell by ...

*  Cancers | Free Full-Text | Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells | HTML

... mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells ... which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, ... highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells ( ... and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors ...

*  List of MeSH codes (E05) - Wikipedia

... colony-forming units assay MeSH E05.200.500.383.910 --- tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.385 --- cytogenetic analysis ... tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.337.550.200.900 --- xenograft model antitumor assays MeSH E05.337.550.200.900.830 --- subrenal ... drug screening assays, antitumor MeSH E05.200.500.388.930 --- tumor stem cell assay MeSH E05.200.500.410 --- electroporation ... cell fractionation MeSH E05.200.500.307 --- cell fusion MeSH E05.200.500.363 --- cell separation MeSH E05.200.500.363.285 --- ...

*  Hypoxia and lineage specification of cell line-derived colorectal cancer stem cells. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences

In summary, hypoxia maintains the stem-like phenotype of colorectal cell line-derived CSCs and prevents differentiation of ... suggesting that enterocytes and goblet cells form from different progenitor cells. Notch inhibition by dibenzazepine (DBZ) ... Colorectal CSCs from SW1222, LS180, and CCK81 colorectal cancer-derived cell lines are able to differentiate into complex 3D ... The hypoxic phenotype is reversible, because cells from hypoxic-dense colonies are able to reform differentiated structures ...

*  Human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow express tumor endothelial and stromal markers

MSC can form networks in a tube formation assay that is inhibited by an anti-endosialin antibody. Immunohistochemistry for ... have been implicated in promoting tumor development and have been associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Since stem/ ... Human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow express tumor endothelial and stromal markers. *Authors: *Rebecca G. Bagley ... Tumor development is a complex and dynamic process that involves malignant, vascular, and stromal cells. Endosialin is a tumor ...

*  MYC Activates Stem-like Cell Potential in Hepatocarcinoma by a p53-Dependent Mechanism | Cancer Research

Sphere-forming assay. Tumor cells (5 × 102 for PLC, Huh7, and HepG2 and 1 × 103 for Hep3B) were plated in ultra-low attachment ... Module map of stem cell genes guides creation of epithelial cancer stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 2008;2:333-44. ... Tumor and Stem Cell Biology MYC Activates Stem-like Cell Potential in Hepatocarcinoma by a p53-Dependent Mechanism. Hirofumi ... The tumor suppressor p53 regulates polarity of self-renewing divisions in mammary stem cells. Cell 2009;138:1083-95. ...

*  05th week of 2012 patent applcation highlights part 41

These xenograft assay have allowed us to do biological and molecular assays to characterize clonogenic solid tumor stem cells. ... These solid tumor stem cells give rise both to more tumor stem cells and to the majority of cells in the tumor that have lost ... Thus, solid tumor heterogeneity reflects the presence of tumor cell progeny arising from a solid tumor stem cell. We have ... CELLS - A small percentage of cells within an established solid tumor have the properties of stem cells. ...

*  Pilot and Feasibility Study of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Transfer for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome - Full Text View -...

... a sensitive in vitro transformation assay, 2) toxicity studies in transduced human CD34+ cells, 3) examination of the ... Safety including cellular toxicity, insertional mutagenesis and tumor formation has been studied by a number of methods ... Pilot and Feasibility Study of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Transfer for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. This study is ongoing, ... Two procedures: 1) Bone marrow harvest from the patient's posterior iliac crests or collection of peripheral blood stem cells ...

*  Lung Cancer Stem Cell: New Insights on Experimental Models and Preclinical Data

... tumors combining marker studies and functional assays. Lung CSCs probably include a heterogeneous population of cells with ... The stem cell niche represents the microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate stem cell self-renewal and ... Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory refers to a subpopulation of cancer cells, also named tumor-initiating cells, that can drive ... Distinct populations of cancer stem cells determine tumor growth and metastatic activity in human pancreatic cancer. Cell Stem ...

*  Subventricular zone - Wikipedia

found that brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) are stem cells that can be isolated from brain tumors by similar assays used for ... While it remains to be definitely proven whether the SVZ stem cells are the cell of origin for brain tumors such as gliomas, ... Brain Ventricular zone Neuroscience Neurogenesis Stem cell Neural stem cell Cellular differentiation Cerebral cortex Popp A, ... In addition, some current theories propose that the SVZ may also serve as a site of proliferation for brain tumor stem cells ( ...

*  Are all Glioma Cells Cancer Stem Cells? | OMICS International

The cancer stem cell theory proposes that there is a small but constant subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties ... 2008) found by means of a tumor sphere culture system and a single-cell subsphere generation assay that the majority C6 cells ... stem cell, stem-like cell or non- GSC that mutated and acquired stem cell properties by reactivating latent stem cell program ( ... Cell Stem Cell 6: 141-152.. *Charles NA, Holland EC (2010) TRRAP and the maintenance of stemness in gliomas. Cell Stem Cell 6: ...

*  Aspirin attenuates angiotensin II‑induced inflammation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the inhibition of ERK1/2 and...

... reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that aspirin inhibits the Ang II-induced expression of tumor ... Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are a type of multipotent stem cells that are derived from the adult bone marrow ... BmMSCs are the most promising source of stem cells for cell transplantation therapy and have been widely used in tissue ... induces inflammation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs). (A,B) The ELISA demonstrated the levels of tumor necrosis ...

*  Subfractionation of Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cell Populations Allows the Isolation of a Mesodermal Population...

Stem Cells. 2009;27:2446-2456. [PubMed]. 43. Schopperle WM. Kershaw DB. DeWolf WC. Human embryonal carcinoma tumor antigen, ... and WT1 when compared with unfractionated human ES cells. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed that a subset of cells within ... Zhang W. International Stem Cell Initiative. Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell ... Derivation of insulin-producing cells from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2009;3:73-87. [PubMed] ...

Stem cell theory of aging: The stem cell theory of aging is a new theory which was formulated by several scientists and which postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age.Renal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Myeloid: The term myeloid (myelogenous) is an adjective that can refer to a progenitor cell for granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets. Myeloid can be distinguished from the lymphoid progenitor cells that give rise to B cells and T cells.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Giant-cell glioblastoma: The giant-cell glioblastoma is a histological variant of glioblastoma, presenting a prevalence of bizarre, multinucleated (more than 20 nuclei) giant (up to 400 μm diameter) cells.Human embryonic stem cells clinical trials: ==Human Embryonic Stem Cell Clinical Trials==Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.SEA Native Peptide LigationCD36 antigen: CD36 antigen is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated, glycoprotein expressed by monocytes, macrophages, platelets, microvascular endothelial cells and adipose tissues. CD36 recognises oxidized low density lipoprotein, long chain fatty acids, anionic phospholipids, collagen types I, IV and V, thrombospondin and Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Pluripotency (biological compounds): The pluripotency of biological compounds describes the ability of certain substances to produce several distinct biological responses. Pluripotent is also described as something that has no fixed developmental potential, as in being able to differentiate into different cell types in the case of pluripotent stem cells.Hematopoietic stem cell transplantationNude mouseAntileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Gliogenesis: Gliogenesis is the generation of non-neuronal glia populations derived from multipotent neural stem cells.Stemgent: Stemgent is an American privately funded biotech company focused on providing reagents and technology developed by some of the world's leading stem cell scientists. Founded in 2008, Stemgent has two fully operational facilities in both San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==SB-431542Ancestim

(1/1173) Combination interferon-alpha2a and 13-cis-retinoic acid enhances radiosensitization of human malignant glioma cells in vitro.

We investigated the individual and combined effects of cis-retinoic acid (CRA) and/or IFN-alpha (IFN) and/or radiation therapy (RT) against a human glioma cell line (American Type Culture Collection; U373MG) to evaluate the possible radiosensitization properties of these agents in vitro. Glioma cells were incubated for 24 h in 96-well plates (2 x 10(2) cells/well) in standard culture medium. Sets of U373 (n = 12) were exposed to CRA (3 x 10(6) microM), IFN (25 units/ml), CRA plus IFN, or standard culture medium. After an additional 24 h of incubation, the U373 cells were subjected to increasing radiation doses (up to 16 Gy). Glioma cells were harvested 92 h after irradiation, and cell survival curves were determined from [3H]thymidine incorporation data (over the last 24 h). The experiment was repeated for both the untreated control group and the combined CRA/IFN group. To verify the [3H]thymidine assays, a clonogenic assay was also performed. Single cell suspensions of U373 cells were plated out in six-well plates (n = 3). After chemical and RT treatment, colonies of 50 cells or more were counted, and cell survival curves were generated as fractions of nonirradiated controls. The amount of RT (in Gy) that would cause a 50% survival fraction (lethal dose 50 or LD50) was calculated from the survival curves by regression analysis. The following LD50s were obtained: [table: see text] The results showed that for both the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and the clonogenic assay, the combination of IFN/CRA rendered U373 cells more susceptible to ionizing radiation than the untreated control or either single agent alone.  (+info)

(2/1173) Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide.

Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

(3/1173) RSR13, an allosteric effector of haemoglobin, and carbogen radiosensitize FSAII and SCCVII tumours in C3H mice.

Pre-clinical evaluation has demonstrated that 2-[4-(((3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl)methyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropi onic acid (RSR13) acts as an allosteric effector of haemoglobin (Hb). RSR13 binding to Hb results in decreased haemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity, improved tumour oxygenation, and enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in several experimental tumour systems. In the present work, ex vivo clonogenic survival analyses are applied in two murine tumour systems to characterize the relationship between the magnitude of decrease in Hb-O2 affinity and radiosensitization, the influence of inspired pO2 upon this effect, and the efficacy of combining RSR13 and radiation during a course of repeated radiation exposures. For FSaII tumours in C3H mice breathing air, 100 mg kg(-1) RSR13 administered intraperitoneally produced an enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.3, but there was marked desensitization at a RSR13 dose of 300 mg kg(-1) (ER 0.6). The most likely reason for the increased radioresistance was insufficient oxygen loading of Hb in the pulmonary circulation due to reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity because carbogen breathing combined with 300 mg kg(-1) RSR13 reversed the effect and produced an ER of 1.8. In SCCVII tumours in C3H mice irradiated with eight fractions of 2.5 Gy over 4 days, the surviving fraction was reduced to 58-67% of control values when RSR13 was combined with radiation on days 1 and 2, days 3 and 4, or days 1-4. These results confirm that combining RSR13 and irradiation within a fractionated course of clinically relevant low-dose exposures provides significant radiosensitization. Additional preclinical experimentation is needed to define better the optimum dose-scheduling conditions for clinical applications.  (+info)

(4/1173) Cyclin D1 overexpression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in a breast tumor cell line.

Overexpression of cyclin D1, a G1 cell cycle regulator, is often found in many different tumor types, such as breast carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The overexpression of this protein is, in several cases, associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, the effect of cyclin D1 on radiosensitivity was investigated in a breast tumor cell line, MCF7, containing a cyclin D1 gene construct under the control of a tetracycline-sensitive regulator. MCF7 cells cultured without tetracycline resulted in a 6-fold increase in the cyclin D1 protein. Cyclin D1-overexpressing MCF7 cells were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the nonoverexpressing counterparts. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells also exhibited a higher induction of apoptosis. Treatment with a dose of 5 Gy resulted in a rapid increase of p53 and p21 in the cyclin D1-overexpressing cells. Nonoverexpressing cells showed a more transient expression of these proteins after ionizing radiation. A pronounced G2-M block was observed in both cell lines. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells were, however, released earlier from the block than the control cells. These data suggest that overexpression of cyclin D1 alters sensitivity toward ionizing radiation by modulating gamma-radiation-induced G2-M transition.  (+info)

(5/1173) Malignant transformation of p53-deficient astrocytes is modulated by environmental cues in vitro.

The early incidence of p53 mutation in astrocytomas suggests that it plays an important role in astrocyte transformation. Astrocytes isolated from homozygous p53 knockout mice grow rapidly, lack contact inhibition, and are immortal. Here we tested whether the loss of p53 is sufficient for progression to tumorigenicity of astrocytes. We grew primary astrocytes under three conditions for over 120 population doublings and assessed their antigenic phenotype, chromosome number, and expression of glioma-associated genes as well as their ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors s.c. and intracranially in nude mice. Under two conditions (10% FCS and 0.5% FCS plus 20 ng/ml EGF), cells acquired the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors in nude mice, and this was accompanied by the expression of genes, including epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta, protein kinase Cdelta, and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are known to be aberrantly regulated in human astrocytomas. Under the third condition (0.5% FCS plus 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor), astrocytes gained the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and had abnormal chromosome numbers similar to cells in the first two conditions but did not form tumors in nude mice or overexpress glioma-associated genes. These data provide experimental evidence for the idea that the malignant progression initiated by the loss of p53 may be subject to modulation by extracellular environmental influences.  (+info)

(6/1173) In vitro radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts derived from head and neck carcinomas: mutual relationship and correlation with clinical data.

The aim was to characterize the variation in the cellular in vitro radiosensitivities in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and to test for a possible correlation between different measures of radiosensitivity and the clinical and histopathological data. Cellular in vitro radiosensitivities were assessed in tumour biopsies from 71 patients using the modified Courtenay-Mills soft agar clonogenic assay combined with an immunocytochemical analysis. Radiosensitivity was quantified as the surviving fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy irrespective of cell type (overall SF2), or based on identification of cell type (tumour cell SF2, fibroblast SF2). Sixty-three biopsies were from primary tumours, and eight were from recurrences. Overall plating efficiency ranged from 0.005 to 1.60% with a median of 0.052%. The majority of the colonies obtained from the biopsies were fibroblast marker-positive; the proportion of tumour marker-positive colonies ranged from 1 to 88% with a median of 15%. The median overall SF2 was 0.47 (range 0.24-0.96), the median tumour cell SF2 was 0.50 (range 0.11-1.0) and the median fibroblast SF2 was 0.49 (range 0.24-1.0). Comparing data from independent experiments, the overall SF2 was significantly correlated with the SF2 of fibroblasts (2P = 0.006) but not with the tumour cell SF2. The tumour cell and fibroblast radiosensitivities measured in the same individuals were not correlated (r= 0.06, 95% CI [-0.19, 0.30]):This finding seems to preclude a strong correlation between the radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts. Concerning the clinical characteristics, neither of the measures of tumour radiosensitivity was correlated with T- and N-category, stage, tumour size, sex and age. However, the tumour cell radiosensitivity decreased with increasing grade of histopathological differentiation (2P = 0.012). The same tendency was found in two independent analyses of the same patient material. This correlation was not significant in case of the overall SF2 or the fibroblast SF2.  (+info)

(7/1173) Up-regulation of E-cadherin by an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in lung cancer cell lines.

Many human epithelial carcinomas are characterized by the overexpression and constitutive activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) via an autocrine signaling loop. We have investigated the effects of a ligand-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the EGF-R LA1 on selected parameters of human lung cancer cell lines (H322 and H661) and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Using Western blot analysis, we show that H322 and NHBE cell lines express comparable levels of EGF-R/p170erbB-1. The LA1 mAb against EGF-R inhibits growth, induces differentiation to a more epithelial phenotype, reduces the constitutive activation of EGF-R, and upregulates epithelial cadherin glycoprotein expression in H322 and NHBE cells. In contrast, LA1 had no effect on either growth, differentiation, receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, or the expression of adhesion molecules in H661 cells, which is consistent with our finding that this cell line does not express detectable levels of EGF-R. These studies demonstrate that a blocking anti-EGF-R mAb can regulate proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in human bronchial epithelial cells. Our findings suggest possible therapeutic avenues for the treatment of invasive carcinomas via the blockade of EGF-R with antibodies.  (+info)

(8/1173) Influence of O6-benzylguanine on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea in mice.

Previous studies have demonstrated that novel molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (CNU) have good preclinical activity and may exert less myelotoxicity than the clinically used nitrosoureas such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). This study examined the effect of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) depletion by the pseudosubstrate O6-benzylguanine (BG) on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity in mice of three such molecular combinations, in comparison with BCNU. When used as single agents at their maximum tolerated dose, all three novel compounds produced a significant growth retardation of BCNU-resistant murine colon and human breast xenografts. This in vivo anti-tumour effect was potentiated by BG, but was accompanied by severe myelotoxicity as judged by spleen colony forming assays. However, while tumour resistance to BCNU was overcome using BG, this was at the expense of enhanced bone marrow, gut and liver toxicity. Therefore, although this ATase-depletion approach resulted in improved anti-tumour activity for all three 5-FU:CNU molecular combinations, the potentiated toxicities in already dose-limiting tissues indicate that these types of agents offer no therapeutic advantage over BCNU when they are used together with BG.  (+info)

solid tumors

  • However, this fundamental concept has yet to be established for solid tumors including breast cancer. (jove.com)
  • The growth and progression of most solid tumors depend on the initial transformation of the cancer cells and their response to stroma-associated signaling in the tumor microenvironment 1 . (jove.com)
  • Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas 12 . (jove.com)
  • The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis is increasingly being accepted as a model to explain for the functional heterogeneity that is commonly observed in solid tumors. (omicsonline.org)
  • CSCs have been shown to exist in a variety of solid tumors especially those with known resistant phenotypes such as breast , prostate and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). (omicsonline.org)
  • This low in vivo and in vitro clonogenic potential of tumor cells was subsequently observed for cells isolated from human solid tumors and led to the proposal that the entire population of cells present in a certain tumor might be derived from a few cells which were defined as "tumor stem cells" [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Over the last decade, compelling evidence emerged in support of a cancer stem cell (CSC) origin in many solid tumors including hepatic cancers. (aacrjournals.org)


  • The spheres could be passaged more than 20 times without exhaustion under this condition, exhibited a property of differentiation and formed tumors in vivo. (jove.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer great promise in regenerative medicine and disease modeling due to their unlimited self-renewal and broad differentiation capacity. (jove.com)
  • ZFX-overexpressing hESCs resisted spontaneous differentiation but could be directed to differentiate into endodermal and neural cell fates when provided with the appropriate cues. (jove.com)
  • Conventional approaches rely on multi-lineage inclination of pluripotent cells through spontaneous germ layer differentiation, resulting in inefficient and uncontrollable lineage-commitment that is often followed by phenotypic heterogeneity and instability, hence, a high risk of tumorigenicity 7-10 . (jove.com)
  • In addition, undefined foreign/animal biological supplements and/or feeders that have typically been used for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of hESCs may make direct use of such cell-specialized grafts in patients problematic 11-13 . (jove.com)
  • These forces are biomechanical consequences of tumor growth that lead to changes in gene expression, cell division, differentiation and invasion 3 . (jove.com)
  • The estimated interstitial fluid flow velocities were measured and found to be in the range of 0.1-3 μm s -1 , depending on tumor size and differentiation 9, 11 . (jove.com)
  • After their adoptive transfer into recipient mice, the majority of OT-I/iPS cells underwent differentiation into CD8 + CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown successful T-cell development from pluripotent stem cells ( 8, 9 ), and we have shown T lineage differentiation from iPS cells ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hypoxia is an important regulator of normal and cancer stem cell (CSC) differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Colorectal CSCs from SW1222, LS180, and CCK81 colorectal cancer-derived cell lines are able to differentiate into complex 3D lumen-containing structures in normoxia, whereas in hypoxia, they form undifferentiated dense colonies that have reduced expression of the enterocyte differentiation marker CDX1, lack goblet cell formation, and have increased expression of BMI1 and activated Notch1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In summary, hypoxia maintains the stem-like phenotype of colorectal cell line-derived CSCs and prevents differentiation of enterocytes and goblet cells by regulating CDX1 and Notch1, suggesting that this regulation is an important component of how hypoxia controls the switch between stemness and differentiation in CSCs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Endosialin expression by both CAF and MSC further implies the potential contribution of MSC to tumor stroma via differentiation into tumor stromal fibroblasts. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • While the function of this layer is yet unknown in humans, it has been hypothesized that the astrocytic and ependymal interconnections of Layer I and II may act to regulate neuronal functions, establish metabolic homeostasis, and/or control neuronal stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different tumor subtypes, cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative and differentiation capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, presentation of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to the corresponding receptors, and docking of proteases at the cell membrane, as well as in signaling for cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • AggreWell plates enable the generation of uniformly sized embryoid bodies for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ES-Cult reagents support the maintenance and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSCs are stimulated to begin differentiation via exogenous cues from the microenvironment, or stem cell niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also present are growth factors like TGF-beta and EGF that prevent differentiation and promote proliferation of many cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used undiluted, Matrigel promotes stem cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)


  • Furthermore, subcutaneous tumors derived from tumorspheres of primary tumors showed bone marrow metastasis. (jove.com)
  • There was an association between metastasis status and a high prevalence of certain markers including CD44(+)/CD24(-/low), ESA(+), CD133(+), CXCR4(+) and PROCR(+) in primary tumor cells. (jove.com)
  • We have reported previously that anti-PSCA monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1G8 inhibits tumor growth, prevents metastasis, and prolongs the survival of mice inoculated with human prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DCs pulsed with ALDH high CSC lysates induced significantly higher protective antitumor immunity than DCs pulsed with the lysates of unsorted whole tumor cell lysates in both models and in a lung metastasis setting and a s.c. tumor growth setting, respectively. (jove.com)
  • Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative splicing is the basis for the structural and functional diversity of this protein, and may be related to tumor metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splice variants of CD44 on colon cancer cells display sialofucosylated HCELL glycoforms that serve as P-, L-, and E-selectin ligands and fibrin, but not fibrinogen, receptors under hemodynamic flow conditions pertinent to the process of cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This migratory behavior is studied by researchers as a model of tumor cell metastasis. (wikipedia.org)


  • Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), possess an ability to differentiate along multiple lineages, self-renew, and initiate tumors in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Restoring VEZT expression in MKN-45 and NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells inhibited growth, invasion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. (jove.com)
  • DTD levels were measured in 45 human tumor xenografts that had been characterized previously in terms of their sensitivity to MMC in vitro and in vivo (the in vivo response profile to MMC was taken from work published previously). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results were confirmed in in vivo models in which both 1G8 and F(ab′) 2 fragments were able to inhibit prostate tumor formation and growth equally. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the anti-PSCA mAb 1G8 acts by a direct, Fc-independent mechanism to inhibit prostate tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we provide evidence that 1G8 acts by a Fc-independent mechanism to inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has garnered wide attention, but its effective use is limited by the need of multiple ex vivo manipulations and infusions that are complex and expensive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we report that these iPS cells can be differentiated in vivo into functional CTLs after overexpression of MHC I-restricted Ag-specific T-cell receptors (TCR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • TCR-transduced iPS cells developed in vivo responded in vitro to peptide stimulation by secreting interleukin 2 and IFN-γ. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that these iPS cells differentiated into functional Ag-specific CTLs in vivo and significantly protected the hosts from a tumor challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study elucidates the ability of SP1049C to deplete cancer stem cells (CSC) and decrease tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vivo. (jove.com)
  • The CSCs were evaluated using side population (SP) approach as well as standard in vitro and in vivo assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The third layer (Layer III) forms a ribbon of astrocyte cell bodies that are believed to maintain a subpopulation of astrocytes able to proliferate in vivo and form multipotent neurospheres with self-renewal abilities in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • PET reporter gene technology, multimodality reporter genes, imaging of gene/cell therapies, imaging of the immune system, imaging of intracellular events in living subjects (e.g., protein-protein interactions), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in living subjects, nanoparticle based imaging, Raman imaging in vivo and photoacoustic molecular imaging with novel imaging agents in living subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ex vivo glycan engineering of the surface of live cells has been used to enforce HCELL expression on any cell that expresses CD44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic lineage marking demonstrated that rare luminal cells that express NKX3-1 in the absence of testicular androgens are bipotential and can self-renew in vivo. (wikipedia.org)


  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a member of the Thy-1/Ly-6 family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface antigens ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identified cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations from murine melanoma D5 syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice and the squamous cancer SCC7 syngeneic to C3H mice using ALDEFLUOR/ALDH as a marker, and tested their immunogenicity using the cell lysate as a source of antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs). (jove.com)
  • Several recent studies prospectively isolated and evaluated putative hepatic CSCs by using surrogate characteristics such as xenograft tumor growth, expression of stem cell-associated antigens (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, PBMCs are challenged with tumor antigens such as tumor stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum is isolated from a clotted blood sample, and the circulating antibody that accumulates in the plasma is assayed by methods that include the following: Affinity chromatography, by which antibodies of interest are isolated from solution by the specific binding of antigens anchored to a solid matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which are direct binding assays for antibodies that use pure preparations of known antigens to create a protein standard. (wikipedia.org)

formation assay

  • The stem/progenitor cell properties of different marker expressing-cell populations were further assessed by in vitro soft agar colony formation assay and the ability to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice. (jove.com)
  • MSC can form networks in a tube formation assay that is inhibited by an anti-endosialin antibody. (spandidos-publications.com)


  • During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. (jove.com)
  • The existing lack of knowledge and our incomplete understanding of the molecular signatures associated with CSCs highlight the need for better approaches in both isolation and identification of unique pathways associated with these cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Over the last few years the functional analysis of CSCs have been facilitated by advances in tissue culture, cell sorting, transgenic models and mouse-xenograft [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. (mdpi.com)
  • We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • Notch inhibition by dibenzazepine (DBZ) allowed CSCs to form goblet cells in both normoxia and hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CSCs are believed to encompass a rare subtype of highly tumorigenic cells that possess self-renewal capacity and promote malignant progression ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, because CSCs are thought to evade chemotherapy due to high endogenous expression of chemoresistance transporters, they are posited to be the cause of tumor relapse. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of CSCs is under debate, because many studies found no cells with their specific characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, variations in CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- expression is commonly used as a marker for breast CSCs and is used to sort breast cancer cells into a population enriched in cells with stem-like characteristics and has been seen as an indicator of increased survival time in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)

primary tumors

  • However, as compared with metastatic tissues, primary tumors in the nervous system rarely give rise to long-surviving tumorspheres, thereby seriously limiting studies on these cancers. (jove.com)
  • Primary tumors in MYCN transgenic mice, a NB model, could be serially transplanted, suggesting that these tumors contain cells with a high self-renewal potential. (jove.com)
  • However, primary tumors did not give rise to tumorspheres under a serum-free neurosphere culture condition. (jove.com)
  • Moreover, consistent with the marker profiling using cell lines, the expression of stem cell markers differed greatly among primary tumors. (jove.com)


  • Serum-free medium (NSC) allows for the maintenance of an undifferentiated stem cell state, and the addition of bFGF and EGF allows for the proliferation of multi-potent, self-renewing, and expandable tumorspheres. (jove.com)
  • Actively Proliferating Cells or Transit Amplifying Progenitors (Type C): express Nestin, and form clusters interspaced among chains throughout region The SVZ is a known site of neurogenesis and self-renewing neurons in the adult brain, serving as such due to the interacting cell types, extracellular molecules, and localized epigenetic regulation promoting such cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clonogenic assay is a cell biology technique for studying the effectiveness of specific agents on the survival and proliferation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory cell proliferation (activation) can also be assayed in vitro with CFSE chemical tagging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cell proliferation declines as a consequence of aging. (wikipedia.org)

hematopoietic cells

  • WASP is a critical regulator of actin signaling with expression limited to hematopoietic cells, and thus is required for multiple functions including T cell activation, dendritic cell migration and podosome formation, and B cell terminal development and function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hematopoietic cells are killed by ionizing radiation, and the hematopoietic system is replaced by transfusion of donor bone marrow or purified hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)


  • Interstitial fluid flow in particular is higher in tumors compared to normal tissues 8-10 . (jove.com)
  • Most importantly, adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced iPS cells triggered infiltration of OVA-reactive CTLs into tumor tissues and protected animals from tumor challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since stem/progenitor cells recruited either from bone marrow or residing in nearby tissues can contribute to pathological processes we investigated endosialin in MSC using a novel monoclonal antibody. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionizing radiation kills lymphoid cells while leaving other tissues of the body intact, and this eliminates immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALDEFLUOR is a fluorescent reagent system which uses the activity of the detoxifying enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to identify, evaluate and isolate ALDH-expressing cells (primarily human stem and progenitor cells from multiple tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • MammoCult is a medium for the culture and maintenance of human mammospheres from primary mammary tissues and human tumorspheres from breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel resembles the complex extracellular environment found in many tissues and is used by cell biologists as a substrate (basement membrane matrix) for culturing cells. (wikipedia.org)


  • Vezatin (VEZT), an adherens junctions transmembrane protein, was identified as a putative tumor suppressor in our previous study. (jove.com)
  • Sp 100 as a potent tumor suppressor: accelerated senescence and rapid malignant transformation of human fibroblasts through modulation of an embryonic stem cell program. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKX3-1 is a prostatic tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The homeodomain-containing transcription factor NKX3A is a putative prostate tumor suppressor that is expressed in a largely prostate-specific and androgen-regulated manner. (wikipedia.org)


  • By using a clonogenic survival assay, we show here that concomitant administration of trifluoperazine at a subtoxic concentration enhances the cytotoxicity of bleomycin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The word "clonogenic" refers to the fact that these cells are clones of one another. (wikipedia.org)


  • Cell-based therapies hold great promise to restore the lost nerve tissue and function for CNS disorders. (jove.com)
  • In our technique we harvest cells from tissue culture to create a cell suspension used to implant directly into the brain. (jove.com)
  • Notably, KIAA1114 expression was strongly detected in primary hepatic tumor, but neither in the adjacent non-tumorous tissue from the same patient nor normal liver tissue. (nih.gov)
  • C) Western blot and flow cytometric analysis for recognition of human and mouse KIAA1114 by Kiatomab and 3-11 mAb using 293T cells and mouse brain tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The concept that tumors arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell characteristics was first proposed more than a century ago when it was formulated that cancer results from the activation of embryonic-tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • In 1980-82 his group first identified (and provided an in vitro assay for) the human mesenchymal stem cell - the precursor of bone, cartilage, adipose tissue and smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myeloma cell line that is used in this process is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are "plated" in a tissue culture vessel and allowed to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a negative regulator of epithelial cell growth in prostate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, Brent A. Reynolds and Samuel Weiss were the first to isolate neural progenitor and stem cells from the adult striatal tissue, including the SVZ - one of the neurogenic areas - of adult mice brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test molecules that promote endothelial cell network formation are candidates for tissue regeneration therapies whereas test molecules that inhibit endothelial cell network formation are candidates for anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)


  • therefore, it is essential to perform functional studies to test the putatively conserved mechanisms of pluripotent stem cell self-renewal between species. (jove.com)
  • KIAA1114high cells isolated from HCC cell lines displayed TIC-like features with superior functional and phenotypic traits compared to their KIAA1114low counterparts, including tumorigenic abilities in xenotransplantation model, in vitro colony- and spheroid-forming capabilities, expression of stemness-associated genes, and migratory capacity. (nih.gov)
  • However, using HIV-1 infected primary T-cells as target cells in NK cell functional assays has been difficult due the presence of contaminating uninfected cells 3 . (jove.com)
  • In this study, we show how highly reactive antigen (Ag)-specific CTLs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to provide an unlimited source of functional CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it remains unclear whether iPS cells can differentiate into functional, Ag-specific CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, only the B cell-myeloma hybrids survive, since the HGPRT gene coming from the B cells is functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional assays of NKX3-1 mutant mice in serial prostate regeneration suggested that NKX3-1 is required for stem cell maintenance. (wikipedia.org)


  • The other technique involves transplantation of a piece of subcutaneous tumor onto the cecum. (jove.com)
  • The tumor piece is divided into small pieces for transplantation to another mouse. (jove.com)
  • In addition, researchers have produced iPS cells that are safe for transplantation into patients ( 5, 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • NANOG, OCT4, and EpCAM), expansion of SP, and acceleration of tumor growth upon subcutaneous transplantation into immunocompromised mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • G-CSF mobilizes stem cells from the bone marrow into the circulation and subsequent peripheral blood leukapheresis produces sufficient stem cells for both autologous or allogeneic transplantation, reducing the need to obtain large volumes of bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such stem cell transplants give a faster recovery of white blood cells, platelets and red cells than seen with conventional bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-cell transplantation assays showed that castration-resistant NKX3-1 expressing cells (CARNs) can reconstitute prostate ducts in renal grafts. (wikipedia.org)


  • Immunohistochemistry for human endosialin in xenograft tumors following co-injection of MSC and cancer cells identified MSC in tumor stroma. (spandidos-publications.com)

methylcellulose based

  • PBMC fraction also contains progenitor populations, as demonstrated by methylcellulose based colony forming assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • ClonaCell is a product line that includes methylcellulose-based cloning media used for cloning mammalian cells to generate stable cell lines, including CHO and hybridoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylcellulose-based medium is widely used to detect and quantify hematopoietic progenitor cells in the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay. (wikipedia.org)


  • iPS cells can be differentiated into progenitor T cells in vitro by stimulation with the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DL1) overexpressed on bone marrow stromal cells, with complete maturation occurring upon adoptive transfer into Rag1 -deficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we adoptively transferred into mice iPS cells that were transduced with Ag-specific TCR genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, in mice, whose life spans do not exceed two years, tumor relapse is difficult to study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel is mixed with immortalized human cancer cells and the mixture is injected subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)


  • CTLs can target malignant tumors by T-cell receptor (TCR) and release cytotoxins as well as cytokines to kill tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is similar to the ELISA assay in that antibodies bound to plastic wells are used to bind the cytokines secreted by T cells. (wikipedia.org)

whole tumor

  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)


  • Identification of novel biomarkers for tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is of critical importance for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a 123-amino acid cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed in both local and metastatic prostate cancers as well as in a large proportion of bladder and pancreatic cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity 3-8 . (jove.com)


  • Alternatively, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) proffer cures for a wide range of neurological disorders by supplying the diversity of human neuronal cell types in the developing CNS for regeneration 1,4-7 . (jove.com)
  • iPS-MEF-Ng-20D-17 cell generated from male C57BL/6 mouse embryonic fibroblasts by introducing the 4 factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) is carrying Nanog promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP)/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/puromycin-resistant gene ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In embryonic life, the SVZ refers to a secondary proliferative zone containing neural progenitor cells, which divide to produce neurons in the process of neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two basic types of stem cell: adult stem cells, which are limited in their ability to differentiate, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development of vertebrates, NSCs of the central nervous system (CNS) are called radial glial cells (RGCs), and reside in a transient zone called the ventricular zone (VZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel is also used as an attachment substrate in embryonic stem cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • When embryonic stem cells are grown in the absence of feeder cells, extracellular matrix components are needed to maintain the pluripotent, undifferentiated state (self-renewal). (wikipedia.org)


  • A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. (jove.com)
  • In particular, it is not known whether anti-PSCA antibodies work by recruitment of the immune system or by direct modification of antigen-regulated signaling at the cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This often involves the analysis of antiserum samples that contain specific antibodies against the immunizing antigen, and blood lymphocytes from lymphoid organs for examination of T cell-mediated responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell immune responses are measured by analyzing antibodies produced through the humoral immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitive inhibition assays, which determine the concentration of a particular antigen in an unknown sample based on how successfully it competes with a labelled reference antigen in binding to antibodies bound to a plastic well. (wikipedia.org)
  • A type of white blood cell, the B cell that produces antibodies that bind to the antigen are then harvested from the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybridomas can be grown in culture, each culture starting with one viable hybridoma cell, producing cultures each of which consists of genetically identical hybridomas which produce one antibody per culture (monoclonal) rather than mixtures of different antibodies (polyclonal). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells produce antibodies (a property of B cells) and are immortal (a property of myeloma cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the antibodies in a well are produced by the same B cell, they will be directed towards the same epitope, and are thus monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cell that produces the desired antibodies can be cloned to produce many identical daughter clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Select antibodies are used to cross-link targeted cells to the magnetic particles in a standard FACs tube, which is placed in an EasySep magnet. (wikipedia.org)


  • We defined conditions for induction of neuroblasts direct from pluripotent hESCs without an intervening multi-lineage embryoid body stage, enabling well-controlled efficient derivation of a large supply of human neuronal cells across the spectrum of developmental stages for cell-based therapeutics. (jove.com)
  • Several groups have generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells by transduction of 1 to 4 transcription factors ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This approach provides an opportunity to generate patient- or disease-specific pluripotent stem cells ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • STEMCELL has gradually expanded their product portfolio to include immune cell isolation tools as well as products that support research using pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, this molecule is one of the genes widely used now to reprogram adult non-stem cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)


  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • rather they have the capability to differentiate into any cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurospheres can differentiate to form the specified neurons, glial cells, and oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)


  • Tumor development is a complex and dynamic process that involves malignant, vascular, and stromal cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Despite a causative role during malignant transformation and progression in hepatocarcinogenesis, consequences of c-MYC activation for the biology of hepatic cancer stem cells (CSC) are undefined. (aacrjournals.org)


  • Furthermore, the PROCR(+)/ESA(+) cells expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. (jove.com)
  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) have been implicated in promoting tumor development and have been associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • HCELL functions as a "bone homing receptor", directing migration of human hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells to bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)


  • However, cell therapies based on CNS-derived neural stem cells have encountered supply restriction and difficulty to use in the clinical setting due to their limited expansion ability in culture and failing plasticity after extensive passaging 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • The study of tumorigenesis and the evaluation of new therapies for GBM require accurate and reproducible brain tumor animal models. (jove.com)
  • It is important to understand the ability of NK cells to recognize and lyse HIV-1 infected cells because identifying any aberrancy in NK cell function against HIV-infected cells could potentially lead to therapies that would enhance their cytolytic activity. (jove.com)
  • There is an urgent need to find a new approach to generate tumor-reactive CTLs for successful ACT-based therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of the plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, iPS cell-based therapies may have great potential in the treatment of diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Existing cancer treatments have mostly been developed based on animal models, where therapies able to promote tumor shrinkage were deemed effective. (wikipedia.org)


  • We applied culture conditions originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) to a variety of human brain tumors and found that this culture method specifically selects for stem-like populations. (jove.com)
  • In MDA-MB-231 cells, PROCR and ESA, instead of the widely used breast cancer stem cell markers CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) and ALDH, could be used to highly enrich cancer stem/progenitor cell populations which exhibited the ability to self renew and divide asymmetrically. (jove.com)
  • But the existence of both biologically distinct non-CSC and CSC populations supports a more CSC model, proposing that both models may play a vital role in tumor heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biopanning, which isolates cell populations from solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are mitogens that promote neural progenitor and stem cell growth in vitro, though other factors synthesized by the neural progenitor and stem cell populations are also required for optimal growth. (wikipedia.org)


  • Most recently Dr Moore has been studying the cancer stem cell in lung cancer and ovarian cancer and has developed some novel methods for growing human cancer stem cells in vitro allowing extensive molecular analysis and identification of targets for therapy designed to eliminate this rare cell population that is responsible for aggressive tumor growth and relapse. (wikipedia.org)


  • With highlights on the most up-to-date molecular, network, cellular, clinical, and therapeutic cancer research findings, this article tends to provide a wealth of insights on systems and network biology approaches to CSC marker identification, the mechanism through which they evade treatment as well as therapeutic approaches that will help in conquering these elusive cells in incurable and refractory malignancies . (omicsonline.org)
  • These regulatory mechanisms seem to promote the formation of relatively "open" and "poised" epigenetic states permissive for transcriptional activity that are associated with multi-lineage potential in stem and progenitor cells and to mediate the execution of lineage-specific gene expression programs, including the silencing of genes associated with alternate cell fates, in more mature cellular species. (mdpi.com)
  • It is composed of four distinct layers of variable thickness and cell density, as well as cellular composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potentially, such characteristics of the layer may act as a remainder of early developmental life or pathway for cellular migration given similarity to a homologous layer in bovine SVZ shown to have migratory cells common only to higher order mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research focuses on the development of imaging assays to monitor fundamental cellular/molecular events in living subjects with an emphasis on the detection and management of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company specializes in developing cell culture media, cell separation products, instruments and other reagents for use in stem cell, immunology, cancer, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells cultured on Matrigel demonstrate complex cellular behavior that is otherwise difficult to observe under laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)


  • Thus we use this orthotopic brain model to study the interaction of the microenvironment of the brain and the tumor, to test the effectiveness of different therapeutic agents with and without radiation. (jove.com)
  • Previously, research on the tumor microenvironment has focused primarily on tumor-stromal interactions 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • However, the tumor microenvironment also includes a variety of biophysical forces, whose effects remain poorly understood. (jove.com)


  • Heterogeneity of cancer stem/progenitor cells that give rise to different forms of cancer has been well demonstrated for leukemia. (jove.com)
  • A study in 2014 argues the gap between these two controversial models can be bridged by providing an alternative explanation of tumor heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)


  • Moreover, trifluoperazine also increases the longevity of bleomycin-induced DNA strand breaks in U1810 cells, as shown by both comet assay and fraction of activity released (FAR)-assay. (diva-portal.org)
  • These cells can be extracted from whole blood using ficoll, a hydrophilic polysaccharide that separates layers of blood, and gradient centrifugation, which will separate the blood into a top layer of plasma, followed by a layer of PBMCs and a bottom fraction of polymorphonuclear cells (such as neutrophils and eosinophils) and erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of cancer treatments is, in the initial stages of testing, often measured by the ablation fraction of tumor mass (fractional kill). (wikipedia.org)
  • For Cell-killing Particle assays, the surviving fraction of cells is used to approximate the Poisson Distribution of virus particles amongst cells and therefore determine the number of CKPs encountered by each cell. (wikipedia.org)

endothelial prog

  • In collaboration with Dr . Shahin Raffi in 1994, a bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell was identified and shown to play an important role in the development of the blood supply of developing tumors. (wikipedia.org)


  • Brain tumors are typically comprised of morphologically diverse cells that express a variety of neural lineage markers. (jove.com)
  • Despite some beneficial outcomes, the CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hNSCs) appear to exert their therapeutic effects primarily by their non-neuronal progenies through producing trophic and neuroprotective molecules to rescue the endogenous cells 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • The primary neural stem cells of the brain and spinal cord, termed radial glial cells, reside in the ventricular zone (VZ) (so-called because the VZ lines the developing ventricles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone serves as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the process of adult neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, it was shown that the balance between neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is maintained by an interaction between the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and the Notch signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory Models - CERN Foundation laboratory scientists seek to understand how normal neural development goes wrong to result in ependymoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated from various areas of the adult central nervous system, including non-neurogenic areas, such as the spinal cord, and from various species including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural stem cells are more specialized than ESCs because they generate only neural cells (neurons or glial cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural cells are migrated from the SVZ along the rostral migratory stream which contains a marrow-like structure with ependymal cells and astrocytes when stimulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroblasts form tight chains and migrate towards the specified site of cell damage to repair or replace neural cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because FOXO proteins regulate neural stem cell homeostasis, FOXO proteins have been used to protect neural stem cells by inhibiting Wnt signaling. (wikipedia.org)


  • Global microarray analysis was applied to analyze the molecular basis of the biological functions of VEZT after VEZT transfection combined with real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. (jove.com)
  • DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. (mdpi.com)


  • Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein that drives tumor angiogenesis 7 . (jove.com)


  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of trifluoperazine on (a) survival of bleomycin-treated human non-small cell lung carcinoma U1810 cells, (b) induction and repair of bleomycin-induced DNA strand breaks, and (c) nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Orthotopic mouse models of colorectal cancer, which feature cancer cells growing in their natural location, replicate human disease with high fidelity. (jove.com)
  • In this communication, we analyzed solid tumor cancer stem cell markers in human breast cancer cell lines and primary specimens using flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • There is a large unfulfilled need for a clinically-suitable human neuronal cell source for repair or regeneration of the damaged central nervous system (CNS) structure and circuitry in today's healthcare industry. (jove.com)
  • As far as human brain tumors are concerned, the orthotopic models currently available are established either by stereotaxic injection of cell suspensions or implantation of a solid piece of tumor through a complicated craniotomy procedure 3 . (jove.com)
  • Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • The principle aim of this study was to provide a definitive answer to the question of whether tumor response to MMC could be predicted on the basis of DTD activity in a large panel of human tumor xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endosialin is a tumor endothelial marker (TEM) present in the microvasculature and stroma of human tumors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In 1983-84 his group succeeded in identifying and purifying a human growth factor, G-CSF, that stimulates white blood cell production (neutrophils). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any type of cell could be used in an experiment, but since the goal of these experiments in oncological research is the discovery of more effective cancer treatments, human tumor cells are a typical choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HCELL glycoform was originally discovered on human hematopoietic stem cells and leukemic blasts, and was subsequently identified on cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpiCult is a line of species-specific culture media used to support the monolayer culture of human or mouse mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that one mechanism of NKX3-1 dependent transcriptional activation in prostate epithelia requires combinatorial interactions with other factors expressed within those cells In 2000, full length NKX3-1 cDNA was obtained from a human prostate cDNA library. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel is also commonly used to prepare human tumor xenografts in rodents as part of a cancer drug discovery program. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human tumor usually forms in two to four weeks. (wikipedia.org)


  • Furthermore, it is necessary to use autologous primary cells to prevent major histocompatibility complex class I mismatches between the target and effector cell that will result in lysis. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, because alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications generate many different CD44 sequences, including, perhaps, tumor-specific sequences, the production of anti-CD44 tumor-specific agents may be a realistic therapeutic approach. (wikipedia.org)


  • G protein-coupled receptor 56(GPR56), cell growth, cell division cycle 42(CDC42), migration/invasion and transcription factor 19(TCF19), cell cycle progression, were identified as direct VEZT target genes. (jove.com)
  • B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell adhesion molecule), Pgp-1 (phagocytic glycoprotein-1), Hermes antigen, lymphocyte homing receptor, ECM-III, and HUTCH-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NKX3-1 protein expression was detected a hormone-responsive, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cell line, but was absent from androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cell lines as well as other cell lines of varied origins. (wikipedia.org)


  • The identification of key enzymes responsible for drug activation has been investigated extensively with the ultimate aim of tailoring drug administration to patients whose tumors possess the biochemical machinery required for drug activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • these cells possess apical cilia and several basal expansions that may stand in either parallel or perpendicular to the ventricular surface. (wikipedia.org)


  • CD44 variant isoforms are also relevant to the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)


  • Hypoxia and lineage specification of cell line-derived colorectal cancer stem cells. (ox.ac.uk)

epithelial cells

  • The Cag-T4SS is responsible for translocating CagA and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells 5,6 . (jove.com)
  • Some epithelial cells also express a larger isoform (CD44E), which includes exons v8-10. (wikipedia.org)


  • It harbors the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain of rodents, monkeys and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, lymphocytes make up the majority of the PBMC population, followed by monocytes, and only a small percentage of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)

cancer stem

  • The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. (jove.com)
  • Since then, a number of advances in molecular biology and enhancement in diagnostic methods have led to their identification and characterization that has provided support to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)


  • The traditional subcutaneous tumor model is less than ideal for studying colorectal cancer. (jove.com)
  • A mouse with a previously established subcutaneous colorectal tumor is euthanized and the tumor is removed using sterile technique. (jove.com)


  • The chief components of Matrigel are structural proteins such as laminin, nidogen, collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycans which present cultured cells with the adhesive peptide sequences that they would encounter in their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)


  • To further characterize each tumor's BTIC population, we evaluate cell surface markers by flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • We found that the expression of stem cell markers varied greatly among breast cancer cell lines. (jove.com)
  • Compared with other established markers of liver TICs, KIAA1114 was unique in that its expression was detected in both alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-positive and AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with the expression levels of KIAA1114 being positively correlated to their tumorigenic potentials. (nih.gov)


  • KIAA1114, a full-length protein encoded by the trophinin gene, is a novel surface marker for isolating tumor-initiating cells of multiple hepatocellular carcinoma subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. (wikipedia.org)


  • Two procedures: 1) Bone marrow harvest from the patient's posterior iliac crests or collection of peripheral blood stem cells via apheresis procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2) One time infusion of patient's transduced bone marrow cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In his early career Dr Moore discovered that all stem cells of the blood and lymphoid system developed in the yolk sac at an early stage of embryo development and migrated via the blood stream to colonize the bone marrow and immune system. (wikipedia.org)


  • Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 is expressed in a large number of mammalian cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In partnership with Hamilton, STEMCELL produced the ClonaCell EasyPick automated platform for developing mammalian cell lines. (wikipedia.org)

peripheral blood

  • A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) is any peripheral blood cell having a round nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral blood cell Delves, Peter, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods include the following: Density centrifugation, which isolates a population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by separating the solution into layers of differing densities. (wikipedia.org)


  • We propose that TFP might be capable of inhibiting one or more elements of the DNA DSB repair machinery, thereby increasing the cytotoxicity of bleomycin in lung cancer cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Molecular profiling of single circulating tumor cells from lung cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, Showe's research led to the creation of a blood test that could be used to test for lung cancer using a 29-gene assay. (wikipedia.org)


  • Likewise, test molecules that inhibit tumor cell migration may also have potential as anti-cancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)


  • There is a need to use HIV-infected primary T-cell blasts as target cells rather then infected-T-cell lines in the cytotoxicity assays. (jove.com)

progenitor cell

  • the formation of tumorspheres following incubation at 37 °C indicates the presence of a stem or progenitor cell. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that similar to leukemia, several stem/progenitor cell-like subpopulations can exist in breast cancer. (jove.com)

surgical specimens

  • Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. (jove.com)


  • Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms are deployed in response to complex profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals and are responsible for the establishment, maintenance, and refinement of cell identity and function that occurs during development and adult life [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)