Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tuberculosis, Laryngeal: Tuberculosis involving the larynx, producing ulceration of the VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.UzbekistanIntegrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Tuberculosis, Renal: Infection of the KIDNEY with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Diarylquinolines: A class of quinoline compounds defined by the presence of two aromatic ring structures which are attached via a side chain to carbon 3 of the qunolinyl structure. The two aromatic moieties are typically NAPTHALENE and BENZENE. Several compounds in this class are used as ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.PeruGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Tuberculosis, Oral: Tuberculosis of the mouth, tongue, and salivary glands.Georgia (Republic)Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mycolic AcidsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.LatviaHospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.IndiaInfection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)QuinolinesAminosalicylic Acid: An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.RussiaTuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Peritonitis, Tuberculous: A form of PERITONITIS seen in patients with TUBERCULOSIS, characterized by lesion either as a miliary form or as a pelvic mass on the peritoneal surfaces. Most patients have ASCITES, abdominal swelling, ABDOMINAL PAIN, and other systemic symptoms such as FEVER; WEIGHT LOSS; and ANEMIA.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Minisatellite Repeats: Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Aza CompoundsEnterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hospitals, AnimalTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)TurkmenistanAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.MoldovaColchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.BrazilRadiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Mice, Inbred BALB CMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.

*  Fluoroquinolone resistance in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis independent of fluoroquinolone use | European...
During the 1990s, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, emerged as a great ... Fluoroquinolone resistance in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis independent of fluoroquinolone use. Yang Che, Qifa ... Fluoroquinolone resistance in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis independent of fluoroquinolone use. Yang Che, Qifa ... Fluoroquinolone resistance in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis independent of fluoroquinolone use. Yang Che, Qifa ...
  http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/50/6/1701633
*  Ekomed Unveils Major Advance in Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
... ... Among them 48 individuals had multi-drug resistant (MDR) form of TB who were divided into two matching groups to receive either ... Ekomed LLC publishes study of immunoadjuvant therapy with Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in patients with drug-resistant TB. ... be safe and effective as an adjunct immunotherapy in TB patients including patients with MDR-TB and extensively drug resistant ...
  http://www.prweb.com/releases/2009/01/prweb1905334.htm
*  Delamanid, a novel drug for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis - Pharma World
... for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen for pulmonary multidrug-resistanttuberculosis (MDR-TB) in adult patients ... Home R&D Drug Delivery Delamanid, a novel drug for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis ... Deltyba is indicated for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen for pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR- ... It also has high activity in vitro against various MTB strains, including those resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs, such as ...
  http://www.pharmaworldmagazine.com/delamanid-a-novel-drug-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis/
*  The effect of surgery on the outcome of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis |...
... multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; OR, odds ratio; XDR TB, extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. ... Multi-drug resistantExtensively drug resistantTuberculosisSurgeryPneumonectomyMeta-analysisSystematic review ... Treatment outcomes for HIV-uninfected patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin ... of new TB cases worldwide have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is caused by bacterial strains resistant to ...
  https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-1585-0
*  Effectiveness and feasibility of hospital and community-based delivery of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in...
There are approximately 13000 cases of multi drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) diagnosed in Pakistan each year. Treatment of ... Effectiveness and feasibility of hospital and community-based delivery of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in ... Effectiveness and feasibility of hospital and community-based delivery of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in ... Effectiveness and feasibility of hospital and community-based delivery of care for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in ...
  https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/effectiveness-and-feasibility-of-hospital-and-community-based-delivery-of-care-for-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
*  Cambridge partners with India to fight multidrug resistant TB | University of Cambridge
... focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis ... The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team ... focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis ... The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team ...
  http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/cambridge-partners-with-india-to-fight-multidrug-resistant-tb
*  The Return of Tuberculosis by Annunziata Faustini - Project Syndicate
Unfortunately, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is any TB resistant to the traditional treatments of isoniazid ... Moreover, any inadequately treated TB becomes multi-drug resistant, so that treatment failure can be either cause or ... The Return of Tuberculosis. Jun 27, 2006. Annunziata Faustini Generations of doctors, politicians, and public health officials ... such as immigration and a particular type of drug-resistant TB, have emerged. ...
  https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-return-of-tuberculosis?barrier=accessreg
*  Review: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: public health challenge...: Ingenta Connect
You have access to the full text article on a website external to Ingenta Connect.. Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.. You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library. ...
  http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/tmih/2004/00000009/00000001/art00004
*  Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (TB)
... Skip to the navigation. Topic Overview. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) occurs ... Inadequate TB control measures. People with multidrug-resistant TB disease can infect others with drug-resistant bacteria. This ... A rare type of MDR-TB is called extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This type of TB is resistant to isoniazid, ... Medicine treatment failure. Failure to complete the entire course of treatment is the major cause of multidrug-resistant TB. If ...
  https://www.concordhospital.org/wellness-resources/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=hw207041
*  Poor diagnosis driving global multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, WHO warns | Fox News
Half a million people fell sick with dangerous superbug strains of tuberculosis (TB) in 2012, but fewer than one in four were ... Last year the WHO called for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) to be recognized as a public health crisis. It says the ... Poor diagnosis driving global multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, WHO warns. Published March 20, 2014. Reuters ... This in turn has fuelled the emergence of drug-resistant TB - a man-made problem that has grown in the past decade because ...
  http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/03/20/poor-diagnosis-driving-global-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-who-warns.html
*  Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in a Hospital -- Jersey City, New Jersey, 1990-1992
In addition, in 1992, the rate of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to at ... Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in a Hospital -- Jersey City, New Jersey, 1990-1992 Since 1986 (the first full year following ... Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons -- Florida and New York, 1988-1991. MMWR ... Bureau of Tuberculosis Control, New Jersey Department of Health. Multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis in New Jersey. Trenton, ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00031443.htm
*  Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Course - WMA - The World Medical Association
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Course. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is difficult to treat and there exists a ... Click here to access the MDR-TB Online Course: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in English and Chinese ... The course is written by the New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute and supported by the MDR-TB partnership. ...
  https://www.wma.net/what-we-do/education/mdr-tb-course/
*  Prevention Treatment Beneficial for Children Exposed to Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Bacterium
... who are in close contact with multidrug resistant tuberculosis affected patients, from acquiring the disease. ... Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a high mortality rate is highly resistant to the standard drugs, ... Children who are exposed to people infected with multidrug resistant tuberculosis may benefit from prevention programs, suggest ... Reference: Management of children exposed to multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis; The Lancet Infectious Diseases Feb ...
  http://www.medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/prevention-treatment-beneficial-for-children-exposed-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-bacterium-98717-1.htm
*  Determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethio | IDR
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been jeopardizing the global effort to prevent and control tuberculosis (TB). ... 2 Lemessa Oljira2 1KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, Addis Ababa, 2School of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences ... Determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Demelash Assefa,1 Berhanu Seyoum, ... Abstract: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been jeopardizing the global effort to prevent and control tuberculosis ...
  https://www.dovepress.com/determinants-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-addis-ababa-ethiop-peer-reviewed-article-IDR
*  Global Scale-Up of the Programmatic Management of Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis
Worldwide, there are an estimated 2 billion people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis from whom 9.6 million develop TB ... Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. ... Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains that are resistant to ... The emergence of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis threatens to undermine TB control programs worldwide. ... Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. Worldwide, there are an estimated 2 billion people infected with ...
  https://www.nationaljewish.org/for-professionals/newsletters/ntm-tb-insights-newsletter/global-scale-up-of-programmatic-management-of-tb
*  Treatment Initiation among Patients with Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis in Bhopal District, India
... programme in India has limited co-hort-wise information about what happens to patients diagnosed with multidrug resistant TB ( ... India has highest burden of multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB): an estimated annual incidence of ... Treatment Initiation among Patients with Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis in Bhopal District, India. Journal of Tuberculosis ... multi drug-resistant tuberculosis; RNTCP: revised national tuberculosis control programme. ...
  http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=80251
*  Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-po | IDR
Keywords: GenoType®MTBDRplus, isoniazid, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, rifampicin, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis ... resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis ( ... resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Institution-based cross ... Of these, 80 (81.6%) were sensitive to both drugs and 18 (18.4%) were resistant to RIF and/or INH. The prevalences of MDR-TB in ...
  https://www.dovepress.com/molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-smear-po-peer-reviewed-article-IDR
*  Safety and Pharmacokinetics (PK) in Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Refractive Tuberculosis - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Safety and Pharmacokinetics (PK) in Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Refractive Tuberculosis. Official Title ICMJE A Phase 2, Multi- ... Safety and Pharmacokinetics (PK) in Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Refractive Tuberculosis. This study has been completed. ... and Efficacy of Orally Administered OPC-67683 Two Times Daily to Patients With Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01131351
*  Modelling the Role of Diagnosis, Treatment, and Health Education on Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Dynamics
... M. Maliyoni,1 P ... A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis to assess the impact of diagnosis, ... Treatment is offered to all infected individuals except those latently infected with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. ... the drug-sensitive tuberculosis can be completely eliminated from the population, thereby reducing multi-drug resistant ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/459829/abs/
*  World Medical Association scales up training for multidrug resistant tuberculosis to fight epidemic | The BMJ
World Medical Association scales up training for multidrug resistant tuberculosis to fight epidemic BMJ 2008; 336 :1155 ... World Medical Association scales up training for multidrug resistant tuberculosis to fight epidemic. BMJ 2008; 336 doi: https ... The World Medical Association is scaling up its training courses on multidrug resistant tuberculosis and placing emphasis on ... This includes revising the multidrug resistant tuberculosis course for online use, plus providing a refresher course in ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/336/7654/1155.5
*  Impact of DOTS compared with DOTS-plus on multidrug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis deaths: decision analysis | The BMJ
We defined multidrug resistant tuberculosis as resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, and highly drug resistant tuberculosis as ... survival and cure rates of multidrug resistant, highly drug resistant, and non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis fell by a ... Eight fewer patients would die with multidrug resistant tuberculosis, but four more would die with non-multidrug resistant ... for incident multidrug resistant tuberculosis10 we assumed that patients with prevalent multidrug resistant tuberculosis had a ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/326/7389/574
*  Nanomedicine as a Newly Emerging Approach Against Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Medicine & Healthcare Book Chapter...
Nanomedicine as a Newly Emerging Approach Against Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): 10.4018/978-1-5225-0610-2.ch003: ... isoniazid and rifampicin can lead to Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (CDC, 2012). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) ... Epidemiology of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality ... Early detection and prompt treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is crucial to avoid spread of the disease and also ...
  https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/nanomedicine-as-a-newly-emerging-approach-against-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb/165225
*  Figure - Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011 - Volume 19, Number 3-March 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease...
... multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, ... Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011 Ireneaus Sindani, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Dennis Falzon, Bashir Suleiman ... Percentage change in total tuberculosis notifications by diagnostic center participating in the survey, Somalia, 2007-2010. ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/3/12-1287-f1
*  WHO Report Urges Countries To Step Up Fight Against Drug-Resistant TB | Kaiser Health News
... multi-drug resistant] patients who need it,' WHO Director-General Margaret Chan said, Times LIVE reports (Keeton, 3/23). ... A WHO report released Wednesday says countries with the highest drug-resistant tuberculosis burdens are making progress in ... A WHO report released Wednesday says countries with the highest drug-resistant tuberculosis burdens are making progress in ... multi-drug resistant] patients who need it," WHO Director-General Margaret Chan said, Times LIVE reports (Keeton, 3/23). ...
  https://khn.org/morning-breakout/gh-032311-tuberculosis/

Tuberculosis managementTuberculosis radiology: Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant] to treatment with at least two of the most powerful [[Therapy#Lines of therapy|first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Multiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).IsoniazidTotally drug-resistant tuberculosis: Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB) is a generic term for tuberculosis strains that are resistant to a wider range of drugs than strains classified as Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. TDR-TB has been identified in three countries; India, Iran, and Italy.MVA85A: MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the older TB vaccine BCG.Acinetobacter baumannii: Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting people with compromised immune systems, and is becoming increasingly important as a hospital-derived (nosocomial) infection.Miliary tuberculosisBacitracinQuantiFERON: Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). They are surrogate markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and indicate a cellular immune response to M.SputumTuberculous lymphadenitisGibbus deformity: A Gibbus deformity is a form of structural kyphosis, where one or more adjacent vertebrae become wedged. Gibbus deformity can be a sequela of advanced skeletal tuberculosis and is the result of collapse of vertebral bodies.Pyrazinoic acidFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Mantoux test: The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a screening tool for tuberculosis (TB). It is one of the major tuberculin skin tests used around the world, largely replacing multiple-puncture tests such as the Tine test.Mycobacterium bovis: ATCC 19210Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Scrofuloderma: (ILDS A18.462)ColistinTariquidarAlbert CalmetteSam GonotskyUrogenital tuberculosis: Urogenital tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that affects the urogenital system.Denise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Mycobacterium indicus pranii: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP),Mycobacterium indicus pranii earlier known as Mw, is a non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, which, based on its growth characteristics and metabolic properties,Rahman SA, Singh Y, Kohli S, Ahmad J, Ehtesham NZ, Tyagi AK, Hasnain SE. 2014.Canga's bead symptom: In radiology, Canga's bead symptom is the irregular appearance of uterus and nodular structures in tuba uterina observed in patients with genital tuberculosis.Canga, S: Kadýn Hastalýklarý Jinekoloji.Pulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Thermal cyclerAmplified fragment length polymorphismAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Coles PhillipsGram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Iran–Uzbekistan relations: Iran–Uzbekistan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the two Middle-eastern countries, Uzbekistan and Iran, which have deep cultural and historical ties between them. Both countries are members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).GyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Beta-lactamaseContact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Pseudomonas infectionTibotec: Tibotec is a pharmaceutical company with a focus on research and development for the treatment of infectious diseases such as HIV (AIDS), and Hepatitis C. The company develops antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of AIDS.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.LinezolidDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.StreptomycinTrandolapril/verapamilDimethylacetamideCarbapenem: Carbapenems are antibiotics used for the treatment of infections known or suspected to be caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Their use is primarily in people who are hospitalized.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).Old Tbilisi: Old Tbilisi (, dzveli t'bilisi) is an administrative district (raioni) in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia. Although the term "Old Tbilisi" has long been used to denote a historical part of the city, it was only in 2007 that it became a distinct administrative entity to incorporate several historical neighborhoods formerly included in the districts of Mtatsminda-Krtsanisi, Isani-Samgori, and Didube-Chughureti.Clinafloxacin

(1/959) Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults.

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

(2/959) Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas.

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

(3/959) Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

(4/959) Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol.

Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue.  (+info)

(5/959) Rapid film-based determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by using a luciferase reporter phage and the Bronx Box.

Detecting antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is becoming increasingly important with the global recognition of drug-resistant strains and their adverse impact on clinical outcomes. Current methods of susceptibility testing are either time-consuming or costly; rapid, reliable, simple, and inexpensive methods would be highly desirable, especially in the developing world where most tuberculosis is found. The luciferase reporter phage is a unique reagent well-suited for this purpose: upon infection with viable mycobacteria, it produces quantifiable light which is not observed in mycobacterial cells treated with active antimicrobials. In this report, we describe a modification of our original assay, which allows detection of the emitted light with a Polaroid film box designated the Bronx Box. The technique has been applied to 25 M. tuberculosis reference and clinical strains, and criteria are presented which allow rapid and simple discrimination among strains susceptible or resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, the major antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

(6/959) rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy.

Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp).  (+info)

(7/959) Multiple drug resistant tuberculosis: aetiology, diagnosis and outcome.

Tuberculosis is an increasing problem worldwide both in terms of disease burden and resistance to conventional antibiotic therapy. Studies of outbreaks involving resistant strains have highlighted the need for both improved infection control and the rapid provision of accurate susceptibility data. Each patient should undergo a risk assessment for possible resistance and those in whom risk factors exist should be investigated by means of rapid molecular techniques or other phenotypic methods, so that appropriate management can be instituted with minimal delay. The ultimate outcome will vary according to whether the patient is immunosuppressed, the time taken to make a diagnosis, the severity of disease as well as the degree of resistance. The prognosis can be improved when adequate antibiotic therapy is started as soon as resistance is suspected. Adjuncts to conventional treatment, such as surgery and perhaps immunotherapy may be considered when response to antimicrobial chemotherapy has been suboptimal.  (+info)

(8/959) Spread of strain W, a highly drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, across the United States.

Strain W, a highly drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was responsible for large nosocomial outbreaks in New York in the early 1990s. To describe the spread of strain W outside New York, we reviewed data from epidemiologic investigations, national tuberculosis surveillance, regional DNA fingerprint laboratories, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mycobacteriology Laboratory to identify potential cases of tuberculosis due to strain W. From January 1992 through February 1997, 23 cases were diagnosed in nine states and Puerto Rico; 8 were exposed to strain W in New York before their diagnosis; 4 of the 23 transmitted disease to 10 others. Eighty-six contacts of the 23 cases are presumed to be infected with strain W; 11 completed alternative preventive therapy. Strain W tuberculosis cases will occur throughout the United States as persons infected in New York move elsewhere. To help track and contain this strain, health departments should notify the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of cases of tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and kanamycin.  (+info)



  • World Health Organ
  • Latest data from the World Health Organization (WHO), which says drug-resistant TB is a 'global health security risk', showed a third of the estimated 9 million people who contract TB in any form each year do not get the care they need. (foxnews.com)
  • In 1996, he joined the World Health Organization where he has developed methods for using national surveillance and survey data to study the large-scale dynamics and control of tuberculosis (TB) and other communicable diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • UNITAID was launched in 2006 by the governments of Britain, Brazil, Chile, France and Norway to give sustainable funding for the fight against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. (foxnews.com)
  • Tuberculosis and HIV have been linked since the AIDS epidemic began. (healthcanal.com)
  • The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), international private organizations, local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and community-based organizations (CBOs) provided the mainstay of the response to HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of community mobilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Molecular methods have considerable advantages for scaling up programmatic management of MDR-TB and surveillance of drug-resistant TB because they offer speed of diagnosis, standardized testing, potential high through-put, and fewer requirements for laboratory biosafety. (nationaljewish.org)
  • resistance
  • Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). (dovepress.com)
  • Of the 18 total INH-resistant specimens, 15 (83.3%) had mutations in the katG gene ( katG MUT1, Ser315Thr1 ), indicating high-level resistance, while 3 (14.7%) had mutations in the inhA promoter gene ( Cys15Thr ), indicating low-level resistance. (dovepress.com)
  • Acquired MDR-TB develops when a person with a non-resistant strain of TB is treated inadequately, resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance in the TB bacteria infecting them. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • Analyses modelled different levels of programme effectiveness of DOTS and DOTS-plus, and high (10%) and intermediate (3%) proportions of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis, while accounting for exogenous reinfection. (bmj.com)
  • aerosol
  • In the developing world the development of nanoparticle-based aerosol vaccines for tuberculosis has potential applications using on a large scale at relatively low cost, and particularly attractive for use. (igi-global.com)
  • Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine, MVA85A, Delivered by Aerosol to the Lungs of Macaques. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectiveness
  • If implementation of DOTS-plus were to result in a decrease of just 5% in the effectiveness of DOTS, 16% more people would die with tuberculosis than under DOTS alone. (bmj.com)
  • They make the organism more resistant to chemical damage and dehydration, and limit the effectiveness of hydrophilic antibiotics and biocides. (wikipedia.org)
  • surveillance
  • Since 1986 (the first full year following implementation of the revised tuberculosis {TB} surveillance case definition), the reported rate of TB per 100,000 persons in New Jersey increased from 9.5 cases to 12.6 cases in 1992 (1). (cdc.gov)
  • India
  • 1 International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), South-East Asia Office, New Delhi, India . (scirp.org)
  • India bears a disproportionately large burden of the world's tuberculosis rates, as it continues to be the biggest health problem in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Zarir Udwadia's report originated from the Hinduja Hospital in Mumbai, India explicitly discusses the drug-resistant effects and results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those listed are all the bodily and personal causes of acquiring TB, but tuberculosis in India is rich in its high rates because of the pollution dispersed throughout the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • This report presents the findings of the study and compares the hospital's rates of drug-resistant TB with previously reported rates, rates for other cities in New Jersey, and rates for the state. (cdc.gov)
  • The main uses are infections of the skin and pneumonia although it may be used for a variety of other infections including drug resistant tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This issue of drug-resistant TB began with MDR-TB, and moved on to XDR-TB. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • The cumulative number of tuberculosis deaths per 100 000 population over 10 years. (bmj.com)
  • Of the 10 deaths on bedaquiline, 1 was due to a motor vehicle accident, 5 were judged as due to progression of the underlying tuberculosis and 3 were well after the patient had stopped receiving bedaquiline. (wikipedia.org)
  • 220, 000 deaths are reported due to Tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • global
  • The course is written by the New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute and supported by the MDR-TB partnership. (wma.net)
  • diagnostic
  • Percentage change in total tuberculosis notifications by diagnostic center participating in the survey, Somalia, 2007-2010. (cdc.gov)
  • Culture conversion is a diagnostic criteria indicating the point at which samples taken from a patient infected with a tuberculosis can no longer produce tuberculosis cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • PIH's community-based model has proved successful in delivering effective care both for common conditions like diarrhea, pneumonia, and childbirth that are often fatal for Haiti's poor and malnourished, and for complex diseases like HIV and tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)