Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.

*  Tropical Climate in the Antarctic -- Environmental Protection

... including palms and relatives of today's tropical Baobab trees, was growing on the coast of Antarctica 52 million years ago. ... A study published in the journal Nature shows that tropical vegetation, ... Tropical Climate in the Antarctic. *Aug 02, 2012. Given the predicted rise in global temperatures in the coming decades, ... The study published in the journal Nature shows that tropical vegetation, including palms and relatives of today's tropical ...
https://eponline.com/articles/2012/08/02/tropical-climate-in-the-antarctic.aspx?admgarea=ht.ecosystemsecology

*  Biomin.net - Overcoming Heat Stress in Pigs Through Nutrition

Heat stress affects the pig industry in tropical climates and temperate regions as well. Economic losses due to heat stress in ... Even in mild climate conditions such as the Netherlands pigs have problems in the summer with performance losses due heat ... Heat stress affects the pig industry in tropical climates and temperate regions as well. Economic losses due to heat stress in ... Heat stress affects swine performance much of the time in tropical climates and seasonally in more moderate ones. ...
biomin.net/cz/clanky/overcoming-heat-stress-in-pigs-through-nutrition/

*  Tropical Plant Seeds | heritage and heirloom seeds

While the tropical climate is a true plant paradise, plant lovers from temperate or colder climates can also grow plants from ... While the tropical climate is a true plant paradise, plant lovers from temperate or colder climates can also grow plants from ... Tropical Plant Seeds. Heirloom Seeds Exotic Plants Tropical Plants Article. Sorting. Default. Number (descending). Number ( ... Tropical Plants Trees Special useful plants Difficult growing locations Seed Kits Growing instructions Seed sowing calendar ...
https://magicgardenseeds.com/Exotic-and-Tropical-Plants-Seeds/Tropical-Plant-Seeds-T.264-/

*  Old-growth rainforests vital for tropical biodiversity: study

... carried out a comprehensive assessment to estimate the impact of disturbance and land conversion on biodiversity in tropical ... Biofuel plantations on tropical forestlands are bad for the climate and biodiversity. December 1, 2008 (PhysOrg.com) -- Keeping ... Biofuel plantations on tropical forestlands are bad for the climate and biodiversity, study finds. December 1, 2008 Keeping ... The future of tropical biodiversity depends on it," he concludes. Explore further: Biofuel plantations on tropical forestlands ...
https://phys.org/news/2011-09-old-growth-rainforests-vital-tropical-biodiversity.html

*  Tropical Climate Bell Sleeve Off Shoulder Top - JustFashionNow.com

Tropical Climate Bell Sleeve Off Shoulder Top Add to Favorites This product is no longer available. * ...
https://justfashionnow.com/product/tropical-climate-bell-sleeve-off-shoulder-top-119667.html

*  Tropical climate - Wikipedia

Tropical monsoon climate[edit]. The Tropical monsoon climate (Am):[1] is a type of climate that is common in South and ... Tropical wet and dry climate[edit]. The Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw):[1] These climates generally have a ... Tropical rainforest climate[edit]. In the Tropical rainforest climate (Af):[1] all twelve months have an average precipitation ... A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_climate

*  Fun Tropical Climate Facts for Kids

Learn Fun Natural Science Facts about the Tropical Climates. More Earth Science Fun Facts at our Easy Science for Kids Website ... Within tropical climates, there are three groups: tropical wet; tropical wet and dry; and tropical monsoon. Tropical wet ... Earth Science Fun Facts for Kids All About Tropical Climates - Hawaii Beach an Example of a Tropical Rainforest Climate All ... Fun Facts About Tropical Climates for Kids. *Hawaii has a tropical rainforest climate. ...
easyscienceforkids.com/all-about-tropical-climates/

*  Palm Trees in tropical climate Clear iPhone Case by Ib Photography | Society6

Palm Trees in tropical climate Clear iPhone Case by Ib Photography. Worldwide shipping available at Society6.com. Just one of ... nature tops tropical palm-tree leaves palm-trees flora tropic plant coconut silhouette sky asia ...
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*  A seven-year retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological and mycological manifestations of fungal rhinosinusitis in a...

... analysis of the clinicopathological and mycological manifestations of fungal rhinosinusitis in a single-centre tropical climate ... analysis of the clinicopathological and mycological manifestations of fungal rhinosinusitis in a single-centre tropical climate ...
https://cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology/article/sevenyear-retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinicopathological-and-mycological-manifestations-of-fungal-rhinosinusitis-in-a-singlecentre-tropical-climate-hospital/A6A15ECAF79E35680ECAC3A726F836B6

*  tropical wet-dry climate | meteorology | Britannica.com

Major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with most of the precipitation ... South America: Tropical climates. The second type of tropical climate-the tropical wet-dry, or savanna (grassy parkland), type- ... Tropical wet-dry climate, major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with ... That type of climate is found on the fringes of the tropical-rainy belt, in the Orinoco basin, on the Brazilian Highlands, and ...
https://britannica.com/science/tropical-wet-dry-climate

*  Baby whirls: improved detection of marginal tropical storms « Climate Audit

... submitted to the Journal of Climate along with three other prominent tropical cyclone and/or climate researchers: Gabe Vecchi ( ... 2007: Heightened tropical cyclone activity in the North. Atlantic: natural variability or climate trend? Philos. Transact. R. ... Emanuel's focus has been on the cumulative power/energy impact of tropical cyclones on climate. Thus, as pointed out here in ... My highlighting of his statement is indicative of current "debate" in the tropical cyclone and climate department - even if it ...
https://climateaudit.org/2009/05/18/baby-whirls-improved-detection-of-marginal-tropical-storms/?like=1&source=post_flair&_wpnonce=bbf4ba6a50

*  Climate Change and Tropical Cyclones (Yet Again) « RealClimate

The idea that climate change might actually decrease the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) is not an entirely new idea. ... Hurricanes and tropical storms will become less frequent by the end of the century as a result of climate change, US ... "The idea that climate change might actually decrease the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) is not an entirely new idea.'… ... 62 Responses to "Climate Change and Tropical Cyclones (Yet Again)". 1 2 Next » ...
realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2008/05/climate-change-and-tropical-cyclones-yet-again/?wpmp_switcher=mobile

*  UnderwaterTimes.com | Research: Tropical Cyclones Have Climate-control Rol

... cyclones and hurricanes play an important role in the ocean circulation patterns that transport heat and maintain the climate ... Purdue University researchers have found evidence that tropical ... Research: Tropical Cyclones Have Climate-control Role; Cold- ... Research: Tropical Regions To Be Hardest Hit By Fisheries Shifts Caused By Climate Change. Study Examines Sea Cucumbers Role In ... and suggest that there is an additional factor to be included in climate models that may change predictions of future climate ...
https://underwatertimes.com/news.php?article_id=57310298146

*  Climate change brings tropical diseases closer to California | 89.3 KPCC

County's health department warns that the warming side effects of climate change could lead straight to an upswing in tropical ... He identified two tropical diseases: dengue fever, carried by mosquitos, and Chagas disease, spread by the blood-sucking " ... He says he's concerned that climate change is leading to warming temperatures, and that they in turn are "providing a habitat ... Inside an air-conditioned hearing with the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, climate skeptics argued temperature ...
scpr.org/news/2012/08/05/33647/climate-change-brings-tropical-diseases-closer-cal/

*  Climate catastrophe avoidable if tropical deforestation halved, say scientists

New research has figured out how much carbon the world's tropical forests are losing to deforestation, and provides a roadmap ... As another round of UN Climate talks kicked off in Paris this week, a new study has asserted that reducing tropical ... Agriculture Animals Birds Climate Change Conservation Deforestation Energy Featured Forests Happy-upbeat Environmental Herps ... REDD+ Africa: looking past Trump's U.N. proposed climate budget cuts * Modern Fish Act: boon to recreational fishing or risk to ...
https://news.mongabay.com/2015/12/climate-catastrophe-avoidable-if-tropical-deforestation-halved-say-scientists/

*  Researchers investigate impacts of climate change on rare tropical plants

... 06 December 2012 York, University of ...
alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=126671&CultureCode=en

*  Essay on Tropical-Subtropical Hot Desert Climate (BWh) or Sahara Type Climate

... subtropical hot desert climate is also popularly known as the Sahara type of climate-named after the most extensive hot desert ... Essay on Tropical-Subtropical Hot Desert Climate (BWh) or Sahara Type Climate Rajan D ... The tropical - subtropical hot desert climate is also popularly known as the Sahara type of climate-named after the most ... In tropical hot deserts it is true that evaporation exceeds precipitation. Rainfall in the tropical hot deserts is irregular ...
preservearticles.com/2011111717351/essay-on-tropical-subtropical-hot-desert-climate-bwh-or-sahara-type-climate.html

*  Amazon.ca: By Climate - Gardening & Horticulture: Books: Tropical, General, General AAS, Desert, Temperate & More

Online shopping for Books from a great selection of Tropical, General, General AAS, Desert, Temperate, Colder Climates & more ... By Climate Select the department you want to search in By Climate. All Departments. Amazon Warehouse Deals. Apps & Games. ... 1-16 of 780 results for Books : Crafts, Hobbies & Home : Gardening & Horticulture : By Climate. ... The Carbon Farming Solution: A Global Toolkit of Perennial Crops and Regenerative Agriculture Practices for Climate Change ...
https://amazon.ca/By-Climate-Gardening-Horticulture-Books/b?ie=UTF8&node=10929471

*  Water scarcity in the tropical Andes: Population growth outweighs climate change - Population Media Center

Water scarcity in the tropical Andes: Population growth outweighs climate change. July 23, 2012 • Climate Change & Mitigation, ... The scientists used 19 climate models to project how climate change may affect urban water resources of the tropical Andes over ... We focus on 4 major cities in, or receiving water from the tropical Andes… In all cases, the median projection of climate ... Some parts of the tropical Andes, a region along the northwestern coast of South America, already lack sufficient water to meet ...
https://populationmedia.org/2012/07/23/water-scarcity-in-the-tropical-andes-population-growth-outweighs-climate-change/

*  An analysis of regional climate model performance over the tropical Americas. Part II : simulating subseasonal variability of...

Climate Research Research subject. Climate Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-620DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00387.xISI: ... An analysis of regional climate model performance over the tropical Americas. Part II: simulating subseasonal variability of ... Climate Research Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. Total: 10 downloads. The number of downloads is the sum of all ... Climate research - Rossby Centre In the same journal. Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography On the subject. ...
diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:807313

*  Comoros Anjouan Coconut Grove stock photo 171587561 | iStock

Coconut Palm Tree, Tropical Climate, Backgrounds, Comoros, Grove. Only from iStock. Open comp. ...
istockphoto.com/photo/comoros-anjouan-coconut-grove-gm171587561-15160316

*  Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey & Predators: Edited By: D Evans and JO Schmidt | NHBS Book Shop

Buy Insect Defenses: Adaptive Mechanisms and Strategies of Prey & Predators (9780791406168) (9780887068966): NHBS - Edited By: D Evans and JO Schmidt, State University of New York Press
https://nhbs.com/insect-defenses-adaptive-mechanisms-and-strategies-of-prey-predators-book

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...

TROPICAL STORM (82) * TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI RHODESIENSE (3) * TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI (8) * TRYPANOSOMIASIS (2) ... CLIMATE CHANGE (160) * CLINDAMYCIN (2) * CLOSTRIDIUM BARATII (2) * CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM (25) * CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE (71) ...
https://hygimia69.blogspot.com/2017/02/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8_20.html

*  Acropora elseyi

This species occurs in shallow, tropical reef environments. It is found around the low tide mark, in shallow subtidal habitats ... In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and ... However, because of predicted threats from climate change and ocean acidification it will be important to reassess this species ... Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral ...
iucnredlist.org/details/133010/0

*  Phyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)

Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, in Florida (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Phyllocnistinae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 4(1 ... Range expansion - Climate change. *Range expansion - Introductions. *Range expansion - Local dispersal *Range expansion - ...
cabi.org/isc/datasheet/40831

Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.France–Niger relations: France–Niger relations refer to foreign relations between France and the Niger. Their relations are based on a long shared history and the more than sixty year rule of Niger by French colonial empire beginning with the French conquest in 1898.Invasion of Guadeloupe (1794): The Invasion of Guadeloupe was a British attempt in 1794 to take and hold the island of Guadeloupe in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British had negotiated with the French planters, Ignace-Joseph-Philippe de Perpignan and Louis de Curt, who wished to gain British protection, as the French Constitutional Assembly was passing a law abolishing slavery.St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park: St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park is a national park located just off the Hummingbird Highway in Cayo District of Belize, near Belmopan, the capital city.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightHumidifierClimate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Mawson StationEcosystemThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".

(1/1413) Geography of intestinal permeability and absorption.

BACKGROUND: Intestinal morphology and function vary geographically. AIMS: These functions were assessed in asymptomatic volunteers in European, North American, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Caribbean countries. METHODS: Five hour urine collections were obtained from each subject following ingestion of a 100 ml iso-osmolar test solution containing 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose after an overnight fast, to assess active (3-0-methyl-D-glucose) and passive (D-xylose) carrier mediated, and non-mediated (L-rhamnose) absorption capacity, as well as intestinal permeability (lactulose:rhamnose ratio). RESULTS: A comparison of results for subjects from tropical countries (n=218) with those resident in the combined temperate and subtropical region (Europe, United States, Qatar) (n=224) showed significant differences. Residents in tropical areas had a higher mean lactulose:rhamnose ratio and lower mean five hour recoveries of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-rhamnose, indicating higher intestinal permeability and lower absorptive capacity. Investigation of visiting residents suggested that differences in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity were related to the area of residence. Subjects from Texas and Qatar, although comprised of several ethnic groups and resident in a subtropical area, showed no significant difference from European subjects. CONCLUSIONS: There are clearly demarcated variations in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity affecting asymptomatic residents of different geographical areas which correspond with the condition described as tropical enteropathy. Results suggest the importance of environmental factors. The parameters investigated may be relevant to the predisposition of the indigenous population and travellers to diarrhoeal illness and malnutrition. Intestinal function in patients from the tropics may be difficult to interpret, but should take into account the range of values found in the asymptomatic normal population.  (+info)

(2/1413) Independent evaluation of the Nigrosin-Eosin modification of the Kato-Katz technique.

A new modified quantitative Kato-Katz thick-smear technique for the detection of helminth eggs in faeces preserves hookworm eggs unaltered for a long time, while with the classic Kato-Katz technique, they disappear after approximately 2 h in tropical climates and thus slides must be read within hours after sample collection. For an independent comparison of these two laboratory techniques, faecal smears from 263 school children were examined in two surveys and prevalence, intensity of infection and costs of surveys calculated. There was no statistical difference between the methods in detecting prevalence and stratification of the sample in different classes of intensity. While there was no statistical difference for the arithmetic mean of the epg for T. trichiura and only a small difference for A. lumbricoides (P=0.04), we observed a highly significant difference for hookworm mean intensities of infections (P<0.001). From the public health viewpoint both methods provided similar results, but due to its simplicity and widespread use the classical Kato-Katz technique remains first choice for community investigation of soil-transmitted nematodes. However, the Nigrosin-Eosin approach has several advantages and can be a valuable alternative in certain circumstances.  (+info)

(3/1413) Transgenic plants for tropical regions: some considerations about their development and their transfer to the small farmer.

Biotechnological applications, especially transgenic plants, probably hold the most promise in augmenting agricultural production in the first decades of the next millennium. However, the application of these technologies to the agriculture of tropical regions where the largest areas of low productivity are located, and where they are most needed, remains a major challenge. In this paper, some of the important issues that need to be considered to ensure that plant biotechnology is effectively transferred to the developing world are discussed.  (+info)

(4/1413) Gardenification of tropical conserved wildlands: multitasking, multicropping, and multiusers.

Tropical wildlands and their biodiversity will survive in perpetuity only through their integration into human society. One protocol for integration is to explicitly recognize conserved tropical wildlands as wildland gardens. A major way to facilitate the generation of goods and services by a wildland garden is to generate a public-domain Yellow Pages for its organisms. Such a Yellow Pages is part and parcel of high-quality search-and-delivery from wildland gardens. And, as they and their organisms become better understood, they become higher quality biodiversity storage devices than are large freezers. One obstacle to wildland garden survival is that specific goods and services, such as biodiversity prospecting, lack development protocols that automatically shunt the profits back to the source. Other obstacles are that environmental services contracts have the unappealing trait of asking for the payment of environmental credit card bills and implying delegation of centralized governmental authority to decentralized social structures. Many of the potential conflicts associated with wildland gardens may be reduced by recognizing two sets of social rules for perpetuating biodiversity and ecosystems, one set for the wildland garden and one set for the agroscape. In the former, maintaining wildland biodiversity and ecosystem survival in perpetuity through minimally damaging use is paramount, while in the agroscape, wild biodiversity and ecosystems are tools for a healthy and productive agroecosystem, and the loss of much of the original is acceptable.  (+info)

(5/1413) Case studies in international medicine.

Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.  (+info)

(6/1413) Soil bacterial community shift correlated with change from forest to pasture vegetation in a tropical soil.

The change in vegetative cover of a Hawaiian soil from forest to pasture led to significant changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community. DNAs were extracted from both soil habitats and compared for the abundance of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content, by analysis of abundance of phylotypes of small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) amplified from fractions with 63 and 35% G+C contents, and by phylogenetic analysis of the dominant rDNA clones in the 63% G+C content fraction. All three methods showed differences between the forest and pasture habitats, providing evidence that vegetation had a strong influence on microbial community composition at three levels of taxon resolution. The forest soil DNA had a peak in G+C content of 61%, while the DNA of the pasture soil had a peak in G+C content of 67%. None of the dominant phylotypes found in the forest soil were detected in the pasture soil. For the 63% G+C fraction SSU rDNA sequence analysis of the three most dominant members revealed that their phyla changed from Fibrobacter and Syntrophomonas assemblages in the forest soil to Burkholderia and Rhizobium-Agrobacterium assemblages in the pasture soil.  (+info)

(7/1413) Predicting malaria infection in Gambian children from satellite data and bed net use surveys: the importance of spatial correlation in the interpretation of results.

In line with the renewed World Health Organization Global Malaria Control Strategy, we have advocated the use of satellite imagery by control services to provide environmental information for malaria stratification, monitoring, and early warning. To achieve this operationally, appropriate methodologies must be developed for integrating environmental and epidemiologic data into models that can be used by decision-makers for improved resource allocation. Using methodologies developed for the Famine Early Warning Systems and spatial statistics, we show a significant association between age related malaria infection in Gambian children and the amount of seasonal environmental greenness as measured using the normalized difference vegetation index derived from satellite data. The resulting model is used to predict changes in malaria prevalence rates in children resulting from different bed net control scenarios.  (+info)

(8/1413) Chemotherapy of malaria and resistance to antimalarial drugs in Guayana area, Venezuela.

Resistance to antimalarial chemotherapy is one of the greatest difficulties for the control of malaria transmission. Seventy patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were included in a study of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine therapy. Resistance levels RI, RII, and RIII were established. Eighteen infections (51%) cleared after chloroquine treatment and did not recur within 28 days of follow-up; these were classified as sensitive. Ten infections (29%) were resistant at the RI level. Resistance at level RII was observed in 5 (14%) cases, and RIII resistance was demonstrated in 2 infections (6%). With sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 28 (80%) infections were classified as sensitive. Six infections (17%) showed resistance at level RII, and 1 (3%) infection was resistant at the RI level. Resistance at level RIII was not observed. In a microtest for chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity in vitro, schizont development was accomplished successfully in 70 blood samples. In vitro resistance to chloroquine was demonstrated in 15 of 70 (21%) of all isolates. Eight of 70 (11%) of all isolates showed resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Diversity of response of P. falciparum to the studied antimalarial drugs in the Guayana area of Venezuela is considered a problem restricting the control of malaria in this geographical area. A constant evaluation program monitoring P. falciparum drug sensitivity is necessary for preserving the efficacy of the established treatment.  (+info)



temperatures


  • A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non- arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the predicted rise in global temperatures in the coming decades, climate scientists are particularly interested in warm periods that occurred in the geological past. (eponline.com)
  • Temperatures in tropical wet-dry climate regions are high throughout the year but show a greater range than wet equatorial (Af) and Am climates (19-20 °C [66-68 °F] in winter and 24-27 °C [75-81 °F] in summer). (britannica.com)
  • The second type of tropical climate-the tropical wet-dry, or savanna (grassy parkland), type-is characterized by high temperatures (all monthly means above 64 °F, or 18 °C) but receives less precipitation and experiences a prolonged dry season. (britannica.com)
  • are referable to dry climates, but duricrusts proper, at least in present and late Holocene occurrences (the Holocene Epoch began about 11,700 years ago), are referable to humid tropical climates, probably with seasonal dryness, coincident wet and warm seasons, and soil temperatures averaging 25° to 30° C (about 75° to 85° F). Under these conditions, 50. (britannica.com)
  • This explains some of the mystery of the observed temperatures from the distant past during a greenhouse climate. (underwatertimes.com)
  • He says he's concerned that climate change is leading to warming temperatures, and that they in turn are "providing a habitat for vectors (insects particularly) that weren't here before. (scpr.org)
  • In the hot desert climate the highest insolation and the highest temperatures are recorded. (preservearticles.com)
  • During summer the west-coast tropical deserts record lower temperatures than the inland deserts which are extremely hot. (preservearticles.com)
  • In their projections, the demand for more water as populations increase surpasses the amount of water lost through evaporation from warmer temperatures due to climate change. (populationmedia.org)

subtropical


  • The researchers were thus able to reconstruct the local vegetation on Antarctica and, accordingly, interpret the presence of tropical and subtropical rainforests covering the coastal region 52 million years ago. (eponline.com)
  • In the North Atlantic, a name is granted to a tropical or subtropical storm with sustained winds of greater than 34 knots AND when the National Hurricane Center declares it is so. (climateaudit.org)
  • The tropical - subtropical hot desert climate is also popularly known as the Sahara type of climate-named after the most extensive hot desert of Sahara in North Africa. (preservearticles.com)
  • The hot desert climate is not only confined to the land areas, but extends far beyond them over the subtropical oceans towards the west. (preservearticles.com)

greenhouse climate


  • Until now, however, it has been unclear how Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems responded in the geological past to a greenhouse climate with high atmospheric CO2 concentrations. (eponline.com)

impacts


  • The atmospheric components of climate models were never really designed for the study of TCs, but the fact that they can produce features with TC-like character when run at sufficiently high resolutions, gives us increased confidence in the possibility that climate models can be used to analyze climate change impacts on TCs. (realclimate.org)
  • Knutson et al project future changes in Atlantic TC behavior by using a regional climate model (RCM) which produces tropical cyclones (though ones that are too weak-see discussion below) to 'downscale' climate change impacts. (realclimate.org)

climates


  • Tropical climates are frost-free and changes in the solar angle are small. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropical climates are found in areas that lie close to the equator. (easyscienceforkids.com)
  • Enjoyed the Earth Science for Kids all about Tropical Climates info? (easyscienceforkids.com)
  • Take the FREE & fun all about Tropical Climates quiz and download FREE all about Tropical Climates worksheet for kids . (easyscienceforkids.com)
  • The dry season is longer than in tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral (Am) climates and becomes progressively longer as one moves poleward through the region. (britannica.com)

regional climate model


  • An analysis of regional climate model performance over the tropical Americas. (diva-portal.org)

cyclones


  • Records of Atlantic basin tropical cyclones (TCs) since the late-19th Century indicate a very large upward trend in storm frequency. (climateaudit.org)
  • Just as Typhoon Nargis has reminded us of the destructive power of tropical cyclones (with its horrible death toll in Burma-around 100,000 according to the UN), a new paper by Knutson et al in the latest issue of the journal Nature Geosciences purports to project a reduction in Atlantic hurricane activity (principally the 'frequency' but also integrated measures of powerfulness). (realclimate.org)
  • The idea that climate change might actually decrease the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) is not an entirely new idea. (realclimate.org)
  • And both studies project a decrease in the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones (though see caveats below). (realclimate.org)
  • WEST LAFAYETTE, Indiana -- Purdue University researchers have found evidence that tropical cyclones and hurricanes play an important role in the ocean circulation patterns that transport heat and maintain the climate of North America and Europe. (underwatertimes.com)
  • It is remarkable how closely the amount of mixing generated by the cyclones and the location of this mixing matches what appears to be needed to improve climate models," Jayne said. (underwatertimes.com)

warmer


  • TCs are very likely being artificially prevented from intensifying in a warmer climate in the Knutson et al study because of this. (realclimate.org)

rainforest climate


Monsoon


temperate


  • The continental interior, however, was noticeably cooler, with the climate supporting the growth of temperate rainforests characterized by southern beech and Araucaria trees of the type common in New Zealand today. (eponline.com)

change


  • Knowledge of past episodes of global warmth can be used to better understand the relationship between climate change, variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide and the reaction of Earth's biosphere. (eponline.com)
  • It is these storm counts that are used for a variety of purposes including insurance rates and climate change research. (climateaudit.org)
  • This increase in documented TCs has been previously interpreted as resulting from anthropogenic climate change. (climateaudit.org)
  • But the study has been accorded the unprecedented privilege (that is, for a climate change article published during the past 7 years) of a NOAA press conference. (realclimate.org)
  • These findings support a 2001 theory by Kerry Emanuel, a professor of atmospheric science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and suggest that there is an additional factor to be included in climate models that may change predictions of future climate scenarios. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Warm water fuels hurricanes, which have been shown to leave cold water in their wake," said Huber, who also is a member of the Purdue Climate Change Research Center at Discovery Park. (underwatertimes.com)
  • L.A. County's health department warns that the warming side effects of climate change could lead straight to an upswing in tropical disease across California. (scpr.org)
  • Fielding urged lawmakers to restore funding to the Centers for Disease Control to help local public health departments prepare for insect-borne diseases and other side effects of climate change. (scpr.org)
  • In 2010, governments agreed that global warming needed to be kept below a 2 degree Celsius temperature change by 2020 to avert the most harmful effects of climate change. (mongabay.com)
  • Two main stressors are climate change and population growth, but evaluating their relative impact is difficult, especially because of the complex topology of water supply. (populationmedia.org)
  • We focus on 4 major cities in, or receiving water from the tropical Andes… In all cases, the median projection of climate change suggests a relatively limited impact on water availability but uncertainties are large. (populationmedia.org)
  • we find that the expected demographic changes are very likely to outpace the impact of climate change on water availability and should therefore be the priority for local policy making. (populationmedia.org)
  • Despite all the uncertainty of the future impact of climate change, the impact of population growth is much bigger," said Wouter Buytaert of Imperial College London, an environmental engineer and lead author of the study. (populationmedia.org)
  • To help policy makers combat this water scarcity, Buytaert and his colleague, Bert De Bièvre of the Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion in Quito, Ecuador, compared the two main drivers of water depletion in that region - climate change and population growth. (populationmedia.org)
  • The scientists used 19 climate models to project how climate change may affect urban water resources of the tropical Andes over the next 60 years. (populationmedia.org)

equator


  • This is very important because it is well-known that to get El Ni o right in a climate model, the background mixing at the equator must be greatly reduced. (underwatertimes.com)

Centre


  • An international team led by scientists from the Goethe University and the Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre in Frankfurt, Germany, has discovered an intense warming phase around 52 million years ago in drill cores obtained from the seafloor near Antarctica - a region that is especially important in climate research. (eponline.com)
  • If the current CO2 emissions continue unabated due to the burning of fossil fuels, CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, as they existed in the distant past, are likely to be achieved within a few hundred years", explains Prof. Jörg Pross, a paleoclimatologist at the Goethe University and member of the Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F) in Frankfurt, Germany. (eponline.com)
  • SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre. (diva-portal.org)
  • Part I of this study evaluated the ability of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric model (RCA), forced by analysed boundary conditions, to simulate seasonal mean precipitation anomalies over the tropical Americas associated with ENSO variability. (diva-portal.org)

South America


  • Some parts of the tropical Andes, a region along the northwestern coast of South America, already lack sufficient water to meet demand. (populationmedia.org)

scientists


  • Inside an air-conditioned hearing with the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, climate skeptics argued temperature statistics with scientists. (scpr.org)

researchers


  • In a local Florida newspaper , Chris Landsea describes a new paper he has (re-)submitted to the Journal of Climate along with three other prominent tropical cyclone and/or climate researchers: Gabe Vecchi (NOAA/GFDL), Lennart Bengtsson (Reading, UK), and Thomas Knutson (NOAA/GFDL). (climateaudit.org)
  • In total, the researchers found tropical deforestation was responsible for an average of 2,270 million metric tons of carbon emissions per year from 2001 through 2013. (mongabay.com)

vegetation


  • The study published in the journal Nature shows that tropical vegetation, including palms and relatives of today's tropical Baobab trees, was growing on the coast of Antarctica 52 million years ago. (eponline.com)
  • this implies, incorrectly, that all areas with savanna vegetation have this type of climate. (britannica.com)
  • Since there is scarcity of water in the tropical hot deserts, vegetation is sparse. (preservearticles.com)

atmospheric


  • The use a 'seeding' method to randomly generate small vortices analogous to 'short wave' tropical disturbances in the real world (the tracks they take are defined in terms of the background atmospheric circulation of the model combined with the so-called 'self advection' of the TC itself). (realclimate.org)

temperature


  • Because of the effect of sun angle on climate most areas within the tropics are hot year-round, with diurnal variations in temperature exceeding seasonal variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As another round of UN Climate talks kicked off in Paris this week, a new study has asserted that reducing tropical deforestation in half by 2020 would greatly reduce the planet's rising temperature. (mongabay.com)
  • Therefore the annual range of temperature in the desert climate is also very high. (preservearticles.com)

precipitation


  • Seasonal variations in tropical climate are dominated by changes in precipitation, which are in turn largely influenced by the tropical rain belt or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a portion of the Hadley cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropical wet-dry climate , major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with most of the precipitation occurring in the high-sun ("summer") season . (britannica.com)
  • In addition, annual rainfall totals are less than in the Af and Am climate types (50-175 cm [20-69 inches]), and most precipitation occurs as a result of convectional thunderstorm activity. (britannica.com)
  • In tropical hot deserts it is true that evaporation exceeds precipitation. (preservearticles.com)
  • Regional climate models (RCMs), with their increased resolution, may offer one means of improving general circulation model forecasts of higher time frequency precipitation variability. (diva-portal.org)

dynamics


  • it reports on a study led by Wouter Buytaert, of Imperial College London, which took a look at the population and water availability dynamics in the tropical Andes. (populationmedia.org)

Humid


  • The rain forest climate sounds ideal, but it is very humid here and there are lots of mosquitoes and bugs. (easyscienceforkids.com)

Seasonal


  • Throughout most of the region, the cause of the seasonal cycle is the shift in the tropical circulation throughout the year. (britannica.com)

storms


  • Back in 2007, David Smith described short-lived, generally weak or marginal tropical storms as Tiny Tims . (climateaudit.org)
  • Tiny Tims are storms so weak, small, remote and/or short-lived that there's no record of ships or land experiencing storm-force winds, yet they were classified as tropical storms. (climateaudit.org)
  • By historical standards these modern Tiny Tims would have been regarded as depressions or disturbed weather, not tropical storms. (climateaudit.org)
  • Although there is a lot of media coverage of the damage and destruction accompanying tropical storms and hurricanes, such storms can also have important benefits. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, landfalling tropical storms can be an important source of water, water that can lessen droughts and recharge underground aquifers. (blogspot.com)
  • The benefits of tropical storms and hurricanes doesn't end with rainfall. (blogspot.com)
  • Hurricanes and tropical storms produce overwash of sand, and without that the islands get skinnier and skinnier and might disappear as sea level rises. (blogspot.com)
  • Typically when those storms become extra-tropical the threat for severe weather decreases and the rain is heavy but not torrential. (blogspot.com)

frequency


  • correlates historical North Atlantic tropical storm frequency with SST warming and tests the hypothesis of multi-decadal oscillation impact on storm activity (AMO). (climateaudit.org)

Climatic


  • This is especially true in the tropical Andes, which is a region with strong climatic gradients and topographical limits to water resources. (populationmedia.org)

desert


  • Owing to different causes certain places within the tropics do not have a tropical climate, such as some desert areas and alpine regions. (wikipedia.org)

hurricanes


  • This research provides evidence that hurricanes play an important role and may be one of the missing pieces in the climate modeling puzzle. (underwatertimes.com)

seasons


  • This climate is dominated by the doldrums Low Pressure System all year round, and therefore has no natural seasons. (wikipedia.org)

predict


  • They define the probability of development of these vorticies into TCs through a 'genesis' model that conditions the favorability of development on various characteristics of the background climate state, and they use a theoretical model to predict TC intensities. (realclimate.org)
  • As the Earth's surface warms, climate models predict that the amount of fresh water for human consumption will likely decrease in parts of the globe. (populationmedia.org)

indicate


  • Computer models indicate that future climate warming will be particularly pronounced in high-latitude regions, i.e., near the poles. (eponline.com)

models


  • In order to get a more realistic description of the TCs in coarsely resolved climate models, one needs howeveer to ' downscale ' the model results. (realclimate.org)
  • Climate models today use what is called 'background mixing' to solve this problem," he said. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Using the best, most comprehensive models in existence, we could not obtain results that matched this past climate that we know existed," Huber said. (underwatertimes.com)
  • The results of the study, being published in the May 31 issue of Nature, are consistent with providing all of the mixing necessary to match what is needed in climate models. (underwatertimes.com)

belt


  • That type of climate is found on the fringes of the tropical-rainy belt, in the Orinoco basin, on the Brazilian Highlands, and in. (britannica.com)
  • Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" brought into the spotlight information about the ocean conveyer belt and its impact on climate. (underwatertimes.com)

diseases


  • Fielding said blood tests from labs around the county would likely be the first to identify the arrival of these tropical diseases. (scpr.org)
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (plos.org)

generate


  • compiled data to create a map of the amount of carbon present in tropical forests to generate points of reference for yearly carbon emissions caused by deforestation in the tropics. (mongabay.com)

past


  • By studying naturally occurring climate warming periods in the geological past, our knowledge of the mechanisms and processes in the climate system increases. (eponline.com)
  • Many of their papers received a high-level of scrutiny here at Climate Audit during the past 4 years. (climateaudit.org)

model


  • Indeed, similar conclusions have been reached in earlier work using climate model projections (e.g. (realclimate.org)
  • also use a downscaling approach applied to more-or-less the very same climate model simulations. (realclimate.org)

type


  • is a type of climate that is common in South and Southeast Asia and in South and Central America , as well as part of Africa and Australia. (wikipedia.org)

study


  • A new study purports that this goal can be reached if tropical deforestation is cut in half in the next five years. (mongabay.com)
  • The study finds that Brazil was responsible for the lion's share of tropical deforestation-caused emissions, releasing an average of 1,066 million metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere between 2001 and 2013 - nearly 47 percent of the global load. (mongabay.com)
  • While Brazil is not a signatory to the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF), the study considers Brazil "critical to any scenario" that involves carbon reduction with regard to tropical deforestation. (mongabay.com)
  • While that prospect looms for many cities around the world, a new study finds a more imminent threat to water supplies of cities in the tropical Andes, such as Lima, Peru and Quito, Ecuador. (populationmedia.org)

regions


  • Tropical wet regions, also known as rain forests , have the most predictable weather on earth. (easyscienceforkids.com)

major


  • Major drivers of tropical deforestation are industrial agricultural activities like cattle ranching in Mato Grosso, Brazil (left) and palm oil plantations in Riau, Indonesia (right). (mongabay.com)

conditions


  • The CO2 content of the atmosphere as assumed for that time interval is not enough on its own to explain the almost tropical conditions in the Antarctic", says Pross. (eponline.com)

System


  • The tropical wet-dry climate is abbreviated Aw in the Köppen-Geiger-Pohl system. (britannica.com)

media


  • Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tropical climate . (wikipedia.org)

Take