TriglyceridesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Triacetin: A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Bezafibrate: An antilipemic agent that lowers CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES. It decreases LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and increases HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I: An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)EstersFatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V: A severe type of hyperlipidemia, sometimes familial, that is characterized by the elevation of both plasma CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES contained in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is often associated with DIABETES MELLITUS and is not caused by reduced LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE activity as in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I .Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.AzetidinesApolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.TritiumAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

*  Triglycerides

h/triglycerides/CL00015 From the Mayo Clinic website: Why do high triglycerides matter? Although it's unclear how, high ... high triglycerides, high blood sugar and abnormal cholesterol levels. Sometimes high triglycerides are a sign of poorly ... Triglycerides. Sunday, January 08, 2012 Ha. My first lab that came back abnormal since my illness in August and it's my trigs? ... High triglycerides are often a sign of other conditions that increase the risk of heart disease and stroke as well, including ...
sparkpeople.com/mypage_public_journal_individual.asp?blog_id=4667349

*  What are Triglycerides? | HealthExpress UK

Triglycerides are normally the main components of natural fats and oils in the body, but what is their actual purpose in the ... Diagnosing high triglycerides levels. A simple blood test, often referred to as a lipid panel, can diagnose high triglyceride ... Difference between triglycerides and cholesterol. Triglycerides and cholesterol are both types of lipids or fats that cannot ... Treating high triglycerides levels. There are a number of treatments that may be recommended by a doctor to help you lower your ...
https://healthexpress.co.uk/cholesterol/triglycerides

*  Triglycerides: Healthwise Medical Information on eMedicineHealth

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. You need some triglycerides for good health. But high levels of ... triglycerides raise your risk for heart disease and other serious problems. Your triglycerides are measured by the same blood ...
emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=134350&ref=137261

*  Shaving Cream Products Containing: CAPRYLIC/ CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Skin Care , Hair Removal , Shaving Cream containing CAPRYLIC/ CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDE Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results See more: 1 2 3 ...
ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?ingred06=701056&category=shaving_cream&ingred06=701056&showmore=products&start=0&order=product INC

*  Browse Products Containing: CAPRYLIC/ CAPRIC/ STEARIC TRIGLYCERIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?comp_id=2457&ingred06=701061&containing=701061&showmore=products&start=80

*  South Indidian Veg Platain Leaf Meals Reduces TRIGLYCERIDES & BLOOD SUGAR. | HubPages

Veggi Meals.[ HERBAL EFFECT OF PLANTAIN LEAF ,TRIGLYCERIDES & BLOOD SUGAR REDUCED]. Plantain Leaf Meal,REDUCES TRIGLYCERIDES & ... South Indidian Veg Platain Leaf Meals Reduces TRIGLYCERIDES & BLOOD SUGAR.. Updated on February 9, 2013 ... Triglycerides.Many places in South India serve Meals which is mostly a mix of local plus south Indian for name sake.The typical ...
https://hubpages.com/religion-philosophy/South-Indian-Meal

*  High Triglycerides | Memorial Hospital

Learn more about High Triglycerides at Memorial Hospital Uses Principal Proposed Treatments: Fish Oil ... ... People with high triglycerides may not respond well to statin drugs. Instead, they may need to use high-dose niacin or drugs in ... Walnut oil has shown some promise for reducing triglycerides. 31 In a randomized trial of 86 people with high cholesterol and ... Other herbs and supplements that have shown promise for reducing triglyceride levels include fenugreek , 27creatine , 28 and ...
memorialhospitaljax.com/hl/?/39021/triglyceride&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  High triglycerides? - Weight Weenies

... triglycerides). Of course there are other reasons for high Triglycerides but its prudent for you to see a medical doctor. ... just had a blood test and came back with high triglycerides. I have not noticed any dip in performance, but if lowered would it ... Excess sugar(carbs) would be stored too hence why i have high triglycerides and another 7 pounds to lose. ... Excess sugar(carbs) would be stored too hence why i have high triglycerides and another 7 pounds to lose. ...
weightweenies.starbike.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=109271&p=935343

*  Diabetes Patients With High Triglycerides and Low HDL Cholesterol get the Most Benefit From

Diabetes Patients With High Triglycerides and Low HDL Cholesterol get the Most Benefit From Fenofibrate Treatment: New Data ... higher for patients with high triglyceride (greater than 2.3 mmol/L-200mg/dL) than those with lower triglyceride, and 40% ... Impact of triglyceride levels beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after acute coronary syndrome in the PROVE-IT TIMI 22 ... Patients with, or at increased risk of, type 2 diabetes often have an abnormal combination of high triglycerides and low HDL ...
newswire.ca/news-releases/diabetes-patients-with-high-triglycerides-and-low-hdl-cholesterol-get-the-most-benefit-from-fenofibrate-treatment-new-data-from-the-field-study-537259581.html

*  Kaletra Side Effects - Triglycerides and Cholesterol - Forum on Managing Side Effects of HIV Treatment - TheBody.com

Kaletra Side Effects - Triglycerides and Cholesterol. Jan 3, 2010 Hello - I am not HIV Positive - however i was treated with ... there has been a large increase in my triglycerides and cholesterol - however this is quite some time after taking the two week ... course - when stopping taking Kaletra should your triglycerides and cholesterol return to normal or may they stay elevated for ...
thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/SideEffects/Q206001.html?ic=4003

*  How To Lower Triglycerides Without Medicine

According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, a diet high in carbohydrates and sugars will lead to high triglycerides. Therefore it is important for people trying to reduce elevated triglycerides to first start by staying away from foods high in carbohydrates and sugar. Some food that you should stay away from if you are trying to reduce elevated triglycerides are sugars, honey, jams, and other foods with high levels of sugar. You should also stay away from all forms of alcohol such as beer and wine because these drinks have very high levels of carbohydrates, which will lead to elevated triglycerides. The reason sugar and carbohydrates are taken out of a triglycerides diet is because these types of foods have high levels of calories in them. Your body will convert these extra calories into triglycerides and store them in your body ...
howtolowerhightriglycerides.blogspot.com

*  10 Steps to Lowering Triglycerides - ProstateSupplements.com

Steps to lowering triglycerides can help people use diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes to lower triglycerides and lower risk for heart attack and disease
prostatesupplements.com/10-steps-to-lowering-triglycerides/

*  Plus it

LY2584702 is an inhibitor of p70 S6 kinase-1 previously developed for the treatment of cancer. In two phase 1 trials in oncology patients, significant reductions of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride were observed. In the current study, we sought to understand the potential mechanism of action of this compound in regulating lipid metabolism. In Long Evans diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, oral administration of LY2584702 for 3-4 weeks led to robust reduction of LDL-C up to 60%. An unexpected finding of liver triglyceride (TG) increase implicated a metabolite of LY2584702, 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-day]pyrimidine (4-APP), in modulation of lipid metabolism in these rats. We showed that low-dose 4-APP, when administered orally for 3-4 weeks to Long Evans DIO rats, produced lipoprotein profile changes that were strikingly similar to LY2584702. Kinetic studies suggested that both LY2584702 and 4-APP had no effect on chylomicron-TG secretion and only exerted a ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/362/1/108

*  Triglycerides / Triacylglycerols

Milk contains two protein fractions. These fractions are whey and casein. Consuming whole milk necessitates the consumption of both fractions because they are present as a mixture along with the other macronutrients. However, it is possible to separate these two … Continue reading →. ...
robertbarrington.net/category/triglycerides-triacylglycerols/

TriglycerideLipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.CholesterolHypertriglyceridemiaTriacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionVery low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Vitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588Lipoprotein lipase: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) () is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase. It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIAnimal fatHeptadecanoic acidBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Hypolipidemic agent: Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs.TrioleinChylomicron: Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylo, meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).M Mahmood Hussain: "Review Article: A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons"; Arterosclerosis; Vol.Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. The following hormones induce lipolysis: epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol.Apolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Apolipoprotein C3: Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene. Apo-CIII is a component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Apolipoprotein A1: Apolipoprotein A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene. It has a specific role in lipid metabolism.AtherosclerosisFatty liverNational Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.PhospholipidRopivacaineGlycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:TriacetinEthyl oleateApolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Separator (oil production): The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil, gas and water.GlycerideNCEH1: Neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH) also known as arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1) or KIAA1363 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NCEH1 gene.Fructose malabsorptionRice bran oilEmulsion polymerization: Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant. The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer (the oil) are emulsified (with surfactants) in a continuous phase of water.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Glucose transporterGlycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase: Glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase (, sn-2-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLaropiprantGemfibrozilTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Steglich esterification: The Steglich esterification is a variation of an esterfication with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as a catalyst. The reaction was first described by Wolfgang Steglich in 1978.List of MeSH codes (D12.776.930): This is a sub-part (transcription factors only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Anti-diabetic medication: Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents.LipoproteinCoulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.

(1/12738) Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury.

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

(2/12738) Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

(3/12738) Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

(4/12738) The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans.

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

(5/12738) Improvement of factor VII clotting activity following long-term NCPAP treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a very common disorder. Patients with OSAS are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has also been reported that a 25% rise in factor VII clotting activity (FVIIc) is associated with a 55% increase in ischaemic heart disease death during the first 5 years. We examined the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatment on FVIIc in patients with OSAS. FVIIc was investigated prospectively in 15 patients with OSAS before (mean +/- SEM apnoea and hypopnoea index (AHI) 61.5 +/- 4.2 and after (AHI 3.0 +/- 0.9) NCPAP treatment for immediate relief, at 1 month after treatment and at over 6 months. FVIIc levels gradually decreased after NCPAP treatment. After 6 months of NCPAP treatment, FVIIc levels had decreased significantly (before 141.1 +/- 11.7% vs. after 6 months 110.7 +/- 6.2%; p < 0.01). Six of the seven patients whose FVIIc levels were over 140% before the NCPAP treatment had FVIIc levels below 130% after 6 months or 1 year of NCPAP treatment. This decrease in FVIIc after long-term NCPAP treatment could improve mortality in OSAS patients. If patients, especially obese ones, present with high FVIIc of unknown origin, it would be prudent to check for OSAS.  (+info)

(6/12738) Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

(7/12738) Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

(8/12738) Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy.

Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance.  (+info)



lowering triglyceride levels


  • It is usually prescribed to treat high cholesterol, and can also be a useful treatment for lowering triglyceride levels. (healthexpress.co.uk)

cholesterol levels


  • While many people are increasingly monitoring their blood pressure and cholesterol levels, there is another factor people should be considering - their triglyceride levels. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • A simple blood test, often referred to as a lipid panel, can diagnose high triglyceride levels and can be checked at the same time as cholesterol levels. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • Although not all studies have been positive, in a detailed review of 47 randomized trials, researchers concluded that fish oil is capable of significantly reducing triglyceride levels with no change in total cholesterol levels and only slight increases in HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • That is because research has identified high triglyceride levels as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, even when cholesterol levels are normal. (medicalcityhospital.com)

VLDL


  • Results support the conclusion that insulin acts in vivo to suppress hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride and apoB secretion and strengthen the concept of a regulatory role for insulin in VLDL metabolism postprandially. (physiology.org)
  • In humans, acute hyperinsulinemia also inhibits VLDL and triglyceride production ( 20-23 , 25 ) by suppressing the production of large, VLDL1 B100 particles ( 23 , 25 ). (physiology.org)

hypertriglyceridemia


  • In addition, a slightly modified form of fish oil (ethyl-omega-3 fatty acids) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides). (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • An elevation of blood triglycerides is referred to as hypertriglyceridemia . (medicalcityhospital.com)

hardening of the a


  • Although it's unclear how, high triglycerides may contribute to hardening of the arteries or thickening of the artery walls (atherosclerosis) - which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease. (sparkpeople.com)
  • As well as contributing to atherosclerosis (a hardening of the arteries) and heart disease, very high triglycerides levels (more than 1,000 mg/dl) can also cause acute pancreatitis. (healthexpress.co.uk)

lipoproteins


  • Triglycerides and cholesterol are both types of lipids or fats that cannot dissolve in the blood and circulate through the body via transporting lipoproteins. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • insulin plays a key regulatory role in the synthesis and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) by liver (reviewed in Ref. 45 ). (physiology.org)

rats


  • Hepatic triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB) production were measured in anesthetized, fasted rats injected intravenously with Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg). (physiology.org)
  • In glucose-injected rats, triglyceride secretion averaged 22.5 ± 2.1 μg · ml −1 · min −1 , which was significantly less by 30% than that observed in saline-injected rats, which averaged 32.1 ± 1.4 μg · ml −1 · min −1 . (physiology.org)
  • Fasted rats were employed to minimize the contribution by the intestine to apoB and triglyceride production rates. (physiology.org)

High


  • My LDL and HDL levels are GREAT but now I'm borderline high 175 on the triglyceride level. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Why do high triglycerides matter? (sparkpeople.com)
  • High triglycerides are often a sign of other conditions that increase the risk of heart disease and stroke as well, including obesity and metabolic syndrome - a cluster of conditions that includes too much fat around the waist, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, high blood sugar and abnormal cholesterol levels. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Sometimes high triglycerides are a sign of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), liver or kidney disease, or rare genetic conditions that affect how your body converts fat to energy. (sparkpeople.com)
  • High triglycerides could also be a side effect of taking medications such as beta blockers, birth control pills, diuretics, steroids or the breast cancer drug tamoxifen. (sparkpeople.com)
  • A high level of triglycerides in your blood can significantly increase your risk of heart disease. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • But high levels of triglycerides raise your risk for heart disease and other serious problems. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • To test for hyperlipidemia, physicians rely on blood tests called lipid profiles that measure triglycerides as well as two types of the lipid cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • In some people with hyperlipidemia, however, high triglyceride levels are the primary problem. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Furthermore, if triglyceride levels get high enough, the pancreas may become inflamed, causing a dangerous condition called pancreatitis. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • People with high triglycerides may not respond well to statin drugs. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Diet, except when weight loss occurs, may not help, as a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can actually raise triglyceride levels. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • This is far less evidence than usually required for drug approval, and also substantially less than the body of evidence supporting standard fish oil as a treatment for high triglycerides. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • just had a blood test and came back with high triglycerides. (starbike.com)
  • How could i lower triglycerides while still eating a high carb diet? (starbike.com)
  • High Triglycerides are often caused by high nut consumption, especially nuts like peanuts. (starbike.com)
  • Excess sugar(carbs) would be stored too hence why i have high triglycerides and another 7 pounds to lose. (starbike.com)
  • Patients with, or at increased risk of, type 2 diabetes often have an abnormal combination of high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. (newswire.ca)
  • In people with diabetes, even when the LDL cholesterol level is reduced to less than 1.8 mmol/L-70mg/dL with statin therapy, cardiovascular risk is almost 50% higher for patients with high triglyceride (greater than 2.3 mmol/L-200mg/dL) than those with lower triglyceride, and 40% higher in those with low HDL cholesterol (less than 0.96 mmol/L-37mg/dL) than in those with higher HDL cholesterol(2),(3). (newswire.ca)
  • One in five FIELD patients had marked atherogenic dyslipidaemia and one in four marked high triglycerides. (newswire.ca)
  • Placing the new findings in clinical context, Professor Scott said: Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterised by high triglycerides of at least 2.3 mmol/L-200mg/dL and low HDL-C, as defined by ATP III, is a strong contributor to residual vascular risk in millions of patients with diabetes treated with the best standard of care, including statin therapy. (newswire.ca)
  • Studies have found that high triglycerides levels may increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • If you have severely high triglycerides, your doctor may recommend you take fish oil to try to prevent a problem with your pancreas called pancreatitis . (wellspan.org)
  • This medicine is used along with diet and lifestyle changes for high triglycerides. (wellspan.org)

mmol


  • Low plasma HDL cholesterol (less than 1.03 mmol/L-40mg/dL in men and less than 1.3 mmol/L-50mg/dL in women) and elevated triglyceride (greater than or equal to 1.7 mmol/L-150mg/dL) are key criteria of the metabolic syndrome according to the old definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATPIII) guidelines(4). (newswire.ca)
  • It also examined the effect of more marked atherogenic dyslipidaemia - the combination of low HDL cholesterol and higher triglycerides (greater than or equal to 2.3 mmol/L-200mg/dL). (newswire.ca)

lipid


lower


  • There are a number of treatments that may be recommended by a doctor to help you lower your triglyceride levels. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • Exercise (with or without weight loss) may also lower triglycerides. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Fish oil supplements can lower triglycerides . (wellspan.org)

levels


  • More than 2,000 people have participated in well-designed studies of fish oil for reducing triglyceride levels. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Fish oil has been studied for reducing triglyceride levels specifically in people with diabetes , and it appears to do so safely and effectively. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • According to some, but not all, studies, EPA may be more important than DHA for reducing triglyceride levels. (memorialhospitaljax.com)
  • Blood triglyceride levels are affected by dietary fat and are manufactured in the body from other energy sources, such as carbohydrates. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • The blood test to measure triglyceride levels is easy and can be done along with a routine blood test that also measures various types of cholesterol. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Triglyceride levels can be quite variable, so several measurements may be needed to provide accurate baseline values. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • For instance, people with poorly controlled type 1 or type 2 diabetes often have elevated triglyceride levels. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Increase physical activity - Aerobic exercise can help with weight loss and can decrease triglyceride levels at the same time. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Maintain a healthy weight -Studies have shown losing weight and maintaining an ideal weight to be associated with decreased levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Moderate or eliminate alcohol -According to the American Heart Association (AHA), small amounts of alcohol can increase triglyceride levels. (medicalcityhospital.com)

alcohol


  • Elevated triglycerides can also be brought on by thyroid disorders , kidney problems, obesity , excess alcohol, and taking certain medications. (medicalcityhospital.com)

heart disease


  • Another type of fatty substance found in the blood, known as triglycerides, may also need to be monitored in the effort to prevent heart disease. (medicalcityhospital.com)

blood


  • Your triglycerides are measured by the same blood test that measures your cholesterol. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • South Indidian Veg Platain Leaf Meals Reduces TRIGLYCERIDES & BLOOD SUGAR. (hubpages.com)
  • Triglycerides are a form of fat present in food, human body fat, and blood. (medicalcityhospital.com)

energy


  • When you eat, your body converts calories it doesn't immediately need into triglycerides, which it stores in your fat cells to use for energy later. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • Triglycerides' purpose is to store up energy for the body, which can be used later when needed. (healthexpress.co.uk)

health


  • You need some triglycerides for good health. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Recently I have had no end of health issues and doctors are trying to find the solutions - there has been a large increase in my triglycerides and cholesterol - however this is quite some time after taking the two week course - when stopping taking Kaletra should your triglycerides and cholesterol return to normal or may they stay elevated for some time? (thebody.com)

diet


  • Plasma triglycerides (TG) are decreased by addition of n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs to the diet. (diigo.com)

body


Difference


study


  • The current study assessed in vivo the effect of insulin on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) production by rat liver. (physiology.org)

another


  • An elevated triglyceride level can be an independent medical problem or can be due to another existing medical problem. (medicalcityhospital.com)

group


fast


  • To get an accurate triglyceride level measurement, you will need to fast from 9 to 12 hours before the test. (healthexpress.co.uk)