Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Nevus of Ota: A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Zoster Sine Herpete: HERPES ZOSTER but without eruption of vesicles. Patients exhibit the characteristic pain minus the skin rash, sometimes making diagnosis difficult.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Microvascular Decompression Surgery: Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus: The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Pterygopalatine Fossa: A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)MonotremataFacial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Diazonium CompoundsSpinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Granuloma, Plasma Cell: A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Facial NeoplasmsNerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.

*  The Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) - Course - Divisions - TeachMeAnatomy
It is also the largest cranial nerve. In this article, we shall look at the anatomical course of the nerve, and the motor, ... The trigeminal nerve, CN V, is the fifth paired cranial nerve. ... The trigeminal nerve, CN V, is the fifth paired cranial nerve. ... The trigeminal nerve originates from three sensory nuclei (mesencephalic, principal sensory, spinal nuclei of trigeminal nerve ... buccal nerve, inferior alveolar nerve, auriculotemporal nerve and lingual nerve. ...
  http://teachmeanatomy.info/head/cranial-nerves/trigeminal-nerve/
*  Patent US20060064140 - Methods and systems for stimulating a trigeminal nerve to treat a ... - Google Patentsuche
... control unit that is implanted within the patient and that is configured to apply at least one stimulus to a trigeminal nerve ... Methods of treating a patient with a psychiatric disorder include applying at least one stimulus to a trigeminal nerve within ... the trigeminal nerve (100), the trigeminal ganglia (102), a branch of the trigeminal nerve (100), the greater occipital nerve(s ... wherein said trigeminal nerve comprises at least one or more of a trigeminal ganglion and a branch of said trigeminal nerve. ...
  http://www.google.de/patents/US20060064140
*  Paralysis of the Jaw in Dogs | petMD
... branch of the trigeminal nerves (one of the cranial nerves) is a treatable medical condition called trigeminal nerve neuritis ( ... branch of the trigeminal nerves (one of the cranial nerves) is a treatable medical condition called trigeminal nerve neuritis ( ... and sometimes to fiber degeneration of all the branches of the trigeminal nerve and the nerve cell body. ... The underlying cause of trigeminal nerve neuritis is currently uknown, though it is possibly immune-mediated. . ...
  https://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/neurological/c_dg_trigeminal_inflammation
*  The Trigeminal Nerve Stock Images - Image: 23875564
The Trigeminal Nerve - Download From Over 67 Million High Quality Stock Photos, Images, Vectors. Sign up for FREE today. Image ... The trigeminal nerve. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve, eps8. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve, eps8 ... anatomy nerve trigeminal neurology medical mandibular brain neuron care stem maxillary organ disorder fiber nervous face ... More similar stock images of `The trigeminal nerve`. Anatomy of the Trigeminal nerve ...
  https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-images-trigeminal-nerve-image23875564
*  TMJ: TMJ Headaches and TMJ Migraine Headaches
... of its energy figuring out the messages from the trigeminal nerve and sending messages back through the nerve. The trigeminal ... TMJ Headaches are due to the involvement of the trigeminal nerve which is located on the side of the head is one of the most ... Certain areas of the brain are also innervated and controlled by the trigeminal nerve. In fact, it is estimated that the brain ... facial and hypoglossal nerves. A disturbance in any one of these four nerves will end up distrubing the other three. Along with ...
  http://tmj-lucy.blogspot.com/2011/07/tmj-headaches-and-tmj-migraine.html
*  Corneal Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans and Their Effects on Trigeminal Nerve Growth Cone Behavior In Vitro: Roles for ECM in...
... forming a pericorneal nerve ring. At this stage, individual nerves or nerve bundles/fascicles exited the nerve ring and ... forming a pericorneal nerve ring. At this stage, individual nerves or nerve bundles/fascicles exited the nerve ring and ... forming a pericorneal nerve ring. At this stage, individual nerves or nerve bundles/fascicles exited the nerve ring and ... forming a pericorneal nerve ring. At this stage, individual nerves or nerve bundles/fascicles exited the nerve ring and ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2165508
*  Understanding Pain page 2-DoctorSpiller.com - DoctorSpiller.com
... effects only one of the two Trigeminal nerves. Nerves from one side of the face do not anatomically contact any of the nerves ... 1. The diagram above is a schematic of the Trigeminal nerve. This nerve is responsible for all the feeling on one side of your ... The other side of your face has its own Trigeminal nerve.) There are three branches, all of which originate in the semilunar ( ... which may refer serious pain throughout large parts of the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. The tip off that this is not a ...
  https://doctorspiller.com/understanding-pain-page-2/
*  Spinal tract of trigeminal nerve definition | Drugs.com
Definition of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. Definition: a compact fiber bundle, comma-shaped on transverse section, composed of primary ... Synonym(s): tractus spinalis nervi trigeminiTA, descending tract of trigeminal nerve, tractus descendens nervi trigemini ... sensory fibers of the portio major of the trigeminal nerve, descending from the level of the entrance of the trigeminus in the ...
  https://www.drugs.com/dict/spinal-tract-of-trigeminal-nerve.html
*  Trigeminal nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary
One of them is the trigeminal nerve, which is also referred to as the fifth cranial nerve or cranial nerve V (CN V). ... There are three divisions of the fifth cranial nerve: ophthalmic nerve (V1), maxillary nerve (V2), and mandibular nerve (V3). ... noun, plural: trigeminal nerves The cranial nerve that is responsible for sensory innervation of the face and motor innervation ... The trigeminal nerve is a cranial nerve responsible for the sensory innervation of the face and motor innervation to muscles of ...
  https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Fifth_cranial_nerve
*  trigeminal nerve Archives - Rebound MD
Tag: trigeminal nerve. Understanding Trigeminal Neuralgia January 10, 2016. Rebound's board-certified neurosurgery team is ... equipped with the latest technology to treat a variety of conditions that affect the brain and spine, including trigeminal ...
  http://www.reboundmd.com/tag/trigeminal-nerve/
*  Trigeminal nerve stimulation modulates brainstem more than cortical excitability in healthy humans | SpringerLink
... have been hypothesized to explain the beneficial effects of transcutaneous trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) on several ... DeGiorgio CM, Shewmon DA, Whitehurst T (2003) Trigeminal nerve stimulation for epilepsy. Neurology 61(3):421-422CrossRefPubMed ... Trigeminal nerve stimulation Transcranial magnetic stimulation Blink reflex Cortical excitability Brainstem excitability ... Pop J, Murray D, Markovic D, DeGiorgio CM (2011) Acute and long-term safety of external trigeminal nerve stimulation for drug- ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00221-015-4398-2
*  Motor root of trigeminal nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary
motor root of trigeminal nerve (Science: anatomy, nerve) The smaller root of the trigeminal nerve, composed of fibres ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Motor_root_of_trigeminal_nerve&oldid=35636" ... to join the mandibular nerve; it carries motor and proprioceptive fibres to the muscles derived from the first bronchial ( ... originating from the trigeminal motor nucleus and emerging from the pons medial to the much larger sensory root, ...
  https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Motor_root_of_trigeminal_nerve
*  Subcutaneous Trigeminal Nerve Field Stimulation for Refractory Facial Pain | Protocol
sTNFS is not the only type of neuromodulation of the trigeminal nerve. Direct stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion was ... Subcutaneous trigeminal nerve field stimulation for refractory trigeminal pain: a cohort analysis. Acta Neurochir. (Wien). 158 ... Peripheral nerve field stimulation for trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal neuropathic pain, and persistent idiopathic facial pain ... Subcutaneous Trigeminal Nerve Field Stimulation for Refractory Facial Pain. Martin Jakobs1, Sigrid Schuh-Hofer2, Andreas ...
  https://www.jove.com/video/55408/subcutaneous-trigeminal-nerve-field-stimulation-for-refractory-facial
*  Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary
principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Science: anatomy, nerve) The term commonly used to designate the nucleus pontis ... input via the trigeminal nerve, projects to ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus. ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Principal_sensory_nucleus_of_trigeminal_nerve&oldid= ... nervi trigeminalis; located in pons lateral to the motor trigeminal nucleus; receives primary sensory (touch and pressure) ...
  https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Principal_sensory_nucleus_of_trigeminal_nerve
*  Trigeminal nerve block and surgery | Springer for Research & Development
The trigeminal nerve is one of the peripheral nerves often involved in painful conditions. It supplies the sensory fibers to ... Nerve Block Trigeminal Nerve Mental Foramen Anaesthetic Solution Lingual Nerve This is a preview of subscription content, log ... The trigeminal nerve is one of the peripheral nerves often involved in painful conditions. It supplies the sensory fibers to ... Jannetta PJ (1967) Arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-88-470-2240-9_15
*  Optimal duration of percutaneous microballoon compression for trigeminal nerve injury
News Optimal duration of percutaneous microballoon compression for trigeminal nerve injury Optimal duration of percutaneous ... microballoon compression for trigeminal nerve injury. Percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion is a ... brand new operative technique for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. However, it is unclear how the procedure mediates pain ...
  https://www.painweek.org/news_posts/optimal-duration-of-percutaneous-microballoon-compression-for-trigeminal-nerve-injury.html
*  Ataxic hemiparesis with contralateral trigeminal nerve impairment due to pontine hemorrhage. | Stroke
Ataxic hemiparesis with contralateral trigeminal nerve impairment due to pontine hemorrhage.. P Ambrosetto ... A most unusual case of right-sided ataxic hemiparesis with left trigeminal involvement is reported. Computerized tomographic ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/18/1/244
*  Trigeminal nerve - Wikipedia
The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve ( ... Trigeminal nerve anatomy, part 1 and part 2 on YouTube Notes on the trigeminal nerve Trigeminal neuralgia. ... The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor ... the glossopharyngeal nerve) and X (the vagus nerve). All sensory fibers from these nerves terminate in the trigeminal nucleus. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigeminal_nerve
*  Ultrasound Guided Trigeminal Nerve Block for Typical or Atypical Facial Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Ultrasound Guided Trigeminal Nerve Block for Typical or Atypical Facial Pain. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Ultrasound-guided trigeminal nerve block allows for fine adjustment of the needle tip and direct observation of the medicine. ... Phase 4 Study Comparing of Dexamethasone to Triamcinolone for Ultrasound-guided Trigeminal Nerve Block: A Randomized Controlled ... electrical pain in one or more distributions of the trigeminal nerve. Current treatment strategies include oral medications as ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02024724?term=Trigeminal+Neuralgia&rank=20
*  Jaw Problems, Face Pain, Headaches, & The Trigeminal Nerve Deep Muscle Therapy Tools
... trigeminal neuralgia' or 'tic doulourex.' There is a direct 'cause and effect' link between jaw problems, face pain, and ... which consists of the trigeminal nerve system and related blood vessels.. The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve, ... the maxillary nerve, and the mandibular nerve. The main function of the trigeminal nerve is to transmit feelings of pain from ... These three nerve branches, or pathways, join into a singular, large nerve root called the trigeminal ganglion, which is ...
  http://www.pressurepositive.com/blog-posts/jaw-problems-face-pain-headaches-the-trigeminal-nerve
*  Trigeminal nerve nuclei - Wikipedia
The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, ... Photic sneeze reflex Trigeminal nerve Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus The spinal trigeminal nucleus is further subdivided into three parts, from rostral to caudal: ... Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigeminal_nerve_nuclei
*  2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 350.8 : Other specified trigeminal nerve disorders
Short description: Trigeminal nerve dis NEC.. *ICD-9-CM 350.8 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a ... Trigeminal nerve compression. *Trigeminal nerve inflammation. *Trigeminal nerve motor disorder. *Trigeminal nerve sensory ... Third division of fifth cranial nerve disorder. * ... Right Freys trigeminal nerve syndrome. *Second division of ...
  http://www.icd9data.com/2011/Volume1/320-389/350-359/350/350.8.htm
*  Encephalitis
Facial nerve weakness can occur from inflammatory involvement of the facial nerve due to infection in the middle ear and/or ... Inflammation around the trigeminal ganglion and the abducens canal can lead to a symptoms complex of deep facial or ... is necessary in such cases to decompress the nerve and treat cholesteatoma or other lesions that may be causing facial nerve ... The facial nerve runs through the internal auditory canal, the labrynthine and tympanic portions of the temporal bone, and the ...
  https://www.neurologyadvisor.com/pediatrics/encephalitis/article/623217/
*  EURORAD - Radiologic Teaching Files
Primary nerve-sheath tumours of the trigeminal nerve: clinical and MRI findings. Neuroradiology. 1999 Feb;41(2):100-8.. ... Schwannomas are benign, slow-growing tumors of the nerve that may arise on cranial, spinal as well as peripheral nerves. ...
  http://www.eurorad.org/eurorad/case.php?id=607&lang=en

Trigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.Microvascular decompression: Microvascular decompression (MVD), also known as the Jannetta procedure,http://neurosurgery.ucsf.Esthesiometer: An esthesiometer (British spelling aesthesiometer) is a device for measuring the tactile sensitivity of the skin (or mouth, or eye, etc.).Danger triangle of the face: The danger triangle of the face consists of the area from the corners of the mouth to the bridge of the nose, including the nose and maxilla. Due to the special nature of the blood supply to the human nose and surrounding area, it is possible for retrograde infections from the nasal area to spread to the brain causing cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis or brain abscess.Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve: The mesencephalic nucleus is involved with proprioception of the face, that is, the feeling of position of the muscles. Unlike many nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS), the mesencephalic nucleus contains no chemical synapses but are electrically coupled.Endoneurium: The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) is a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. Its component cells are called endoneurial cells.Sciatic nerve: The sciatic nerve (; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb.Atmosphere-Space Transition Region Explorer: Atmosphere-Space Transition Region Explorer (ASTRE) is an explorer program mission to study the interaction between the Earth's atmosphere and the ionized gases of space in an effort to understand space-induced currents in electric power grids originate as well as improve satellite drag models. The principal investigator is Robert Pfaff Jr.Electroneuronography: Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test that was first described by Esslen and Fisch in 1979 and is used to examine the integrity and conductivity of a peripheral nerve. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve in one point underneath the skin, and at the same time recording the electrical activity (compound action potentials) at another point of the nerve's trajectory in the body.Nevus flammeus nuchae: Naevus flammeus nuchae, often called stork bites or nevus simplex, is a congenital capillary malformation present in 25–50% of newborns.http://www.Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia: Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB, and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block) is a nerve block technique which induces anesthesia (numbness) in the areas of the mouth and face innervated by one of the inferior alveolar nerves which are paired on the left and right side. These areas are the skin and mucous membranes of the lower lip, the skin of the chin, the lower teeth and the labial gingiva of the anterior teeth, all unilaterally to the midline of the side on which the block is administered.Antoni Jan GoetzCranial nerve examinationOptic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Masticatory force: Masticatory force or force of mastication is defined as a force, which is created by the dynamic action of the masticatory muscles during the physiological act of chewing.House DividedAbducens nucleus: The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve (VI) emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. This nucleus is located beneath the fourth ventricle in the caudal portion of the pons, medial to the sulcus limitans.HypoesthesiaNeuroregeneration: Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.Sacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Falx cerebri: The falx cerebri is also known as the cerebral falx, named from its sickle-like form. It is a large, crescent-shaped fold of meningeal layer of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.Electrocoagulation: Electrocoagulation (EC), aka radio frequency diathermy or short wave electrolysis, is a technique used for wash water treatment, wastewater treatment, industrial processed water, and medical treatment. Electrocoagulation has become a rapidly growing area of wastewater treatment due to its ability to remove contaminants that are generally more difficult to remove by filtration or chemical treatment systems, such as emulsified oil, total petroleum hydrocarbons, refractory organics, suspended solids, and heavy metals.Nerve blockCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Central tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.Nerve biopsyMedian nerve: The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus.Facial muscles: The facial muscles are a group of striated skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that, among other things, control facial expression. These muscles are also called mimetic muscles.Bobby Crush: Bobby Crush (born Robert Nicholas Crush, 23 March 1954) is an English pianist, songwriter, actor and television presenter, originally from Leyton in East London.Neurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.Martin-Gruber Anastomosis: The Martin-Gruber Anastomosis (or Martin-Gruber Connection) is a communicating nerve branch between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve in the forearm. It is the most common anastomotic anomaly that occurs between these two nerves.Nicholas Horner: Nicholas Horner (died 4 March 1590) was an English Roman Catholic layman, hanged, drawn and quartered because he had relieved and assisted Christopher Bales, a seminary priest. He is a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1987.Dysesthesia: Dysesthesia (dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys", meaning "not-normal" and "aesthesis", which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch.Forward genetics: Forward genetics is the approach of determining the genetic basis responsible for a phenotype. This was initially done by generating mutants by using radiation, chemicals, or insertional mutagenesis (e.Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia syndromeFlushing (physiology)Neuropathic painDiazonium compoundSuperior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Lateral medullary syndromeAxon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.HyperintensityChen Zhongwei: Chen Zhongwei (Chinese:陈中伟, 1929–2004) was an expert of orthopedic surgery and microsurgery, one of the pioneers of the process of reattaching severed limbs.Throat irritation: Throat irritation can refer to a dry cough, a scratchy feeling at the back of the throat, or a sensation of a lumpy feeling or something stuck at the back of the throat.RhizotomyDevil facial tumour diseaseDihydrocapsaicinDiaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==Migraine Disability Assessment Test: The MIDAS or Migraine Disability Assessment Test is a test used by doctors to determine how severely migraines affect a patient's life. Patients are asked questions about the frequency and duration of their headaches, as well as how often these headaches limited their ability to participate in activities at work, at school, or at home.Triangular interval: The triangular interval (also known as the lateral triangular space,Photo at tufts.edu lower triangular space, and triceps hiatus) is a space found in the axilla.Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Medial lemniscus: The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a large ascending bundle of heavily myelinated axons that decussate in the brain stem, specifically in the medulla. The medial lemniscus is formed by the crossings of internal arcuate fibers.International Classification of Headache Disorders: The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society. It is considered the official classification of headaches by the World Health Organization, and, in 1992, was incorporated into the 10th edition of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).Barrel barbecue: A barrel barbecue is a type of barbecue made from a 55-gallon barrel. Vents are cut into the top and bottom for airflow control.Improved Samba MahsuriCats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Face.com: Face.com was a Tel Aviv-based technology company that developed a platform for efficient and accurate facial recognition in photos uploaded via web and mobile applications.Spinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.MeningiomaOpioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Stereotactic surgeryMechanosensation: Mechanosensation is a response mechanism to mechanical stimuli. The physiological foundation for the senses of touch, hearing and balance, and pain is the conversion of mechanical stimuli into neuronal signals: mechanosensation.

(1/736) The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation.

Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression.  (+info)

(2/736) Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine.

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

(3/736) Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds.

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

(4/736) Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats.

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

(5/736) Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation.

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

(6/736) Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle.

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

(7/736) MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease.

We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies.  (+info)

(8/736) Trigeminal nerve and brainstem catecholamine systems in cerebral vasospasm.

Cisternal blood injection in the rat and squirrel monkey produces a biphasic cerebral vasospasm, a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and an increase in glucose uptake (CMRglu) due to an anaerobic glucolysis actually representing a decrease in metabolism. Lesioning of the A2-nucleus, its ascending cathecolamine pathways or their projection site, the median eminence in the hypothalamus, prevents the occurrence of spasm. A unilateral postganglionic trigeminal lesion causes an ipsilateral constriction of the cerebral arteries while a preganglionic lesion does not affect the baseline arterial diameter. Both kinds of trigeminal lesions induce a global increase in glucose uptake of about 50% without influencing CBF. Following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) the decrease in CBF in both groups of lesioned animals is similar to that seen in controls. After SAH there is no further change in CMRglu in the animals with a preganglionic lesion, while in the postganglionically lesioned animals there is an additional increase in CMRglu of about 50% as compared to controls or animals with a preganglionic lesion. Treatment with the peptidergic substance P (SP) antagonist, spantide, or gammaglobulin against SP prevents or significantly reduces the degree of spasm and the changes in flow and metabolism normally seen post-SAH. The non-peptidergic neurokinins NK1 and NK3 antagonists do not influence flow and metabolism in SAH animals. The NK2 seems to change both flow and metabolism post-SAH in rats.  (+info)



  • neuralgia treatment
  • A single, non-invasive morning trigeminal neuralgia treatment is an especially preferable treatment option for patients who are medically unfit for the use of general anesthetic and may be a good option for patients who have failed medical management and when surgery may not be helpful. (alaskagammaknife.com)
  • Credenceresearch.com has announced the addition of "Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 99.17 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research" Market Research Report to their Database. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • The key factors assisting the growth of trigeminal neuralgia treatment market are growing prevalence of chronic pain disorders coupled with growing public awareness, rising healthcare expenditure in the developed and developing regions and developing technology of pharmaceutical companies leading to more target specific drugs with lesser side effects. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • On the other hand, insufficient funding in emerging countries and high cost involved in the treatment of the disease are hindering the market growth of trigeminal neuralgia treatment. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • greater petro
  • Its parasympathetic root is derived from the nervus intermedius (a part of the facial nerve) through the greater petrosal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nasal glands are innervated with secretomotor from the greater petrosal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deep petrosal nerve (carrying postganglionic sympathetics) joins with the greater petrosal nerve (carrying preganglionic parasympathetics) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal, which passes through the pterygoid canal before entering the ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Sometimes a small, benign tumor compresses the nerve, causing jolts of electrical shock-like pain to radiate into the face. (alaskagammaknife.com)