Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.PanamaBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.South AmericaPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.FiresSequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Burseraceae: A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Tsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
(1/3351) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.
The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use. (+info)
(2/3351) Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.)
Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine. (+info)
(3/3351) The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems.
Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species. (+info)
(4/3351) Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition.
Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase. (+info)
(5/3351) Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.
Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (+info)
(6/3351) Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan.
This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria. (+info)
(7/3351) Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets.
The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane. (+info)
(8/3351) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. (+info)
Download our solidary book to support research on VHL disease