Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.PanamaBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.South AmericaPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.FiresSequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Burseraceae: A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Tsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.

*  Patent US8055544 - Source- and venue-specific inventory data processing and identification system - Google Patents

Passenger vehicle manufacturers (e.g., Honda of America) tend to group their products into hierarchical tree structures for ... falling just above the style class in the tree hierarchy. ...

*  Estimating Understory Biomass: Ingenta Connect

A tally of trees less than 5 inches d.b.h. by 1-inch-diameter classes can provide the basis for a reliable estimate. In a study ... Fixed radius plot tallies in which understory tree diameters were ocularly estimated resulted in errors of 11 and 24 percent by ... Fixed radius plots in which individual tree diameters and total heights were measured yielded estimates of understory biomass ...

*  id please--black spores? - Mushroom Hunting and Identification - Shroomery Message Board

... my tree research is going to start up again when the mushrooms stop fruiting, so all I can say is a on the forest floor in a ... I found these recently in a park with deciduous trees ( ... I found these recently in a park with deciduous trees (my tree ... so all I can say is a on the forest floor in a deciduous grove of trees). The stalk was about 10 cm, and the cap about 7 cm ...

*  Remote Sensing | Free Full-Text | Trends in Spring Phenology of Western European Deciduous Forests | HTML

Here, ground observations (leaf unfolding/first leaf separation of six deciduous tree species) and satellite-derived start-of- ... Some tree species (e.g., Larix decidua) are known to change their timing of leafing by 3-4 days per 100 m elevation, with ... Polgar, A.C.; Primack, B.R. Leaf-out phenology of temperate woody plants: From trees to ecosystems. New Phytol 2011, 191, 926- ... Apart from Larix decidua, the trees species mostly shifted the time of leafing in favour of early leafing. Larix decidua, a ...

*  View all posts in Mike

So not only are the salmon in the trees, but the trees need salmon. ... and the salmon and the trees reminds us about how we do have this connection. So as the salmon are in the trees, my work for ... Thus, the trees cut to thin the forest surrounding the streams may be placed into the stream. In this way, both the stream and ... The trees benefit from the salmon as well. This is because as salmon swim upstream, they take with them the prefect fertilizer ...

*  Biodiversity | General: Tree and Shrub species names reference list for BEF China

General: Tree and Shrub species names reference list for BEF China. Usage Rights. This data is Free for members. ... Reference list for tree names in the Comparative Study Plots (CSP) of the Biodiversity - Ecosystem Functioning Experiment (BEF- ... This file includes the names of all tree and shrub species found in the CSP during the field work 2008 / 2009, including the ... 2001). Most of the stands are secondary forests, evidenced by maximum tree ages of 180 years, by agricultural terraces in ...

*  Tropical forest carbon absorption may hinge on an odd couple

... suggest that the role of tropical forests in offsetting the atmospheric buildup of carbon from fossil fuels depends on tree ... A Princeton University-based study found that a unique housing arrangement between trees in the legume family and the carbo- ... Legume trees nurture bigger, healthier trees by pumping nitrogen fertilizer into tropical-forest soil. The process, known as " ... If trees could just grow and store carbon, you could have a rapid sink, but if they don't have enough nitrogen they don't take ...

*  Project MUSE - Abstracts, Reviews, and Meetings

In this study, Vargas and colleagues looked at native and exotic species dynamics in tree-fall canopy gaps in RCI's montane ... The majority of tropical rain forest trees and shrubs are animal-dispersed, but abandoned pastures are mostly colonized by wind ... The authors recommend planting fruit-bearing trees of high value to long-distance animal dispersers to accelerate tropical ... Plots planted with native trees provided heterogeneous habitat conditions and recruited more later-successional animal- ...

*  Geological Control of Floristic Composition in Amazonian Forests

Using tree inventories in the vicinity of Iquitos, Peru, I and a colleague systematically evaluated methods for rapid tropical ... Floristic patterns based on inventories from either group were significantly associated with those based on the tree flora, and ... a family of shrubs and small trees), for use in rapid inventory. ... capture the majority of floristic patterns identified by tree ...

*  Exotic Trees And Plants, Exotic Trees And Plants Suppliers and Manufacturers at

Wholesale Various High Quality Exotic Trees And Plants Products from Global Exotic Trees And Plants Suppliers and Exotic Trees ... artificial tree orange tree yew tree coconut tree plastic tree apple tree neon trees wedding tree fake tree banana tree cherry ... blossom tree flowering trees wishing tree tamarind tree plastic palm tree More... ... christmas tree manufacturer cat tree vendor artificial plants exporter artificial tree dropshipping plant merchandise mineral ...

*  Wiley: Estimating Species Trees: Practical and Theoretical Aspects - L. Lacey Knowles, Laura S. Kubatko

Setting Up Species Tree Branch Lengths.. Chapter 5 Inference of Parsimonious Species Tree from Multilocus Data by Minimizing ... Chapter 4 Probabilities of Gene Tree Topoligies with Intraspecific Sampling Given a Species Tree (James H. Degnan). ... 10.5.1 Where Does the Initial Species Tree Come from?. 10.5.2 Is There Consistency in the Estimated Species Tree Given the Data ... Chapter 7 The Influence of Hybrid Zones on Species Tree Inference in Manakins (Robb T. Brumfi eld and Matthew D. Carling). ...,subjectCd-ES1A.html

*  Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA | Treesearch

Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species. *Status of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the ... Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States ... An indicator of tree migration in forests of the eastern United States ... Assessing the stability of tree ranges and influence of disturbance in eastern US forests ...

*  Secondary forest | LCZO-Data

There were 3,112 trees, 19.2 m2 of basal area, 68.25 m3 of merchantable stem volume, and 80 Mg of aboveground biomass in an ... Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early ( ... Few unhealthy, stressed trees werenoted and widespread pest and disease problems were not observed. Only 12.9 percent of live ... Puerto Rico s forests were found to have over 1,602,378,689 trees over 2.5 cm in diameter and 10 607 847 m2 of basal area, and ...

*  Wildlife Guide | OregonForests

They require tree cavities, broken-topped trees or nests built by raptors or squirrels as high as 200 feet above the ground for ... A furred flap extends from the ankle to the wrist, which allows it to glide from tree to tree. ... The Pacific tree frog is approximately 1.5 inches in length, with a dark mask extending from the nostrils to the shoulders. The ... It is preyed upon by squirrels, tree-climbing snakes and hawks.. Reproduction. It begins breeding in April and produces a ...

*  Trees

... , Fences, Phone Poles and Something else I can't describe - East Oakland. ...

*  Beautiful Trees

*  'Princeton...

A photographic sampling of the tree species on the University grounds reflects the campus's park-like beauty. ... Play Video: Featured Video: 'Princeton Trees'. A photographic sampling of the tree species on the University grounds reflects ...

*  White Trees

... type:. Music. Current Status:. In Season. Producers:. Sky. genre:. Country, Rock. We gave it an A- ...

*  trees | Asia Times

Economics and policy from China's newspapers - directly to your ...

*  Clipart - Trees

Trees. By. Almeidah. Created. 2016-05-03. Description. Trees. Tags. brush , floral , freen , leaves , nature , plants , trees ...

*  Darwin's Evolutionary Trees

Charles Darwin published only one tree of life in his lifetime, but scholars believe the scientist regularly used these ... Trees of life, or phylogenetic trees, continue to be useful in science today, though they're more complicated than Darwin may ... His work led to an explosion of evolutionary trees. Evolution took over the iconography of trees and the non-evolutionists ... Charles Darwin published only one tree of life in his lifetime, a foldout that appears in On The Origin of Species. But Darwin ...

*  The Lemon Trees

Home , The Lemon Trees. The Lemon Trees. Hear me a moment. Laureate poets seem to wander among plants no one knows: boxwood, ... Permission from Handsel Books (an imprint of Other Press LLC) to reprint "The Lemon Trees" from Montale in English Copyright © ... Even the poor know that richness, the fragrance of the lemon trees. You realize that in silences things yield and almost betray ... along the slope plunges through cane-tufts and opens suddenly into the orchard among the moss-green trunks of the lemon trees. ...

*  Early Family Trees

... ( explanation of tree format ) A-K: FAMILY NAME last modified date ABELES 10-13-'17 ABNER 09-19-'17 ADELUNG ... As of Apr 2012, these family trees contained over 70,000 distinct individuals including 93% of all Krakow births 1830-55, and ...

*  Trees on Behance

Two low poly trees.

*  NaturePlus: Community: Trees

Do you want to get a tree, seed or leaf identified or share photos of your finds? Post them in this community. ... Do you want to get a tree, seed or leaf identified or share photos of your finds? Post them in this community. ... Re: What trees are these 4 years ago in Trees by MikeG ... Trees. Overview All content (624) Discussions (624) Set as ... You are here: Home , NaturePlus , Identification , Plants , Trees ...

Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Pinus pinasterBotryosphaeria corticola: Bot canker of oak is a disease on stems, branches and twigs of oak trees in Europe and North America. The casual agent of Bot canker of oak is the fungus Botryosphaeria corticola .Tupaia (navigator): Tupaia (also known as Tupaea) (c. 1725 – December, 26 1770) was a Polynesian navigator and arioi (a kind of priest), originally from the island of Ra'iatea in the Pacific Islands group known to Europeans as the Society Islands.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Wood fibre: Wood fibers are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees and used to make materials including paper.Fagus grandifolia: Fagus grandifolia (American beech or North American beech) is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and Canada. The genus name [is Latin] for "beech", and the species name [comes from grandis "large" and folium "leaf".Eucalyptus globulus: The Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum or blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from tall.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).EcosystemPith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Populus tremula: Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British IslesJames Kilkelly Irish native Aspen tree east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria.History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Coles PhillipsCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.List of Acacia species used for tannin production: This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are used for the production of tannins.Plan Toys: PlanToys is a toy manufacturer located in Trang in the south of Thailand. It was founded in 1981 and makes its toys out of rubberwood, a sustainable by-product of the latex industry's harvesting of trees used for natural rubber production once their productivity declines.AstringinBert (horse): Bert}}Eutypella parasitica: Eutypella canker is a plant disease caused by the fungal pathogen Eutypella parasitica. This disease is capable of infecting many species of maple trees and produces a large, distinguishable canker on the main trunk of the tree.List of Copper Country minesCS-BLASTGenetic variation: right|thumbMac OS X Server 1.0Betula pendula: Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia, China and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran.Carl Barks: "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch ( Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Fraxinus latifolia: Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash) is a member of the ash genus Fraxinus, native to western North America. The Oregon ash is dioecious.Pepsi Wild Cherry: Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavored cola first introduced in 1988 by PepsiCo as a replacement for Cherry Cola Slice, introduced as part of the line in 1986. A sugar-free version is also available, with zero calories, named Diet Pepsi Wild Cherry.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.AmborellaInterval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Sago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Ficus deltoidea: Ficus deltoidea, commonly known as mistletoe fig (Mas Cotek in Malaysian or สาลิกาลิ้นทอง in Thai) is a large shrub or small tree species native to Southeast Asia, and widely naturalized in other parts of the world.Xylem: Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The word xylem is derived from the Greek word ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood"; the best-known xylem tissue is wood, though it is found throughout the plant.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Alnus sieboldiana: Alnus sieboldiana (オオバヤシャブシ in Japanese) is an alder species found on the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Suwanose-jima in Japan.Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation: The American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation is a nonprofit dedicated to re-establishing the American chestnut, Castanea dentata, as a viable species using only pure American chestnut genetic stock. They differ from the American Chestnut Foundation, which is seeking to re-establish the species using hybrid stock.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightAmplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Mercurialis annua: Mercurialis annua is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family known by the common name annual mercury. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle EastKew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesAltervista Flora Italiana, Mercorella comune, ortiga muerta, urtiga-morta, Einjähriges Bingelkraut, mercuriale annuelle, Annual Mercury, Mercurialis annua L.Dipterocarpus tuberculatus: Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Khmer khlông,DY PHON Pauline, 2000, Plants Used In Cambodia, self-published, printed by Imprimerie Olympic, Phnom Penh Indian English gurjuntreeCouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 1952, The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products: Raw materials, Delhi, 3:93–94) is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae found in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The tree is found in clear forests of plains, at altitudes up to 800-1000m.PollenBark: Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs.Larix kaempferi: Larix kaempferi, known as Japanese larch or karamatsu (唐松) in Japanese) is a species of larch native to Japan, in the mountains of Chūbu and Kantō regions in central Honshū.Farjon, A.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Cedrus deodaraSalix Pharmaceuticals: Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a specialist American pharmaceutical company.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Juniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku': Juniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku' (the shimpaku juniper) is a dwarf, irregular vase-shaped form of the Chinese juniper, Juniperus chinensis. Originally native to Japan, they were first collected in the 1850s in Japan.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Meramec Conservation AreaTrichilia catigua: Trichilia catigua is a flowering plant species in the genus Trichilia.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Biological dispersalDeforestation in Borneo: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, was once covered with dense rainforests, but along with its tropical lowland and highland forests, there has been extensive deforestation since the 1960s, as the native economies of the region experienced rapid industrialisation. In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition.Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Ulmus 'Willis': Ulmus 'Willis' is a hybrid cultivar which originated as a crossing made by a Mr Minnick of Kansas and treated simply as a hybrid. Almost certainly derived from a crossing of the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila (female parent) and the Red Elm Ulmus rubra, it was originally believed that the American parent was the American Elm Ulmus americana, not the Red Elm.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Tamarix aphylla: Tamarix aphylla is the largest known species of Tamarix (height: to18 metres—60 ft) . The species has a variety of common names, including Athel pine, Athel tree, Athel tamarisk, and saltcedar.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Citrus productionOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Melaleuca vinnula: Melaleuca vinnula is a plant in the myrtle family Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a newly-described (2004) species from a review of broombrush (originally Melaleuca uncinata) .Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Persea borboniaMicrosatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Walnut oil: Walnut oil is oil extracted from walnuts Juglans regia (Persian walnuts). Each 100 g of oil provides about 63.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Bennettites: Bennettites refers to an extinct genus of the order Bennettitales.AlnusiinLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.

(1/3351) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/3351) Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

(3/3351) The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems.

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

(4/3351) Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition.

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

(5/3351) Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

(6/3351) Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan.

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

(7/3351) Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets.

The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane.  (+info)

(8/3351) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)



  • 20 The results showed that the two tea tree oil solutions were more effective than placebo at eradicating infection. (


  • For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full Tea Tree article. (


  • However, these trees are challenged by a wide array of biotic stresses during their lifetimes. (
  • Their combination would be most effective in stands with a wide range of tree sizes and sap flow rates, where the relative differences in sap flux estimates between the methods is small compared with differences in sap flow between trees. (


  • The Decision Tree for Disabilities was created to help determine both in school and out of school supports for transition age students with disabilities, grade 9 through age 26. (
  • You can also add 10 to 15 drops of tea tree oil to a regular bottle of shampoo to help with dryness, oily hair and itchy scalp. (


  • However, given the escalating negative consequences of pine tree invasions, especially in the Cape Floral Region, the question of whether or not this biological control programme should have been discontinued in 2009 remains open for debate and the opposing views on the subject are presented. (


  • Using a TwoGener analysis of the pollen gene pool, it was estimated that the effective pollination area had a radius of 41.9m, suggesting that the local neighborhood of wind-pollinated forest tree populations might be relatively small, creating opportunities for local selection and genetic drift. (


  • Another double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed 104 people given either a 10% tea tree oil cream, the standard drug tolnaftate, or placebo. (


  • 3 The results showed that tea tree oil reduced the symptoms of athlete's foot more effectively than placebo, but less effectively than tolnaftate. (
  • trees at two sites (1) to compare results from the two techniques and (2) to assess the impact of the assumptions underlying the deuterium tracing method on the calculation of sap flow for a range of tree sizes. (


  • Additionally the expression of selected candidate defence response genes was induced earlier in moderately resistant trees than in susceptible trees, supporting the hypothesis that a delayed defence response may occur in the susceptible interaction. (
  • A few people developed dermatitis in response to the tea tree oil and had to drop out of the study, but most people did not experience any significant side effects. (


  • This use is supported by evidence that tea tree oil is an effective antiseptic, active against many bacteria and fungi. (