(1/117) Dental erosion in a group of British 14-year-old, school children. Part I: Prevalence and influence of differing socioeconomic backgrounds.
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of erosion in a cluster random sample of 14- year-olds in Birmingham UK. To determine whether socioeconomic group influences the prevalence of erosion. METHODS: The study group consisted of a cluster random sample of 14-year-old school children in Birmingham UK: 418 children were examined from 12 different schools; 209 were male and 209 female. The level of tooth wear was recorded using a modification of the (TWI) index of Smith and Knight (1984). The ACORN classification was used to assess the socioeconomic status of all children. RESULTS: Results showed that 48% of the children had low erosion, 51% had moderate erosion and only 1% had severe erosion. There were statistically significant differences between males and females; more males had buccal/labial and lingual/palatal tooth surface erosion than females (Chi-square analysis P < 0.001). There was also significantly more erosion observed in teenagers in the lowest socioeconomic categories. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that moderate levels of dental erosion are common in 14-year-old school children and this may lead to increasing clinical problems. There was significantly more erosion in children from low socioeconomic groups. Possible aetiological factors need to be investigated further. (+info)
(2/117) Dental erosion in a group of British 14-year-old school children. Part II: Influence of dietary intake.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were first to investigate the dietary intake pattern of UK teenagers and secondly to determine the relationship, if any, between dental erosion and dietary intake in these children. METHODS: The study group consisted of a cluster random sample of 14-year-old school children in Birmingham, UK: 418 children were examined from 12 different schools; 209 were male and 209 female. Data on the rate and frequency of consumption of drinks, foods, and fruits were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire supplemented by a structured interview. The data were analysed using SPSS with Chi-square, and Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: Over 80% of the teenagers regularly consumed soft drinks but approximately half of these children had a relatively low weekly consumption. However, 13% and 10% respectively had more than 22 intakes per week of cola and other carbonated drinks. Almost a quarter of these 14-year-olds had alcoholic drinks, with significantly more males than females involved (Chi-square P < 0.05) . Girls had a greater intake of fruits. Statistically significant correlations were found between the prevalence of erosion and the consumption of soft drinks, carbonated beverages, alcohol drinks, fresh fruits, Vitamin-C tablets and foodstuffs (Spearman correlation analysis P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that consumption particularly of soft drinks was high and common in teenage school children in Birmingham, UK. In addition there was a relationship between dental erosion and acidic dietary intake. Further investigation of the erosive potential of these drinks and foods is required. (+info)
(3/117) Tooth surface pH during drinking of black tea.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the composition of black tea in terms of its erosive potential. To determine the pH profile at the palatal surface of anterior and posterior sites of the dentition after drinking black tea. METHODS: Tea solution was analysed for its pH and anion composition to provide information on its acid content. A group of ten healthy subjects, aged 21-23 years were monitored for tooth surface pH on the palatal aspects of the maxillary anterior dentition and the maxillary molar dentition after drinking tea using a micro-pH electrode mounted on a vinyl splint. RESULTS: The pH of the tea solution was 4.9 and the major anions detected were oxalate and citrate. Tooth surface pH monitoring indicated that only small decreases in pH of less than 1 pH unit were observed after drinking tea and the minimum mean pH reached was 5.45. Maximum decrease in pH was observed after 20-25 seconds and resting pH levels were restored within approximately 2 minutes after drinking. CONCLUSION: The pH and anion profile of black tea are indicative of low acid composition. The very small pH decreases observed at the tooth surface after drinking tea indicate that it may be safely recommended as a substitute for more acidic drinks as a part of preventive measures for dental erosion. (+info)
(4/117) Occupational exposure to airborne proteolytic enzymes and lifestyle risk factors for dental erosion--a cross-sectional study.
This study examined the hypothesis that occupational exposure to airborne proteolytic enzymes is associated with dental erosions on the facial surfaces of exposed teeth. Individuals (n = 425) working at a pharmaceutical and biotechnological enterprise (Novozymes A/S) were examined; their mean age was 35 years (range = 18-67 years) and 143 (34%) were women. Two hundred and two of these individuals were newly employed by the company. Occupational exposure was assessed from questionnaire and workplace information. For practical analytical purposes, individuals were categorized as either previously exposed to proteolytic enzymes or not. Information on relevant lifestyle factors and medical history was obtained from a questionnaire. The main effect measure was facial erosion, but lingual erosion indices and the presence of Class V restorations were also considered. The validity of these measures was shown to be very high. Adjusted for potential confounders, there was no association between history of occupational exposure to proteolytic enzymes and prevalent facial or lingual erosion. With respect to prevalence of Class V restorations, the association was significant. The present study did not support directly our primary hypothesis that occupational exposure to airborne proteolytic enzymes is associated with dental erosions on the facial surfaces of exposed teeth. However, the results indicate that exposure to proteolytic enzymes may lead to pronounced tooth substance loss, demanding treatment. (+info)
(5/117) Morphological classification of dental lesions induced by various antitumor drugs in mice.
To characterize and compare maxillary incisor lesions caused by various antitumor drugs, male BALB/c mice were given a single intravenous injection of an estimated 10% lethal dose (LD10)) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), adriamycin (ADR), mitomycin C (MMC), vinblastine sulfate (VBL). taxotere (TXR), irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11), DX-8951f, or cisplatin (CDDP). After 3, 5, 10, 15, and 60 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the maxillary incisors were examined microscopically. The dental lesions observed were classified into 4 different types on the basis of their morphological features. The lesion due to 5-FU was characterized by focal defects in the dentin, and this injury was reversible (transient dentin injury). ADR- or MMC-induced lesions were defined by abnormal structure of the apical aspect of the tooth and irregular odontogenesis, lasting for a long period (persistent apical injury). Treatment with VBL or TXR showed irregular enamel formation and abnormal dentinogenesis. Their targets were considered to be both immature and mature odontogenic cells (diffuse dental injury). Exposure to CPT-11, DX-8951f, or CDDP elicited minor reductions in a few precursor cells in the epithelial sheath on day 3, but no prominent dental abnormalities were seen thereafter (nontoxic injury). In conclusion, antitumor drugs can cause a variety of dental lesions that vary temporally and spatially, making histopathological examination of the maxillary incisor an important component of the safety assessment process for novel antitumor drugs. (+info)
(6/117) Modern methods for assessing the cariogenic and erosive potential of foods.
Assessment of the acidogenic and cariogenic erosive potential of foods requires the use of reproducible and standardised methods. The methodology laid down at the San Antonio conference in 1985 remain today the basis for research on and the testing of foods. The 1999 workshop has updated the appropriate methodology and introduced guidelines on the testing of erosive potential of foods. It is to be hoped that researchers wishing to evaluate foods and their effect on the teeth will continue to use these methods. (+info)
(7/117) Dietary advice in dental practice.
This paper aims to provide dental health professionals with practical advice to pass on to patients about diet and dental health. Sugars are the most important dietary factor contributing to dental caries. Different foods carry different dental health risks; those containing non-milk, extrinsic sugars are potentially the most damaging. In the UK, sugared soft drinks and confectionery contribute approximately 50% to total intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars. Patients should be encouraged to reduce the frequency of intake of sugary foods. Intake of acidic foods and drinks contributes to dental erosion and consumption of such foods should also be limited. Dietary advice to dental patients should be positive and personalized if possible and can be in line with dietary recommendations for general health. These are to increase the consumption of starchy staple foods (eg bread, potatoes and unsweetened cereals), vegetables and fruit and to reduce the consumption of sugary and fatty foods. (+info)
(8/117) Dental erosion in gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Dentists are often the first health care professionals to diagnose dental erosion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, and GERD is defined as symptoms or complications of GER. Twenty-four-hour monitoring of esophageal pH is helpful in diagnosing GERD. Treatment of dental erosion resulting from GERD involves a multidisciplinary approach among family physician, dentist, prosthodontist, orthodontist and gastroenterologist. When possible, dental erosion should be treated with minimal intervention, and such treatment should include control of microflora, remineralization, adhesive restorations and use of biomimetic materials. (+info)