Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Mice, Inbred BALB CBrain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Canthaxanthin: A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Mice, Inbred ICRSodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Lysinoalanine: N(6)-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine. An unusual amino acid, not a dipeptide, which has been found in proteins of cooked foods. It is formed in food that is heated or treated with alkali. Has been implicated in nephrocytomegalia in rats.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Maackia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Sambucus nigra: A plant species in the genus SAMBUCUS, known for the elderberry fruit. The plant is also a source of Sambucus nigra lectins and ribosome-inactivating protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molindone: An indole derivative effective in schizophrenia and other psychoses and possibly useful in the treatment of the aggressive type of undersocialized conduct disorder. Molindone has much lower affinity for D2 receptors than most antipsychotic agents and has a relatively low affinity for D1 receptors. It has only low to moderate affinity for cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Some electrophysiologic data from animals indicate that molindone has certain characteristics that resemble those of CLOZAPINE. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p283)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluoride PoisoningFluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Fluorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Rats, Inbred F344TritiumAnion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Protein PrecursorsGene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Praeruptorin D from Radix Peucedani in Rats by High...

Tissue distribution showed that the highest concentration was observed in the lung, followed by heart, liver and kidney. ... The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PD in rats following intravenous (i.v ... The pharmacokinetic study found that PD fitted well into a two-compartment model with a fast distribution phase and a relative ... The levels of PD in plasma and tissues were measured by a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid ...
mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/7/9129

*  Tissue distribution of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and search for active demethylation intermediates.

... In: PLOS ONE 5(12), e15367 ... Additionally, we show using HPLC-MS analysis and immunohistochemistry that hmC is present in all tissues and cell types with ... 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) was recently detected as the sixth base in mammalian tissue at so far controversial levels. The ... an ultra-sensitive and accurate isotope based LC-MS method to precisely determine the levels of hmC in various mouse tissues ...
https://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15057/index.html

*  Fluorescence photometric techniques for determination of microscopic tissue distribution of phthalocyanine photosensitizers for...

Synthesis, tissue distribution and tumour uptake of99Tc and67Ga tetra-sulphophthalocyanine.Int J Appl Radiat Isot 1985,36:709- ... Fluorescence photometric techniques for determination of microscopic tissue distribution of phthalocyanine photosensitizers for ... Aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine distribution in rodent tumours of the colon, brain and pancreas.Photochem Photobiol 1987, ... has been used to obtain fluorescence images of aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine in normal and malignant colonic rat tissue ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02593793

*  Effect of Enzyme Induction on the Metabolism and Tissue Distribution of Benzo(α)pyrene | Cancer Research

Effect of Enzyme Induction on the Metabolism and Tissue Distribution of Benzo(α)pyrene. Eva Schlede, R. Kuntzman, S. Haber and ... Effect of Enzyme Induction on the Metabolism and Tissue Distribution of Benzo(α)pyrene ... Effect of Enzyme Induction on the Metabolism and Tissue Distribution of Benzo(α)pyrene ... Effect of Enzyme Induction on the Metabolism and Tissue Distribution of Benzo(α)pyrene ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/30/12/2893

*  Molecular Determinants in the Plasma Clearance and Tissue Distribution of Ribonucleases of the Ribonuclease A Superfamily |...

Molecular Determinants in the Plasma Clearance and Tissue Distribution of Ribonucleases of the Ribonuclease A Superfamily. ... Molecular Determinants in the Plasma Clearance and Tissue Distribution of Ribonucleases of the Ribonuclease A Superfamily ... Molecular Determinants in the Plasma Clearance and Tissue Distribution of Ribonucleases of the Ribonuclease A Superfamily ... Molecular Determinants in the Plasma Clearance and Tissue Distribution of Ribonucleases of the Ribonuclease A Superfamily ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/56/18/4180

*  Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of the Antigens Recognized by Human Monoclonal Antibodies 16.88 and 28A32 | Cancer...

Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of the Antigens Recognized by Human Monoclonal Antibodies 16.88 and 28A32. James J. ... Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of the Antigens Recognized by Human Monoclonal Antibodies 16.88 and 28A32 ... Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of the Antigens Recognized by Human Monoclonal Antibodies 16.88 and 28A32 ... Tissue Distribution and Cellular Location of the Antigens Recognized by Human Monoclonal Antibodies 16.88 and 28A32 ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/48/24_Part_1/7273

*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Tissue distribution and physiorogical function of ATP receptors (KAKENHI-PROJECT-10670092)

P2X_2 and P2X_5 receptor mRNAs exhibited more discrete distribution, localized in midbrain, brain stem and spinal cord. P2 X_3 ...
https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-10670092/

*  Abstract 2532: In vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the protein kinase D...

Abstract 2532: In vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the protein kinase D ... Abstract 2532: In vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the protein kinase D ... Abstract 2532: In vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the protein kinase D ... Abstract 2532: In vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the protein kinase D ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/8_Supplement/2532

*  Tissue Distribution of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Harbor Seals ( Phoca vitulina ) from the Dutch Wadden Sea

Tissue Distribution of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Harbor Seals ( Phoca vitulina ) from the Dutch Wadden Sea ...
https://infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.acs-doi-10_1021_es050942

*  Higher Natriuretic Peptide Levels Associate With a Favorable Adipose Tissue Distribution Profile | JACC: Journal of the...

2009) Adipose tissue distribution is different in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 89:807-814. ... Conversely, a relative natriuretic peptide deficiency may contribute to obesity and an adverse adipose tissue distribution ... Higher Natriuretic Peptide Levels Associate With a Favorable Adipose Tissue Distribution Profile ... Higher Natriuretic Peptide Levels Associate With a Favorable Adipose Tissue Distribution Profile ...
onlinejacc.org/content/62/8/752

*  HKU Scholars Hub: Catfish-like Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide in the Goldfish : - Molecular Cloning, Tissue...

Catfish-like Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide in the Goldfish : - Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and ... Catfish-like Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide in the Goldfish : - Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and ... Tissue Distribution, and Functional Studies. *Show simple item record ...
hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/110621

*  Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin...

Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin- ... 8 Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in cts.pdf (3.193Mb) ... An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of ... An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non- ...
kerwa.ucr.ac.cr/handle/10669/15210

*  Identification, Tissue Distribution, and Molecular Modeling of Novel Human Isoforms of the Key Enzyme in Sialic Acid Synthesis,...

Identification, Tissue Distribution, and Molecular Modeling of Novel Human Isoforms of the Key Enzyme in Sialic Acid Synthesis ...
https://infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.acs-doi-10_1021_bi201050u

*  RADIOACTIVE TRACER STUDIES ON ARSENIC INJECTED AS POTASSIUM ARSENITE II. CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES | Journal of...

CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES. O. H. LOWRY, F. T. HUNTER, A. F. KIP and J. W. IRVINE ... CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES. O. H. LOWRY, F. T. HUNTER, A. F. KIP and J. W. IRVINE ... CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES. O. H. LOWRY, F. T. HUNTER, A. F. KIP and J. W. IRVINE ... CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION IN TISSUES Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology and ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/76/2/221

*  JAIRO | Distribution of Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaques Evaluated by Integrated Backscatter Intravascular Ultrasound...

Distribution of Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaques Evaluated by Integrated Backscatter Intravascular Ultrasound: ... between the Inner and Outer Vessel CurvatureLRH-1 heterozygous knockout mice are prone to mild obesityDistribution of Tissue ...
jairo.nii.ac.jp/0038/00011922/en

*  Starion Instruments Signs Distribution Agreement With Datascope for Tissue Welding Technology

Starion Instruments, a leading surgical device company, today announced a non-exclusive distribution agreement with Datascope ... Starion Instruments Signs Distribution Agreement With Datascope for Tissue Welding Technology. Wednesday, July 23, 2008 General ... Starion's instruments employ apatented Tissue Welding technology that seals and divides soft tissue withonly focused heat and ... Starion's distribution agreement allows us to broadenour endoscopic vessel harvesting range, and therefore contributes to ...
medindia.net/health-press-release/Starion-Instruments-Signs-Distribution-Agreement-With-Datascope-for-Tissue-Welding-Technology-27241-1.htm

*  Policies and Procedures: Tissue Procurement & Distribution: Shared Facilities: Research & Clinical Trials: Indiana University...

Distribution Core provides access to quality-controlled tissues through a central facility. ... Tissue Procurement & Distribution. Policies and Procedures. Facility OverviewPolicies and ProceduresServicesRequest for ... Please notify the IU Simon Cancer Center Tissue Procurement & Distribution Core at canctb@iupui.edu of the publication. Thank ... If research supported by the IU Simon Cancer Center Tissue Procurement & Distribution Core results in publication, please ...
cancer.iu.edu/research-trials/facilities/tissue/policies.shtml

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE TISSUE PHANTOM IRRADIATED WITH...

DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE TISSUE PHANTOM IRRADIATED WITH FAST NEUTRONS. ... DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE TISSUE PHANTOM IRRADIATED WITH FAST NEUTRONS ...
cordis.europa.eu/publication/rcn/1989120021758_en.html

*  Symmetric and asymmetric mitotic segregation patterns influence Wolbachia distribution in host somatic tissue | Journal of Cell...

However, the uneven distribution in adult tissues suggests that this distribution pattern changes during development. To ... This is likely to alter the tissue distribution of WPop relative to other Wolbachia strains. It is tempting to speculate that ... To address the second issue of how uneven Wolbachia distribution in various tissues is achieved later in development, we ... In addition, we identify potential cellular mechanisms that lead to the highly uneven and tissue-specific distributions of ...
jcs.biologists.org/content/122/24/4570

*  Electron and ion microprobe analysis of calcium distribution and transport in coral tissues | Journal of Experimental Biology

The distribution of C in secondary ion images of 12C was homogeneous across the resin-embedded tissue and pure resin, ... Isotopic images of masses 12, 23, 24, 39, 40, 44 and 88 were recorded to reveal cell and tissue distributions of 12C, 23Na, 24 ... Electron and ion microprobe analysis of calcium distribution and transport in coral tissues ... Electron and ion microprobe analysis of calcium distribution and transport in coral tissues ...
jeb.biologists.org/content/210/14/2453

*  Plus it

Tissue distribution of mGIF. To establish the tissue distribution of mGIF mRNA in the adult mouse, we performed Northern blot ... Multiple-tissue Northern blot analysis of mGIF. Each lane contains 2 μg of poly(A)+ RNA from mouse tissues. The probe used is a ... Northern blot analysis. To study the distribution of mGIF, a mouse multiple tissue northern (MTN) blot membrane (Clontech, Palo ... substantial differences exist in both their sequence and tissue distribution. mGIF mRNA in the adult mouse is present in heart ...
jneurosci.org/content/17/22/8657

*  Adherens junction-associated protein distribution differs in smooth muscle tissue and acutely isolated cells | Gastrointestinal...

Left: sections from relaxed-frozen tissue (A). Right: sections from activated-frozen tissue (B). The distribution for all 4 of ... The tissues were rapidly frozen when the tissue was relaxed (no force generation; Fig. 1A, arrow) or when the tissue was ... Image Analysis of Protein Distribution of Single Cells in Tissues. For cells in tissues, profiles of fluorescence intensity ... In contrast to this consistent peripheral protein distribution in cells in tissues, the peripheral distribution of these same ...
ajpgi.physiology.org/content/292/2/G684

*  Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier of Antisense Directed against Amyloid β: Reversal of Learning and Memory Deficits in...

Distribution of P-Olg among tissues after intravenous injection. When expressed on a per gram of tissue basis, spleen took up ... Tissue Distribution.. Figure 1shows the clearance of P-Olg from serum for the first 240 min after i.v. injection. A rapid ... Tissue Distribution.. Male ICR mice (Charles River, Wilmington, MA) weighing 20 to 25 g were anesthetized with an i.p. ... 1995) Absorption, tissue distribution and in vivo stability in rats of a hybrid antisense oligonucleotide following oral ...
jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/297/3/1113?ijkey=2020963ea43207f70d2649a07297e74d3dc958f3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

*  Plus it

2) ⇓ . Again, a rapid tissue distribution was found in all of the examined organs. The extent of drug content in these tissues ... Tissue Distribution and Pharmacokinetic Analysis. The cellular behavior was consistent with the in vivo distribution of the ... Pharmacokinetic Analysis and Tissue Distribution of ST1481. Healthy athymic Swiss mice were treated p.o. with 5 mg/kg of ST1481 ... resulted in a more efficient drug uptake by tumor cells and in a favorable tissue distribution, with particular reference to ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/61/19/7189

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

However, M. annularis and M. faveolata exhibit significant differences in the tissue density and 3D distribution of these key ... A wide variety of live tissues were successfully engrafted in the pinna of the mouse ear. Many of these engrafted tissues ... To this end, optically opaque tissues should be rendered transparent by matching the refractory indices throughout the tissue. ... Neuroscience, Issue 89, 3D imaging, tissue clearing, transparent tissue, intact organs, optical clearing, histology, laser ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/23300962/long-term-in-vivo-imaging-of-multiple-organs-at-the-single-cell-level

Coles PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.CS-BLASTPeriarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.BentazepamHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Isozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.Carbon-12: Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.Monoclonal antibody therapyBlood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Geoffrey Chang: Geoffrey Chang is a professor at the University of California, San Diego's Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine. His laboratory focuses on the structural biology of integral membrane proteins, particularly exploring X-ray crystallography techniques for solving the tertiary structures of membrane proteins that are notoriously resistant to crystallization.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.New Zealand rabbitRed seabream: Red sea bream is a name given to at least two species of fish of the family Sparidae, Pagrus major and Pagellus bogaraveo. Pagellus bogaraveo is also known as blackspot sea bream.Autoradiograph: An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g.Thermal cyclerMembrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Charged Aerosol Release Experiment: The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in the upper atmosphere to form a dusty plasma in space. NASA plans to trigger cloud formation around the rocket's exhaust particles.Southern California Steelhead DPS: The Southern California Steelhead Distinct Population Segment (DPS) occurs from the Santa Maria River to the Tijuana River at the United States and Mexican Border in seasonally accessible rivers and streams.*NOAA.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Gallium-68 generator: A Germanium-68/Gallium-68 Generator is a device used to extract the positron-emitting isotope 68Ga of gallium from a source of decaying Germanium-68. The parent isotope 68Ge has a half-life of 271 days and can be easily utilized for in-hospital production of generator produced Ga-68.Biotransformation: Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation.CanthaxanthinBile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Decay productMyocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.TPCN2: Two pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TPCN2 gene. TPC2 is an ion channel, however, in contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments (S1 to S6), TPCN1 only contains two domain (each containing segments S1 to S6).Fish gill: Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues which consist of cloth and fabric structures called filaments.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Slc22a21: Solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 21 is a protein that in the house mouse is encoded by the Slc22a21 gene. The gene is also known as Octn3 and Slc22a9.Chromosome regionsIsotopes of astatine: Astatine (At) has 37 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive; the range of their mass numbers is from 191 to 229. There also exist 23 metastable excited states.LiposomeOrganic anion-transporting polypeptide: An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport of mainly organic anions across the cell membrane. Therefore OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers.Ultra-conserved element: An ultra-conserved element (UCE) is a region of DNA that is identical in at least two different species. One of the first studies of UCEs showed that human DNA sequences of length 200 nucleotides or greater were entirely conserved (identical nucleic acid sequence) in both rats and mice.List of radioactive isotopes by half-life: This is a list of radioactive isotopes ordered by half-life from shortest to longest.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Neural drug delivery systems: Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Scandium oxideAbsent adrenal glandIsotope-coded affinity tag: An Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) is an isotopic labeling method used for quantitative proteomics by mass spectrometry that uses chemical labeling reagents. "Rapid quantitative analysis of proteins or protein function in complex mixtures," Rudolf Hans Aebersold et al.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingChicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.

(1/18708) Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis.

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

(2/18708) Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation.

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

(3/18708) Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient.

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

(4/18708) A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo.

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

(5/18708) The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping.

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

(6/18708) Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development.

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

(7/18708) Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis.

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

(8/18708) Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family.

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)



normal and malignant


  • In this work a CCD camera system has been used to obtain fluorescence images of aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine in normal and malignant colonic rat tissue sections. (springer.com)
  • Tumor specificity was assessed by immunohistological assays by using frozen sections of normal and malignant human tissues. (aacrjournals.org)

mammalian


  • 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) was recently detected as the sixth base in mammalian tissue at so far controversial levels. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 1. Following the administration of arsenite tagged with As 74 , the distribution of arsenic in various fractions of mammalian tissues has been investigated. (aspetjournals.org)

pharmacokinetics


  • The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PD in rats following intravenous (i.v.) administration. (mdpi.com)
  • Liang T, Yue W, Du X, Ren L, Li Q. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Praeruptorin D from Radix Peucedani in Rats by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). (mdpi.com)

rats


  • Pretreatment of rats with benzo(α)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene p.o. once daily for two days prior to the i.v. administration of tritiated benzo(α)-pyrene (BP- 3 H) on the third day stimulates the disappearance of BP- 3 H from blood and decreases the concentration of BP- 3 H in various tissues. (aacrjournals.org)

concentrations


  • Additionally, we show using HPLC-MS analysis and immunohistochemistry that hmC is present in all tissues and cell types with highest concentrations in neuronal cells of the CNS. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Plasma, tissues and urine were collected, and concentrations of NB142 and NB184 were quantitated by HPLC-UV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Relatively little information is available on total intracellular Ca concentrations in skeletogenic tissues even though it may be expected that intracellular Ca concentration would be related to skeletal Ca deposition (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular Ca concentrations have been obtained from tissues of coral larvae by electron microprobe (x-ray microanalysis) ( Clode and Marshall, 2004 ) and we have applied this method in the present investigation to mature coral polyps. (biologists.org)

intracellular


  • Less well explored are mechanisms that regulate the tissue distribution of obligate intracellular bacteria that are inherited through the germline. (biologists.org)
  • Of particular interest is the segregation of intracellular pathogens in mitotically active host cells, as this might be an important mechanism to spread infection to specific tissue types during host development. (biologists.org)

uptake


  • Synthesis, tissue distribution and tumour uptake of 99 Tc and 67 Ga tetra-sulphophthalocyanine. (springer.com)
  • To elucidate the molecular determinants involved in tissue uptake, we examined the biodistribution of recombinant onconase and two onconase-pancreatic RNase chimeric proteins. (aacrjournals.org)

plasma


  • The levels of PD in plasma and tissues were measured by a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. (mdpi.com)
  • Angiogenin has a higher volume of distribution and plasma-to-muscle transport rate than the other RNases, suggestive of binding to endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. (ucr.ac.cr)

concentration


  • Tissue distribution showed that the highest concentration was observed in the lung, followed by heart, liver and kidney. (mdpi.com)
  • Although much research has focused on Wolbachia germline concentration and transmission, a number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that Wolbachia are present in a broad array of larval and adult somatic tissues. (biologists.org)

receptors


  • Although it was originally hypothesized that lower natriuretic peptide levels in obese individuals could be attributed to increased clearance by adipose tissue expressing the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR)-C, studies have demonstrated that natriuretic peptides not cleared via this mechanism, such as N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide, have similar inverse associations with BMI. (onlinejacc.org)

proteins


  • 3. The arsenic was not evenly distributed throughout the proteins, but in general appeared to be more concentrated in those tissue proteins which are precipitated by less than half-saturated ammonium sulfate. (aspetjournals.org)

various


  • Here, we use an ultra-sensitive and accurate isotope based LC-MS method to precisely determine the levels of hmC in various mouse tissues and we searched for 5-formylcytosine (fC), 5-carboxylcytosine (caC), and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) as putative active demethylation intermediates. (uni-muenchen.de)

sections


  • Data were acquired from a variety of experimental techniques which included quantitative and qualitative immunofluorescence on live and permeabilized cells, RBC-rosetting assays, immunoperoxidase studies on Cytospin and frozen tissue sections, and immunoblot procedures. (aacrjournals.org)

relative


  • The pharmacokinetic study found that PD fitted well into a two-compartment model with a fast distribution phase and a relative slow elimination phase. (mdpi.com)

levels


  • Conclusions Higher natriuretic peptide levels were independently associated with a favorable adiposity profile, characterized by decreased visceral and liver fat and increased lower body fat, suggesting a link between the heart and adipose tissue distribution mediated through natriuretic peptides. (onlinejacc.org)

patient


  • Tissue procurement maintains patient confidentiality by using a database system, Oncore BSM, which utilizes unique patient identifiers and limits access by investigators to the encryption code. (iu.edu)

muscle


  • Popcorn (W Pop ), a virulent strain of Wolbachia , provides a particularly striking demonstration of the role of Wolbachia -specific factors as it over-replicates in adult neurons and muscle cells ultimately causing tissue degeneration and premature death ( Min and Benzer, 1997 ). (biologists.org)

brain


  • Aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine distribution in rodent tumours of the colon, brain and pancreas. (springer.com)
  • P2X_2 and P2X_5 receptor mRNAs exhibited more discrete distribution, localized in midbrain, brain stem and spinal cord. (nii.ac.jp)

association


  • Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the association between natriuretic peptides and body fat distribution in a multiethnic cohort. (onlinejacc.org)
  • This centrosome association is microtubule-dependent and promotes an even Wolbachia distribution throughout the host embryo. (biologists.org)