Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Thyroiditis, Subacute: Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Thyroiditis, Suppurative: Acute inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to infections by BACTERIA; FUNGI; or other microorganisms. Symptoms include tender swelling, FEVER, and often with LEUKOCYTOSIS.ThyroglobulinThyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Postpartum Thyroiditis: Transient autoimmune thyroiditis occurring in the POSTPARTUM PERIOD. It is characterized by the presence of high titers of AUTOANTIBODIES against THYROID PEROXIDASE and THYROGLOBULIN. Clinical signs include the triphasic thyroid hormone pattern: beginning with THYROTOXICOSIS, followed with HYPOTHYROIDISM, then return to euthyroid state by 1 year postpartum.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 220.127.116.11.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Goiter, Nodular: An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Oxyphil Cells: Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Myxedema: A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred CBARats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.Carbimazole: An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Sweet Syndrome: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.Pyriform Sinus: A recess on each side in the wall of the HYPOPHARYNX.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Goiter, Endemic: A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Autoimmune thyroiditisSubacute thyroiditisHashimoto's encephalopathy: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966.Thyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Follicular cellPostpartum thyroiditisSymptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.Thyrotropic cellAutoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Iodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.HypothyroidismGoitreIodine deficiencyToxic nodular goiterAutoimmune diseaseThyroid cancerThyroidectomyHyperthyroidismReverse triiodothyronineThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).Puerperal disorderOxyphil cell (parathyroid)Laser ablation of thyroid nodules: Laser ablation of thyroid nodules is a minimally invasive procedure indicated to treat benign thyroid lesions such as cold nodules or single nodules within a multinodular goiter. The technique consists in the destruction of the tissue by the insertion therein of optical fibers which convey the light energy, causing a complete and not reversible lesions necrosis.MyxedemaThymectomyProtective autoimmunity: Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. The term ‘protective autoimmunity’ was coined by Prof.Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2Sodium pertechnetateFine-needle aspiration: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses. In this technique, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.Addison's disease in canines: Addison's disease in canines refers to hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison's disease, when it occurs in canines. The first case of Addison's disease in dogs was recorded in 1953, over 100 years after it was described in humans by Thomas Addison.Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Reactive neutrophilic dermatoses: Reactive neutrophilic dermatoses are a spectrum of conditions mediated by neutrophils, and typically associated with underlying diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancy.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Vocal cord paresisMultifocal fibrosclerosis: Multifocal fibrosclerosis and idiopathic fibrosclerosis are disorders of unknown aetiology, characterised by fibrous lesions (co-)occurring at a variety of sites. Known manifestations include retroperitoneal fibrosis, mediastinal fibrosis and Riedel's thyroiditis.Vitiligo Research FoundationCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Aromatic sulfonation: Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution..Fibrin ring granuloma: A fibrin ring granuloma is a histopathological finding that is characteristic of Q fever. On hematoxylin-eosin staining, the fibrin ring granuloma consists of a central lipid vacuole (usually washed-out during fixing and staining, leaving only an empty hole) surrounded by a dense red fibrin ring and epithelioid macrophages.TRH stimulation test: Prior to the availability of sensitive TSH assays, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (also known as a digital papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary adenoma) is a cutaneous condition characterized by an aggressive malignancy involving the digit between the nailbed and the distal interphalangeal joint spaces.Infiltrative ophthalmopathy: Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is found in Graves disease and resembles exophthalmos, except that the blurry or double vision is acquired because of weakness in the ocular muscles of the eye. In addition, there is no known correlation with the patient's thyroid levels.Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes: The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD), is a collaborative type 1 diabetes research project funded by JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). nPOD supports scientific investigators by providing, without cost, rare and difficult to obtain tissues beneficial to their research.Endemic goitreIntraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.ATC code J01: ==J01A Tetracyclines==PrednisoloneFreund: __NOTOC__Hypophysitis: Hypophysitis refers to an inflammation of the pituitary gland. Hypophysitis is rare and not fully understood.
(1/240) Vascular endothelial growth factor gene and protein: strong expression in thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma.
Angiogenesis is implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation and tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor, is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The present work aimed to compare VEGF expression in human normal thyroid glands, thyroiditis tissue and thyroid carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH). Both chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid carcinomas were found to strongly express VEGF mRNA and encode larger amounts of VEGF than normal thyroid tissue as attested by a VEGF immunostaining score. In addition, tumor samples from patients with metastases showed a higher immunostaining score than their non-metastatic counterparts (P<0.05). Carcinomas with the greatest contents of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein had the most intense mitogenic activity. Special focus on endothelial cells showed intense mitogenic activity in neoplastic tissues in contrast to the total quiescence of endothelial cells in non-tumoral tissues. An intense VEGF production by differentiated thyroid carcinoma, attested either by a higher immunostaining score or a strong VEGF mRNA expression using ISH, could be a promising marker of tumor aggressiveness and may also be useful as a predictor of metastatic potential. (+info)
(2/240) Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with painless thyroiditis.
A case of anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)-negative primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) associated with painless thyroiditis is reported in a 47-year-old woman who diagnosed as PBC based on her elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and immunoglobulin M levels, as well as histological findings of destroyed bile ducts surrounded by mononuclear infiltrates in the biopsied liver. She was negative for AMA and had a depressed level of thyroid-stimulating hormone accompanied by increased free thyrosine, thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels and low titers of anti-microsomal and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Her thyroid disorder corresponded with painless thyroiditis. An association between PBC and hyperthyroidism is rare. Furthermore, an association between AMA-negative PBC and hyperthyroidism due to painless thyroiditis has not previously been reported. (+info)
(3/240) Nocardia thyroiditis: unusual location of infection.
Nocardia asteroides complex is an important opportunistic agent in immunocompromised hosts. Usually, primary pulmonary infection occurs and is followed by dissemination of the pathogen to the central nervous system and soft tissues. As described in the literature, almost every organ can be infected, but to our knowledge, Nocardia has been described as a pathogen responsible for thyroid abscess in only one report, which was published in 1993. The present report is the second case report of Nocardia thyroiditis. The patient was under immunosuppressor treatment following a combined liver-kidney transplant and presented with a preexisting nodular goiter which was probably a predisposing factor to the start and development of the thyroid infection. (+info)
(4/240) Lymphocytic hypophysitis and infundibuloneurohypophysitis; clinical and pathological evaluations.
This report describes the clinical and pathological characteristics of two patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LHy) and two with infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INHy). Two of the patients were women and two were men, and their ages were between 27 and 38 years old. This disease was not associated with either pregnancy or the postpartum period in the female patients. Two of the patients presented with diabetes insipidus, one with panhypopituitarism and right abducens paralysis and one with headache and galactorrhea. At presentation three of the patients had mild to moderate hyperprolactinemia and one had low prolactin levels. All four had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): focal nodular enlarging of the infundibulum and normal hypophysis in one, expanding sellar masses in two, and diffusely thickened stalk with slightly enlarged pituitary gland in one. Three cases showed no sign of adenohypophysial deficiency with stimulation tests. One patient had associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Of the first three patients, one patient underwent transcranial and two underwent transnasal transsphenoidal (TNTS) surgery for mass excisions since they were thought to have pituitary tumors. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal biopsy was performed in the last one with a suspicion of LHy. The pathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed lymphocytic infiltration. Hyperprolactinemia resolved with surgery in two patients and one developed diabetes insipidus as a complication. We conclude that LHy and infundibuloneurohypophysitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the mass lesions of the sellar region and also should be kept in the mind for the etiopathogenesis of cases of hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea and diabetes insipidus. In suspected cases endoscopic endonasal biopsy for the histopathological diagnosis can be a safe approach. (+info)
(5/240) Riedel's thyroiditis in multifocal fibrosclerosis: CT and MR imaging findings.
Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and may be seen isolated or as a part of multifocal fibrosclerosis. It is important to distinguish Riedel's thyroiditis from thyroid carcinoma. Reports about imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis are limited in the radiologic literature. We describe herein CT and MR imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis in a case of multifocal fibrosclerosis with previously unreported radiologic observations. (+info)
(6/240) Thyroiditis: differential diagnosis and management.
Thyroiditis is a group of inflammatory thyroid disorders. Patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (also referred to as Hashimoto's thyroiditis) present with hypothyroidism, goiter, or both. Measurement of serum thyroid autoantibodies and thyroglobulin confirms the diagnosis. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (sometimes referred to as de Quervain's disease) is a self-limited but painful disorder of the thyroid. Physical examination, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevated thyroglobulin level and depressed radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) confirm the diagnosis. Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (silent thyroiditis) is considered autoimmune in origin and commonly occurs in the postpartum period. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism and depressed RAIU predominate. Acute (suppurative) thyroiditis is a rare, infectious thyroid disorder caused by bacteria and other microbes. The rare, invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel's thyroiditis) presents with a slowly enlarging anterior neck mass that is sometimes confused with a malignancy. (+info)
(7/240) Susceptibility of inbred rat strains to experimental thyroiditis: quantitation of thyroglobulin-binding cells and assessment of T-cell function in susceptible and non-susceptible strains.
Ten inbred strains of rats were immunized with crude homologous thyroglobulin emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant in order to investigate strain susceptibility to the induction of both thyroiditis and antibody to thyroglobulin. Two strains (LH and AUG) were found to be extremely susceptible and had 100% incidence of thyroid lesions which in general varied from moderate to very severe (mean index of pathology+/-SE, 2-5+/-0-2 and 2-1+/-0-4 respectively). One other strain (HL) also had 100% incidence of lesions but there were consistently mild in character (1-1+/-0-1). Two strains (DA and SD) were variable, with thyroid change varying from negative to severe. Three strains (LEW, WAG and PVG/c) had occasional lesions and the remaining two strains (AS and CAM) showed no thyroid change. Four strains (LH, AUG, HL and DA) consistently produced good antibody responses to thyroglobulin (mean titres+/-SE 7-3+/-0-3, 9-5+/-0-4, 6-9+/-0-3 and 6-6+/-0-5 respectively). In contrast WAG and CAM rats failed to develop autoantibody and the responses of AS, PVG/c and SD strain rats were quite variable. Although the autoantibody response generally correlated well with the presence of thyroiditis in a particular strain, LEW, AS and PVG/c rats often had good antibody levels with minimal thyroid lesions. Females of the most susceptible strains (LH and AUG) were found to have significantly more severe thyroid lesions and higher antibody titres to thyroglobulin than males. The most susceptible strains were all found to be of the Ag-B5 major histocompatibility genotype whilst the least susceptible were of the Ag-B2 genotype. However, wide interstrain variability was noted within the Ag-B5 genotype particularly with respect to the induction and extent of thyroid lesions. It was not found possible to relate the divergence in susceptibility between rat strains of Ag-B5 and Ag-B2 genotypes to differences in respective numbers of thyroglobulin-binding cells within the circulation of the non-immunized animal. Similarly, there were no differences in response between a susceptible (LH) and non-susceptible (CAM) strain to the phytomitogens PHA and Con A. (+info)
(8/240) Thyroiditis in T cell-depleted rats. Influence of strain, radiation dose, adjuvants and antilymphocyte serum.
Strain differences in susceptibility to the development of thyroiditis following adult thymectomy and repeated sublethal X-irradiation (4 X 200 rad) were investigated in the rat. Marked strain variation was noted, with AUG and PVG/c rats having the highest incidence and severity of lesion (100 and 80% respectively) whilst CAM rats had a low incidence (9%). WAG and LIS rats occupied an intermediate position. The incidence of autoantibodies to thyroglobulin correlated closely with the strain incidence of thyroiditis (r = 0-87). Fractionation of the sera from thymectomized and irradiated rats by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the bulk of the antibodies to thyroglobulin were of the IgG class. Freund's complete adjuvant, but not lipopolysaccharide, enhanced the rate of development of thyroiditis in thymectomized rats given a shortened series of irradiations. It was not found possible to induce thyroiditis in thymectomized rats by substituting antilymphocyte serum for irradiation as a T cell-depleting agent, despite the fact that the treated rats had markedly reduced responses to phytohaemagglutinin. A combination of thymectomy, three doses of 200 rad, and a development period of 8 weeks were found to be the optimum conditions for induction of severe thyroiditis together with high antibody titres to thyroglobulin. These findings add support for the role of thymus-derived cells in the regulation of autoimmune responses and further suggest that thymectomy, combined with a series of sublethal irradiations, causes a selective depletion of those T cells specifically involved in the suppression of autoimmune reactivity to thyroid components, whilst leaving autoreactive helper T cells unimpaired. (+info)
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