Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Goiter, Nodular: An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Rheumatoid Nodule: Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.ThyroglobulinChernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Thyroiditis: Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.KazakhstanElasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Thyroiditis, Subacute: Spontaneously remitting inflammatory condition of the THYROID GLAND, characterized by FEVER; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; SORE THROAT; severe thyroid PAIN; and an enlarged damaged gland containing GIANT CELLS. The disease frequently follows a viral infection.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.UkraineIodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Oxyphil Cells: Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Galectin 3: A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf: A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.

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Laser ablation of thyroid nodules: Laser ablation of thyroid nodules is a minimally invasive procedure indicated to treat benign thyroid lesions such as cold nodules or single nodules within a multinodular goiter. The technique consists in the destruction of the tissue by the insertion therein of optical fibers which convey the light energy, causing a complete and not reversible lesions necrosis.Thyroid cancerFollicular cellFine-needle aspiration: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB, FNA or NAB), or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses. In this technique, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into the mass for sampling of cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.Toxic nodular goiterThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).ThyroidectomyGoitreThyrotropic cellIodine deficiencyBreast biopsyHyperthyroidismThyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Riedel's thyroiditisAbdominal ultrasonographyThyroid adenomaReverse triiodothyronineAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Medullary carcinoma: Medullary carcinoma refers to one of several tumors.Hormone receptor: A hormone receptor is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone. Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm.India–Kazakhstan relations: Indian–Kazakhstani relations are foreign relations between India and Kazakhstan. Diplomatic relations have increased in significance in the 21st century after initially remaining passive in the 1990s.OncocytomaSubacute thyroiditisAutoimmune thyroiditisSodium pertechnetateHypothyroidismAnaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Median mandibular cyst: A median mandibular cyst is a type of cyst that occurs in the midline of the mandible, thought to be created by proliferation and cystic degeneration of resting epithelial tissue that is left trapped within the substance of the bone during embryologic fusion of the two halves of the mandible, along the plane of fusion later termed the symphysis menti. A ture median mandibular cyst would therefore be classified as a non-odontogenic, fissural cyst.Hinduism in Ukraine: Hinduism is a minority religion in Ukraine.Iodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966.Cardiac imagingOxyphil cell (parathyroid)Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisAggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (also known as a digital papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary adenoma) is a cutaneous condition characterized by an aggressive malignancy involving the digit between the nailbed and the distal interphalangeal joint spaces.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Endocrine Research: Endocrine Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers endocrinology in the broadest context. Subjects of interest include: receptors and mechanism of action of hormones, methodological advances in the detection and measurement of hormones; structure and chemical properties of hormones.VemurafenibIncidentaloma: In medicine, an incidentaloma is a tumor ([found by coincidence (incidentally) without clinical symptom]s or suspicion. Like other types of [[incidental findings, it is found during the course of examination and imaging for other reasons.Law enforcement in the Federated States of Micronesia: Defense of the Federated States of Micronesia is the responsibility of the United States, but local police matters are handled by the FSM National Police, a small federal national police force, a division of the Department of Justice.Diazotroph: Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars polarization: In dielectric spectroscopy, large frequency dependent contributions to the dielectric response, especially at low frequencies, may come from build-ups of charge.

(1/445) A new rapid technique for the fixation of thyroid gland surgical specimens.

One of the main diagnostic problems in thyroid pathology is to distinguish between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Thorough sampling of the nodule's capsule is recommended in order to identify capsular invasion. However, during the hardening of the tissue, by the usual fixatives the capsule shrinks and rolls downwards and sometimes the capsule separates from the remaining tissue. The present work evaluates the use of "Lymph Node Revealing Solution" (LNRS) for the rapid fixation (2h) of different thyroid lesions as compared to that of formalin. Fifty-one unselected consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, which included various benign and malignant lesions, were examined. Each specimen was cut in two equal parts; one was fixed in LNRS, the other in formalin. Fixation in LNRS for 2 hours gave adequate results in sectioning and staining of the tissue, and excellent immunostains. Its advantage over formalin is the conservation of the natural relationship between the capsule and the rest of the tissue, on the same plane, as well as the short time required for the final diagnosis.  (+info)

(2/445) Evaluation of "solitary" thyroid nodules in a community practice: a managed care approach.

Evaluation of thyroid nodules remains a challenge for primary care physicians. To include or exclude the presence of malignancy in a thyroid nodule, radioisotope scan, ultrasound, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid generally are used. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility and cost effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of solitary thyroid nodules in a community setting; to compare the cost of fine-needle aspiration biopsy with that of radioisotope scan and ultrasound; and to determine whether the practice of obtaining radioisotope scans and ultrasound has changed in the 1990s compared with the 1980s. Patients were referred by community physicians to university-based endocrinologists for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Many of the patients had previously undergone radioisotope scans and ultrasound scans at the discretion of their primary care physicians. All patients underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The biopsy results were evaluated prospectively, and the practice of community physicians' obtaining radioisotope scans and ultrasound scans was compared for the 1980s and 1990s. Eighty-three patients underwent 104 biopsies. In 20 biopsies the specimens were inadequate; the others showed 70 benign, 9 suspicious, and 4 malignant lesions. All four patients with biopsy findings read as malignant were found to have malignant growth at surgical procedures. Two benign biopsy findings were false-negative results. Malignant growth was correctly diagnosed later for one patient at a second biopsy and for the other because of growth of the nodule. The cost of 104 biopsies was $20,800. The cost of radioisotope scans was $22,400, and the cost of ultrasound scans was $10,640. The frequency of obtaining radioisotope scans (84.5% vs 77%) and ultrasound scans (65% vs 45%) was slightly higher in the 1990s compared with the 1980s. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and cost effective initial evaluation modality for smaller community-based centers, as it is at large tertiary centers. The cost incurred ($33,040) in obtaining the radioisotope scans and ultrasound scans could have been saved if fine-needle aspiration biopsy had been used as the initial diagnostic procedure for evaluation of these nodules. Although radioisotope scan and ultrasound scan are of little diagnostic help in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, they continued to be obtained at a high frequency during the last decade.  (+info)

(3/445) De Quervain's subacute thyroiditis presenting as a painless solitary thyroid nodule.

We describe a 39-year-old woman presenting with a painless solitary thyroid nodule, initially without signs suggesting thyroiditis. The serum level of thyrotropin was suppressed whereas those of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were normal. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed no signs of inflammation or malignancy. One week later, the patient felt pain and tenderness on her neck, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were markedly elevated. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a suppressed thyroid pertechnetate uptake. At that time, the diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis was made. Upon treatment with steroids the patient's symptoms as well as the thyroid nodule resolved. This case illustrates that subacute thyroiditis de Quervain may present as a solitary, painless nodule with suppressed thyrotropin and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.  (+info)

(4/445) Management of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed between 1949 and 1997 with thyroid cancer presenting during pregnancy. RESULTS: Nine women with a median age of 28 years were identified. A thyroid nodule was discovered by the clinician during routine antenatal examination in four cases, the remainder had noted a lump in the neck. In all patients, the nodule was reported to almost double in size during the pregnancy. One patient underwent subtotal thyroidectomy during the second trimester; eight were operated on within 3 to 10 months from delivery. Total thyroidectomy was performed in five and subtotal thyroidectomy in four. All tumours were well differentiated and ranged in size from 1 to 6 cm. OUTCOME: The median follow-up was 14 years (5-31 years). One patient relapsed locally requiring further surgery. One patient developed bone metastases dying 7 years after presentation; her planned treatment had been delayed because of an intervening pregnancy. Eight of the original cohort of patients are currently disease free. CONCLUSIONS: Differentiated thyroid cancer presenting in pregnancy generally has an excellent prognosis. When the disease is discovered early in pregnancy, surgery should be considered in the second trimester but radioiodine scans and treatment can be safely delayed until after delivery. In all cases, treatment should not be delayed for more than a year.  (+info)

(5/445) Thyroid nodular disease after radiotherapy to the neck for childhood Hodgkin's disease.

Patients who receive radiotherapy to the neck are at risk of developing thyroid dysfunction. This prospective study of patients whose treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood included radiotherapy to the neck aimed to investigate the incidence and natural history of thyroid dysfunction and the morphological changes of the gland demonstrated on ultrasound. Forty-seven patients were investigated by clinical examination, thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasound. Only six patients had a clinically detectable abnormality, but 64% had abnormal thyroid function tests. All patients had an abnormal thyroid ultrasound scan and 42% had at least one focal abnormality. A significant association was found between the presence of a focal lesion on ultrasound and young age at radiotherapy, longer follow-up and the length of time that the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level had been elevated. During follow-up, 65% of patients not on thyroxine developed new focal abnormalities. The longest time interval between radiotherapy and an increase in TSH level was 94 months, and from radiotherapy to the appearance of a focal abnormality on thyroid ultrasound was over 18 years. Three patients were found to have a thyroid carcinoma. These findings indicate the importance of long-term follow-up for patients treated by neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease in childhood.  (+info)

(6/445) Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid neoplasms.

Ten percent of fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the thyroid are deemed "indeterminate" or "suspicious" for malignancy by the cytopathologist, but most of these lesions are benign. Therefore, additional markers of malignancy may prove to be a useful adjunct. The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines. Reverse transcription-PCR of the hTERT gene revealed expression in 15 (79%) of 19 malignant thyroid neoplasms, including 6 of 6 follicular carcinomas and 9 of 13 papillary carcinomas. In contrast, hTERT gene expression was detected in only 5 (28%) of 18 benign thyroid nodules, including 2 of 7 follicular adenomas and 3 of 11 hyperplastic nodules. All five benign thyroids exhibiting hTERT gene expression had lymphocytic thyroiditis. No normal thyroids exhibited hTERT gene expression. Telomerase enzyme activity was examined in all 37 nodules and was found to correlate with hTERT gene expression in 35 (95%) nodules. The two cases in which telomerase activity and hTERT expression results were discrepant were in two papillary carcinomas that were telomerase activity negative and hTERT positive. Finally, we have demonstrated that hTERT gene expression can be measured in in vivo FNA samples. These results suggest that hTERT expression may be more accurate than telomerase activity in distinguishing benign from malignant and may be measured in FNA samples from suspicious thyroid lesions.  (+info)

(7/445) Incidental detection of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma by calcitonin screening for nodular thyroid disease.

Serum calcitonin screening has recently been found to be a useful supplement to fine-needle aspiration biopsy, ultrasound and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We describe a case where introduction of routine calcitonin screening in nodular thyroid disease led to the detection of a family with medullary thyroid carcinoma. The benefits and problems of basal and stimulated serum calcitonin testing and ret-proto-oncogene mutation studies are exemplified and we discuss the appropriate use and interpretation of these tests. We conclude that routine basal serum calcitonin measurement in nodular thyroid disease and thoughtful use of ret-mutation analysis is cost-effective in detecting medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.  (+info)

(8/445) Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. METHODS: In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. RESULTS: The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.  (+info)


  • I had a partial thyroidectomy to remove a large solitary non cancerous nodule just over 4 weeks ago. (
  • Most thyroid nodules do not cause problems and are not cancerous. (
  • However, most thyroid nodules, including those that cancerous, are actually non-functioning, meaning tests like TSH are normal. (
  • Since it's usually not possible to determine whether a thyroid nodule is cancerous by physical examination and blood tests alone, the evaluation of the thyroid nodules often includes specialized tests such as thyroid ultrasonography and fine needle biopsy. (
  • A nodule that is still in your neck could still be cancerous despite a "benign" biopsy because not all of the nodule is cancerous. (

multinodular goiter

  • Furthermore, there is the risk of high blood levels of thyroid hormone in patients with multiple thyroid nodules (multinodular goiter). (
  • In about 15 percent of hyperthyroid patients, the cause of their condition is hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter / Plummer's disease), which occur when adenomas form within the thyroid gland and produce too much T4. (

destroys the thyroid

  • After I-131 destroys the thyroid, the patient develops an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) and requires thyroid hormone replacement for life to maintain a normal level of thyroid hormones in the blood. (
  • In some cases, thyroid levels can fluctuate between excess and insufficiency, as in the case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, which slowly and steadily destroys the thyroid gland. (


  • If your thyroid nodule is causing hyperthyroidism, your doctor may recommend a dose of radioactive iodine, which usually comes in a pill that you swallow. (
  • Thyroid nodules may produce excess amounts of thyroid hormone causing hyperthyroidism (see Hyperthyroidism brochure ). (
  • Once the nodule is discovered, your doctor will try to determine whether the rest of your thyroid is healthy or whether the entire thyroid gland has been affected by a more general condition such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. (
  • Hyperthyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. (
  • While less common than its opposite thyroid condition, hyperthyroidism still afflicts around 2 percent of women and 0.2 percent of men, including 3 to 6 million Americans. (
  • Along the way, though, the thyroid gland can react by overproducing thyroid hormone and flooding the body with it, causing temporary hyperthyroidism. (


  • Thyroid cancer or indeterminate lesions that cannot be classified from a fine needle aspiration biopsy. (
  • Ultrasound can also be used to accurately guide a needle directly into a nodule when your doctor thinks a fine needle biopsy is needed. (
  • A fine needle biopsy of a thyroid nodule may sound frightening, but the needle used is very small and a local anesthetic may not even be necessary. (
  • Any growth or deposit in the body or on its surface may be casually termed a nodule until its character is determined by the familiarity of the physician with it or by the results of a biopsy if it is not so obvious. (

elevated thyroid hormone

  • Such cases are indicated by a low TSH level and elevated thyroid hormone level in the blood or a "hot" nodule on radionuclide thyroid scan. (


  • Although the vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign (noncancerous), a small proportion of thyroid nodules do contain thyroid cancer. (
  • Fortunately, over 90% of such nodules are benign. (
  • A thyroid nodule is technically not "benign" unless it's surgically removed and the pathologist found no cancer in the specimen. (
  • Could it happen such that a benign thyroid nodule turn into malignant years later? (
  • Benign thyroid nodules almost always remain that way. (
  • The more likely instance is that a malignant nodule grew within the benign nodule (more likely when the benign nodule is large). (
  • Is peripheral vascularity more associated with benign thyroid nodule or malignant? (
  • If one-4 cm and two tiny benign thyroid nodules were removed 11 years ago, what are chances new nodules are malignant? (
  • There's no way to know from an ultrasound whether a thyroid nodule is malignant or benign. (


  • Often, thyroid nodules are discovered incidentally during a routine physical examination or on imaging tests like CT scans or neck ultrasound done for completely unrelated reasons. (
  • Thyroid ultrasound is a key tool for thyroid nodule evaluation. (
  • Ultrasound can help identify suspicious nodules since some ultrasound characteristics of thyroid nodules are more frequent in thyroid cancer than in noncancerous nodules. (
  • Thyroid ultrasound can identify nodules that are too small to feel during a physical examination. (
  • Once the initial evaluation is completed, thyroid ultrasound can be used to keep an eye on thyroid nodules that do not require surgery to determine if they are growing or shrinking over time. (


  • The thyroid gland is a major endocrine organ and the biggest gland in the neck. (
  • The thyroid gland makes a hormone (thyroid hormone) that helps control your heart rate, body temperature, and energy level. (
  • The term thyroid nodule refers to an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid gland. (
  • The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. (
  • Your physician will feel the thyroid to see whether the entire gland is enlarged and whether a single or multiple nodules are present. (


  • If your doctor has diagnosed you as having a thyroid nodule, a thyroid lump or an enlargement of the thyroid known as goiter, you'll wan. (
  • Occasionally, patients themselves find thyroid nodules by noticing a lump in their neck while looking in a mirror, buttoning their collar, or fastening a necklace. (


  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis , which is the most common cause of hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ), is associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodules. (
  • When someone you know is living with hypothyroidism, it can be tempting to think that if only the doctor would prescribe an extra helping of thyroid hormone, your friend or loved one would feel so much better and would enjoy life more. (


  • Your thyroid hormone level needs to be normal before you can be treated with radioactive iodine. (
  • I-131 can be used to treat multinodular goiters with nodules that are producing extra thyroid hormone. (
  • Thyroid hormone replacement consists of simply a pill taken once daily by mouth, which is safe, easily tolerated, and relatively inexpensive. (
  • There is controversy regarding whether physician-supervised administration of thyroid hormone may shrink the size of thyroid nodules. (
  • Many doctors believe that thyroid hormone does not effectively shrink nodules. (
  • It is important to discuss the pros and cons of suppressive thyroid hormone therapy with your doctor. (
  • In general thyroid disease and thyroid hormone imbalance can present with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and other neurological problems. (
  • Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs working as they should. (
  • The initial laboratory tests may include measurement of thyroid hormone (thyroxine, or T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood to determine whether your thyroid is functioning normally. (
  • Too much thyroid hormone can actually be dangerous, which is why doctors are loathe to bump the levothyroxin dosage up an extra 25 micrograms or so for one of their patients who's still experiencing hypothyroid symptoms. (


  • The thyroid's job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. (


  • I had a large goiter (the size of a softball) and half of my thyroid removed four weeks ago. (


  • Large thyroid nodules that cause obstructive symptoms, such as problems breathing or swallowing. (
  • Most thyroid nodules do not cause symptoms. (
  • Thyroid nodules generally do not cause symptoms. (


  • Rarely, patients with thyroid nodules may complain of pain in the neck, jaw, or ear. (
  • The best way to find a thyroid nodule is to make sure your doctor checks your neck! (


  • Thyroid tests are most typically normal-even when cancer is present in a nodule. (
  • Papillary, follcular, and medullary thyroid cancers are typically slow growing. (


  • I had partial thyroid removal one week ago today. (


  • If your nodule is cancer or is so large that it causes problems with swallowing or breathing, you'll need surgery to remove the nodule. (
  • Cosmetic reasons, to remove large visible thyroid nodules. (


  • Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid tissue and cause tissue destruction. (


  • Thyroid nodules that cause pain. (
  • Iodine deficiency, which is very uncommon in the United States, is also known to cause thyroid nodules. (


  • The chances of malignant nodules 11 years after removal of thyroid nodules is very unlikely. (


  • This very accurate test can easily determine if a nodule is solid or fluid filled (cystic), and it can determine the precise size of the nodule. (


  • What are the chances a 4mm thyroid nodule with microcalcifications present is malignant? (


  • A Thyroid Cancer Awareness Blog sponsored by Stevie JoEllie's Cancer Care Fund. (
  • If your nodule is not cancer and is not causing problems, your doctor may watch your nodule closely. (
  • There are about 39,000 new cases of thyroid cancer each year in the US, according to the National Cancer Institute. (
  • In order to diagnose and treat thyroid cancer at the earliest stage, most thyroid nodules need some type of evaluation. (
  • Even less commonly, hoarseness can be caused if the nodule invades the nerve that controls the vocal cords but this is usually related to thyroid cancer. (
  • It depends on the type of thyroid cancer . (
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer are very fast growing. (
  • Thyroid cancer in children is a more aggressive disease than thyroid cancer in adults. (

function tests

  • My thyroid function tests before and just after surgery were fine and are due to be checked again 6 weeks post op. (
  • Abnormal thyroid function tests may occasionally be the reason a thyroid nodule is found. (


  • However, clinical trials have shown that suppressive therapy may be successful in shrinking some thyroid nodules. (


  • and i'm sure that it's due to the 'surgery', the area that was surgically cut and also not having a thyroid. (
  • After surgery, you may need to take thyroid medicine for the rest of your life. (


  • We do not know what causes most thyroid nodules but they are extremely common. (


  • Thyroid nodules in children are more likely to be malignant than in adults-22% to 26% in children vs approximately 5% in adults. (


  • It can also be caused by an overdose of thyroid supplement or by ingesting foods that increase thyroid production or that provoke an autoimmune response. (


  • By age 60, about one-half of all people have a thyroid nodule that can be found either through examination or with imaging. (


  • That's why it's important to continue to follow the nodule. (


  • Is a heterogeneously hypoechonic nodule 1.4x1.1x1.1cm thyroid nodule with microlobulated margins with no calcifications is a possible malignant one? (