Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Thymus Hyperplasia: Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Thymus Extracts: Extracts of the thymus that contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities; three distinct substances are already known: thymotoxin, thymin and thymosin.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.

*  The Thymus Gland by Bria Banks on Prezi

The gland itself, hormones it produces and their function, disease and cause, and fun facts. ... Transcript of The Thymus Gland. By: Bria Banks What is the thymus gland? What hormones does this gland secrete and what do they ... The Thymus Gland Human Structures Which diseases affect the Thymus? www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/594569/thymus Location: ... The Thymus Gland. The gland itself, hormones it produces and their function, disease and cause, and fun facts. ...
https://prezi.com/40lpjjmmzeu9/the-thymus-gland/

*  Holistic approach in hospital medicine - English

Pineal Gland Centre between eyebrows. . Pituitary Body Throat Centre. . . Thyroid Gland Heart Centre. . . Thymus Gland Solar ... Adrenal Glands * 10. Energy Centers - Meaning • The Unmanifested or Energy Body 1st ray - Crown - Our FATHER - Divine Oneness( ...
https://slideshare.net/DrVasuBrown/holistic-approach-inhospitalmedicine

*  Diagnosis of leukemia - Canadian Cancer Society

enlarged thymus gland. * buildup of fluid between the lungs and the walls of the chest (called pleural effusion) ...
cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/leukemia/diagnosis/?region=nl

*  Biology & Biomedicine

Thymus gland - [Article] Thyroid gland - [Article] Tissue - [Article] Tongue - [Article] Tonsil - [Article] Tooth - [Article] ... Pineal gland - [Article] Pituitary gland - [Article] Plasmin - [Article] Poison gland - [Article] Prostate gland - [Article] ... Salt gland - [Article] Scale (zoology) - [Article] Scent gland - [Article] Sebaceous gland - [Article] Sense organ - [Article] ... Lacrimal gland - [Article] Larynx - [Article] Ligament - [Article] Liver - [Article] Lung - [Article] Lymphatic system - [ ...
accessscience.com/topics/biology-biomedicine

*  EVP - Free listening, videos, concerts, stats and photos at Last.fm

The Healing Code: 639 Hz (1 Hour Healing Frequency for Heart, Lungs, Breasts, Thymus Gland, Circulatory System and Respiratory ... The Healing Code: 852 Hz - 1 Hour Healing Frequency for Brain, Pituitary & Pineal Glands, Hypothalamus, Nose, Eyes and Nervous ... The Healing Code: 852 Hz (1 Hour Healing Frequency for Brain, Pituitary & Pineal Glands, Hypothalamus, Nose, Eyes and Nervous ...
https://last.fm/music/EVP

*  Lilly Lecture: The Thymus and Auto-immune Disease. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

The Thymus Gland and Aging Annals of Internal Medicine; 98 (1): 105-107 ... Carcinoid of the Thymus with Hereditary Hyperparathyroidism Annals of Internal Medicine; 89 (3): 364-365 ... Lilly Lecture: The Thymus and Auto-immune Disease. M. Burnet, O.M., F.R.S. ... Burnet M. Lilly Lecture: The Thymus and Auto-immune Disease.. Ann Intern Med. 1963;58:734. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-58-4-734_1 ...
annals.org/aim/article/678668/lilly-lecture-thymus-auto-immune-disease

*  Chap 9 Blood, Lymph, & Immune Systems Flashcards

thymus gland. Term. xen/o. Definition. foreign, strange. Term. -blast. Definition. embryonic cell. ...
https://flashcardmachine.com/chap-9-bloodlymphimmunesystems.html

*  https://www.cancer.gov/types/thymoma/hp/thymoma-treatment-pdq

Ritter JH, Wick MR: Primary carcinomas of the thymus gland. Semin Diagn Pathol 16 (1): 18-31, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract] ... Ritter JH, Wick MR: Primary carcinomas of the thymus gland. Semin Diagn Pathol 16 (1): 18-31, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract] ... A thymic epithelial tumor that exhibits clear-cut cytologic atypia and histologic features no longer specific to the thymus is ... Strollo DC, Rosado-de-Christenson ML: Tumors of the thymus. J Thorac Imaging 14 (3): 152-71, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract] ...
https://cancer.gov/types/thymoma/hp/thymoma-treatment-pdq

*  SIR ASTLEY PASTON COOP... - Online Information article about SIR ASTLEY PASTON COOP...

Anatomy of the Thymus Gland (1832); Anatomy of the Breast (184o). See Life of Sir A. Cooper, by B. B. Cooper (1843). ...
encyclopedia.jrank.org/COM_COR/COOPER_SIR_ASTLEY_PASTON_1768_1.html

*  Adrenal Supplements @ ProHealth Store

Thymus Natural Glandular Provides Tissue From the Thymus Gland Adrenal Enhance Adaptogenic Herbal & Vitamin Supplement Adrenal ... Strong adrenal glands are key to optimum energy. We are exposed daily to many different kinds of stress, which make the ... Provides Tissue from the Cortex Portion of the Adrenal Gland Optimal Adrenal Provides Pure Nutrients for Optimal Adrenal ...
https://prohealth.com/shop/contents.cfm?Category=Adrenal&sortBy=P.WeeklySales&anchor=1&page=2

*  Number of T Reg Cells That Differentiate Does Not Increase upon Encounter of Agonist Ligand on Thymic Epithelial Cells | JEM

The number and phenotype of AND thymocytes differentiating into CD4+CD25+ T reg cells was barely influenced by interaction with MCC-peptide/MHC complexes expressed on radio-resistant thymic stromal cells. This was not due to any requirement of a critical number of agonist complexes to be expressed by the stromal cells because diversion into the T reg cell pathway was absent over a wide range of expression levels of MCC-peptide/MHC complexes. Instead, CD4+CD25+ T reg cell thymocytes proved to be more resistant than their CD4+ CD25− counterparts to clonal deletion. This explains their relative enrichment in the presence of cognate ligand; as conventional CD4+ die off with increasing agonist, the apparent proportion of more resistant T reg cell increases, even though their numbers remain constant. That agonist ligand induces T reg cell differentiation is just a mirage.. The inefficient recruitment of AND-transgenic thymocytes into the CD4+CD25+ T reg cell lineage in TAND mice appears at odds with ...
jem.rupress.org/content/200/10/1221

*  Relationship between the adrenal cortex and thymic involution in "lethargic" mutant mice - Dung - 1976 - Developmental Dynamics...

To determine if the adrenal gland plays a role in the thymic involution which occurs spontaneously in "lethargic" mutant mice, three different studies were made. Morphological studies were made first to determine if there was an indication of histological changes in the adrenal glands. Next, serum levels of corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Finally, mice were unilaterally adrenalectomized to see if such treatment would improve various symptoms of "lethargic" mutants. Results of the studies showed that lipid granules in the cortical cells of "lethargic" mutants were greatly reduced in number during the time of spontaneous thymic involution, and the mutant mice had a significantly higher level of serum corticosterone than the normal controls. Mutant mice unilaterally adrenalectomized at 15 days of age showed a marked improvement in their condition and their mortality rate decreased. It is concluded that spontaneous thymic involution of "lethargic" mutants is ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aja.1001470209/abstract

*  NKAP is required for T cell maturation and acquisition of functional competency | JEM

We have shown that NKAP is absolutely required for T cell maturation. Although T cell development proceeds unimpeded upon loss of NKAP at the DP stage, the newly produced thymocytes do not complete T cell maturation, gain functional competency, or enter the long-lived naive T cell pool. A defect in maturation was indicated by a failure to down-regulate CD24/HSA and up-regulate Qa2 markers, which distinguish semimature T cells that have completed T cell development from fully mature T cells that can participate in an immune response. A functional defect in maturation was exhibited by naive CD4 T cells from CD4-cre NKAP cKO mice, which did not produce IL-2 upon TCR/CD28 stimulation. The defect in maturation was cell intrinsic, as demonstrated using mixed radiation chimeras, and could not be rescued by expression of the OT-II transgenic TCR. Consistent with a block in T cell maturation, NKAP-deficient CD4 peripheral T cells did not enter the long-lived T cell pool and were almost exclusively RTEs, ...
jem.rupress.org/content/208/6/1291

*  Disproportionate early fetal growth predicts postnatal thymic size in humans | Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and...

Disproportionate early fetal growth predicts postnatal thymic size in humans - Volume 4 Issue 3 - A. J. C. Fulford, S. E. Moore, S. E. Arifeen, L. Å. Persson, L. M. Neufeld, Y. Wagatsuma, A. M. Prentice
https://cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease/article/disproportionate-early-fetal-growth-predicts-postnatal-thymic-size-in-humans/5B37A4D7C0226F409D12CC189A2BB7CC

*  The Common Cytokine Receptor γ Chain and the Pre-T Cell Receptor Provide...

Before the expression of a rearranged TCR chain, immature thymocytes are maintained and proliferate in response to factors provided within the thymic milieu (for a review, see reference (51)). Although several cytokines have been shown to act on thymic precursors, stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-7 remain the two dominant factors that can promote their survival and/or expansion ((14), (50), (52)). The receptors for stem cell factor (c-kit) and for IL-7 (the IL-7Rα/γc complex) are coexpressed on early thymocytes ((41), (53), (54)), and proliferation of these cells is reduced in the absence of c-kit or IL-7Rα/γc (50, 55; and this report). The permissive nature of thymocyte development in c-kit or IL-7Rα/γc mutants implies redundancy in the pathways that maintain early precursors. The hypothesis that c-kit and IL-7Rα/γc signals could compensate for each other at this stage is strongly supported by the complete abrogation of thymocyte development (before the CD44+CD25− cell stage) in mice ...
jem.rupress.org/content/189/3/563

*  "Thymus leukemia (tl) antigen and thymocyte maturation. Abstr." by E M. Lance, S Cooper et al.

Lance, E M.; Cooper, S; Buchhagen, D; and Boyse, E A., "Thymus leukemia (tl) antigen and thymocyte maturation. Abstr." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 1371 ...
mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1970/1371/

*  Body Organs

The thymus gland is an organ of the lymphatic system, which protect the body against infection. Located behind the sternum, near the heath and lungs, it is well supplied with blood vessel. Its two main lobes are each subdivided into numerous lobules; a network of delicate connective tissue holds the lobes together. Within each lobule are two zones of tissue, inner zones called the cortex and an outer zone called the medulla. The cortex is composed of lymphocytes, while blood cells that produced antibodies and attack bacteria; this lymphocytes are packed into a fiber structure called a reticulum. The medulla has a more cellular reticulum and contains thymic corpuscles, which are concentric clusters of epithelial cells enclosing a core of granular cells. The function of these corpuscles is not yet understood. The thymus is most active during fetal and childhood growth. Its main function appearing to be the production of lymphocytes and the destruction of ...
body-organ.blogspot.com

*  Melatonin-dose for anti-aging

I am 48 and have been taking melatonin for 3 months. I take 1.5mg nightly. I have uninterrupted sleep with frequent vivid dreams. I am noticing significant positive benefits with no negatives. I have not had an arthritis flareup since I started and the affected joints seem to feel better. My blood pressure is back to normal and my blood chlorestorol is back down. I am putting on muscle in my workout regimin and have elevated to a new level. I have more energy, and generally feel much better, both physically and mentally. I sent some melatonin to my 74-year old father. He complained of difficulty sleeping and a feeling of heat in his chest. Then he saw the 20/20 program and was frightened out of continuing taking melatonin. My guess is the 'heat' feeling is a reaction of your thymus gland being stimulated by the hormone. Perhaps your thymus was disabled by your disease. The thymus is very important to your immune response. If this is true, ...
bio.net/bionet/mm/ageing/1995-November/001899.html

*  Journal of Neuroinflammation | Home page

|p||i|Journal of Neuroinflammation |/i|is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that focuses on interactions of the immune system (and especially the innate immune system) with the nervous system. This includes the roles of CNS immune mediators (such as microglia and astrocytes, and their expressed cytokines and chemokines) as well as the roles of the peripheral immune system, complement proteins, acute phase proteins, oxidative injury and related molecular processes.|/p|
jneuroinflammation.com

Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.Thymus hyperplasiaThymectomyHypersensitivityDredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.Amphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Bombardier Challenger 300: The Bombardier BD-100 Challenger 300 is a super-mid-sized jet capable of traversing transcontinental distances. It is not developmentally related to the similarly named Challenger 600 series, or the 600-derived Challenger 800 series.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Hematidrosis: Hematidrosis (also called hematohidrosis or hemidrosis or blood sweat. From Greek haima/haimatos αἷμα, αἵματος, blood; hidrōs ἱδρώς blood) is a very rare condition in which a human sweats blood.Serous demiluneAbsent adrenal glandHarderian gland: The Harderian gland is a gland found within the eye's orbit which occurs in tetrapods (reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals) that possess a nictitating membrane.ThYme (database): ThYme (Thioester-active enzYme) is database of enzymes constituting the fatty acid synthesis and polyketide synthesis cycles.Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Humoral factor: Humoral factors are factors that are transported by the circulatory system, that is, in blood, and include:Sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy

(1/8961) Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

(2/8961) The mouse Aire gene: comparative genomic sequencing, gene organization, and expression.

Mutations in the human AIRE gene (hAIRE) result in the development of an autoimmune disease named APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy; OMIM 240300). Previously, we have cloned hAIRE and shown that it codes for a putative transcription-associated factor. Here we report the cloning and characterization of Aire, the murine ortholog of hAIRE. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the structure of the AIRE gene is highly conserved between human and mouse. The conceptual proteins share 73% homology and feature the same typical functional domains in both species. RT-PCR analysis detected three splice variant isoforms in various mouse tissues, and interestingly one isoform was conserved in human, suggesting potential biological relevance of this product. In situ hybridization on mouse and human histological sections showed that AIRE expression pattern was mainly restricted to a few cells in the thymus, calling for a tissue-specific function of the gene product.  (+info)

(3/8961) Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation.

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

(4/8961) Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells.

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

(5/8961) Partial purification and properties of porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase.

Porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase was purified by a simple procedure. In the final step of isoelectric focusing the enzyme was separated into two peaks of pI 6.3 (peak I) and 7.0 (peak II), which showed 3,600- and 4,000-fold enhancement of lactosylceramide-hydrolysing activity, respectively. The two peaks had identical mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight was 34,000. Neither monosialoganglioside (GM1) nor galactosylceramide was hydrolysed by the purified enzyme fractions. The optimal pH was at 4.6, and sodium taurocholate was essential for the reaction. The apparent Km was 2.3 x 10-5 M. The reaction was stimulated by sodium chloride and linoleic acid, while it was strongly inhibited by Triton X-100 and bovine serum albumin. Galactosylceramide, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, and p-nitrophenol were weak inhibitors. No effects of GM1 and galactose were observed on the hydrolysis of lactosylceramide.  (+info)

(6/8961) The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction.

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

(7/8961) Identification of a subpopulation of lymphocytes in human peripheral blood cytotoxic to autologous fibroblasts.

A naturally occurring subpopulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes is cytotoxic to autologous and/or allogeneic fibroblasts. The autocytotoxic lymphocytes have a receptor for the third component of complement and for aggregated gamma globulin, do not form rosettes with sheep red blood cells, and are not removed by passage through nylon. The autocytotoxic subpopulation is not present in the thymus and tonsils of normal children or in the peripheral blood of individuals with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Fibroblast absorption experiments demonstrate that the autocytotoxic cells are "sensitized" to antigens expressed on allogeneic fibroblasts in addition to the antigens expressed on autologous cells. Some normal individuals have a second subpopulation of lymphocytes that may "regulate" the autocytotoxic cells. The relevance of these observations to the murine autocytotoxic cells is discussed.  (+info)

(8/8961) Antitumor agents. I. Effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide on liver microsomes and thymus of rat.

Effects of antitumor agents on rat liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and thymus lymphocytes were studied in male Wistar rats. High doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) given parenterally for 6 days caused a partial decrease in whole body weight and the microsomal enzyme content such as cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5. Aniline p-hydroxylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities also decreased in rats dosed for 5 days decreased compared with the control. Both compounds in the high concentrations produced spectral change of "modified type II". However, the magnitude of the spectral changes observed was independent of the the concentration of substrate added. The addition of NADPH to the microsomes-substrate mixture modified the spectral change. Both drugs caused a considerable decrease in thymus weight and the number of thymus lymphocytes, while the alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced in 5-FU groups, indicating that the agents cause a significant involution of the thymus. Decrease in the total number of the lymphocytes was greater than that in the blood leucocytes.  (+info)



remove the thymus gland


  • Thymectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the thymus gland. (largomedical.com)

lymphocytes


  • The main function of the thymus is to transform lymphocytes into T-cells. (prezi.com)

Adrenal


lungs


  • www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/594569/thymus Location: Appearance: The thymus is located beneath the breastbone (in between the lungs) and is made up of 2 lobes that are connected in front of the trachea. (prezi.com)

epithelial


  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are epithelial tumors of the thymus. (cancer.gov)
  • A thymic epithelial tumor that exhibits clear-cut cytologic atypia and histologic features no longer specific to the thymus is known as a thymic carcinoma (also known as type C thymoma). (cancer.gov)

tumor


  • Thymoma Thymic Hyperplasia Type of cancer tumor developed in the thymus. (prezi.com)
  • A thymectomy may also be done if the thymus has a tumor, which is called thymoma. (lakecitymedical.com)

immune


  • http://www.endocrineweb.com/endocrinology/overview-thymus T-Cell type of white blood cell developed in bone marrow that protects body from threats DiGeorge Syndrome: SCID: Consists of a very small or no thymus gland People with this disorder have a very weak immune system Treatment of this disorder involves either a new thymus gland or infusions of immune cells to prevent infections. (prezi.com)
  • Lilly Lecture: The Thymus and Auto-immune Disease. (annals.org)
  • The thymus gland helps immune cell growth. (lakecitymedical.com)

breastbone


  • The thymus is thought to play a role in some cases of MG. The thymus is an organ behind the breastbone. (largomedical.com)
  • This gland is located in the upper portion of the chest, behind the breastbone. (lakecitymedical.com)

diseases


  • Called the thymus because it resembles a thyme leaf Work Cited : The Thymus Gland Human Structures Which diseases affect the Thymus? (prezi.com)

Begins


  • It is still not clear why the thymus begins to produce these. (largomedical.com)

Liver


  • Pre-approval research showed that sucralose caused shrunken thymus glands (up to 40% shrinkage) and enlarged liver and kidneys. (abovetopsecret.com)

known


  • The End As the thymus gland shrinks with age, it becomes only a pea size surrounded by layers of fat by age 70 www.naturalnews.com Importance of the thymus gland was not known until 1961by Jacquez Miller Bounce! (prezi.com)

function


  • The gland itself, hormones it produces and their function, disease and cause, and fun facts. (prezi.com)

white


  • Description: www.innerbody.com/image_endoov/lymp04-new.html The thymus lobes are made up of white blood cells and fat. (prezi.com)