Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)United StatesAttitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.ComputersHigh-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Medical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Videoconferencing: Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Social Networking: Individuals connecting by family, work or other interests. It also includes connectivity facilitated by computer-based communications.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Text Messaging: Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Remote Consultation: Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Pharmaceutical Technology | Prospects.ac.uk... fees and contact details for Pharmaceutical Technology at University of Bradford on prospects.ac.uk ... Despite fast growth in the pharmaceutical industry, it is facing challenges due to expiring blockbuster patents and fewer drugs ... This MSc has taken into consideration this changed requirement of the global pharmaceutical industries and uses the strong ... The thrust on development of novel formulations and processing technologies has stimulated demand for skilled and innovative ...
1. preformulationJapan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association • FDA: US Food and Drug Administration • PhRMA: Pharmaceutical Research and ... Published in: Technology, Business 7 Comments 149 Likes Statistics Notes * Full Name Comment goes here. ... Applications: • Pharmaceutical solutions must be administered at or near room temperature. So, it is more important factor for ... REFERENCES 1. Ansel's pharmaceutical Dosage forms & Drug delivery systems, 8th edition by Loyd V. Allen, Nicholas G.popovich, ...
Current Research | NIPTE - National Institute for Pharmaceutical Technology and EducationDissolution and bioequivalence of poorly soluable active pharmaceutical ingredients formulated as amorphous solid dispersion ... Processes to Facilitate QbD and Scale-up in Pharmaceutical Drug Product Manufacturing. *Lead: Ramachandra ...
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Tracking Growth in Biologics | Pharmaceutical TechnologyThe share of biologic-based drugs in the global pharmaceutical market is on the rise. ... The share of biologic-based drugs in the global pharmaceutical market is on the rise. ... Patricia Van Arnum is executive editor of Pharmaceutical Technology, email@example.com. ... Tbo-filgrastim is a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produced by recombinant DNA technology and is used to reduce ...
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Biosimilars Supporting Contract Manufacturers' Growth | Pharmaceutical TechnologyBiosimilars may be the key to CMO growth.
Baxter BioPharma Solutions Press Releases - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... Pharmaceutical / biopharmaceutical clients of the contract manufacturing organisation (CMO) will be able to leverage BPS's ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
Treating Halogenated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Pharmaceutical Production | Pharmaceutical TechnologyPharmaceutical process emissions are not typical industrial applications, but strategies exist to address them successfully. ... Many pharmaceutical processes, however, also generate emissions that contain halogenated hydrocarbons such as chlorine. Because ... Treating Halogenated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Pharmaceutical Production. Regenerative thermal oxidation devices used to treat ... thermal and catalytic oxidizers are widely applied air-pollution control devices used throughout the pharmaceutical industry ...
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SAI Life Sciences - Strategic Contract Development and Manufacturing Service Provider - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
Prokarium and Probiomed to manufacture orally administered vaccines for diarrhoea - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... For all the latest pharmaceutical industry news, sign up for our regular updates. ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
AstraZeneca and Eolas to develop Orexin-1 receptor antagonist for addiction - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... For all the latest pharmaceutical industry news, sign up for our regular updates. ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
Pylote's Pyclear Protection Recognized for Best Packaging at the CPhI Pharma Awards | Pharmaceutical TechnologyIts Pyclear Protection was developed to replace antimicrobial preservatives used in multi-dose pharmaceutical products, and it ... Pyclear Protection is based on unique, unagglomerated ceramic microspheres manufactured by a green and "clean-tech" chemistry ... Pyclear Protection provides an alternative to substitute the use of preservatives in pharmaceuticals products without any ...
FDA grants fast-track status for AMO Pharma's congenital myotonic dystrophy treatment - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... For all the latest pharmaceutical industry news, sign up for our regular updates. ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
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Temperature-Control Solutions Customising the Cold Chain White Paper to Download from World Courier - Pharmaceutical Technologywww.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... Of historical global pharmaceutical industry statistics, two in particular stand out. Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) ... Drugs contain more high-value active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and there has been an increase in depend for treatments ...
glyXera - High-Performance Glycoanalysis Solutions for Biopharma and Biotech Industries and for Clinical Applications -...www.pharmaceutical-technology.com is a product of Kable. Copyright 2017 Kable, a trading division of Kable Intelligence Limited ... Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts?. Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug ... A Roadmap for Glycoscience in Europe 08 June 2016 Glycoscience is the science and technology of carbohydrates (also known as ... New library building the LINC between pharmaceutical industry and academia. New library building the LINC between ...
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Medical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent nonprofit technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Morgridge Institute for Research. It provides significant research support, granting tens of millions of dollars to the university each year and contributing to the university's "margin of excellence.University of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Lakes District Technocity: The Lakes District Technocity(established in 2004) is a science park located on the campus of Süleyman Demirel University. The technocity is a full member of International Association of Science Parks.Translational bioinformatics: Translational Bioinformatics (TBI) is an emerging field in the study of health informatics, focused on the convergence of molecular bioinformatics, biostatistics, statistical genetics, and clinical informatics. Its focus is on applying informatics methodology to the increasing amount of biomedical and genomic data to formulate knowledge and medical tools, which can be utilized by scientists, clinicians, and patients.Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Telecare: Telecare is the term for offering remote care of elderly and physically less able people, providing the care and reassurance needed to allow them to remain living in their own homes. The use of sensors may be part of a package which can provide support for people with illnesses such as dementia, or people at risk of falling.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Assistive technology service provider: Assistive technology service providers help individuals with disabilities acquire and use appropriate Assistive Technology (AT) to help them participate in activities of daily living, employment and education.Cellular microarray: A cellular microarray is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading to their capture on specific spots.Cardiovascular technologistBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Immersive technologyMassive parallel sequencing: Massive parallel sequencing or massively parallel sequencing is any of several high-throughput approaches to DNA sequencing using the concept of massively parallel processing; it is also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) or second-generation sequencing. Some of these technologies emerged in 1994-1998 and became commercially available since 2005.Mac OS X Server 1.0Mobile phone radiation and health: The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. , there were more than 6 billion subscriptions worldwide.Body area network: A body area network (BAN), also referred to as a wireless body area network (WBAN) or a body sensor network (BSN), is a wireless network of wearable computing devices.Developing wireless body area networks standardSana Ullah, Henry Higgins, Bart Braem, Benoit Latre, Chris Blondia, Ingrid Moerman, Shahnaz Saleem, Ziaur Rahman and Kyung Sup Kwak, A Comprehensive Survey of Wireless Body Area Networks: On PHY, MAC, and Network Layers Solutions, Journal of Medical Systems (Springer), 2010.Ontario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Timeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.Proteomics Standards Initiative: The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) is a working group of Human Proteome Organization. It aims to define data standards for proteomics in order to facilitate data comparison, exchange and verification.Advanced Telecommunication Modules Ltd: Advanced Telecommunication Modules Ltd (ATML) was set up in 1993 by Dr Hermann Hauser and Professor Andy Hopper as a spin-off from the Olivetti Research Laboratory in Cambridge.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Acknowledgement (data networks): In data networking, an acknowledgement (or acknowledgment) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Peptide microarray: A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed on a solid surface, usually a glass or plastic chip. Peptide chips are used by scientists in biology, medicine and pharmacology to study binding properties and functionality and kinetics of protein-protein interactions in general.Palm (PDA): Palm handhelds were Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) that ran the Palm OS.Fluorescent glucose biosensor: Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market,No fluorescent biosensor has yet entered the medical market, however, in the market for research tools several fluorescent biosensors are present, such as a kit using [Vibrio fischeri] but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Microfluidics: Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field intersecting engineering, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, nanotechnology, and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which low volumes of fluids are processed to achieve multiplexing, automation, and high-throughput screening. Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips, lab-on-a-chip technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal technologies.Theory of Motivated Information Management: Theory of Motivated Information Management or TMIM, is a social-psychological framework that examines the relationship between information management and uncertainty. The theory posits that individuals are “motivated to manage their uncertainty levels when they perceive a discrepancy between the level of uncertainty they have about an important issue and the level of uncertainty they want” (Guerrero et al.Da Vinci Surgical System: The Da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by the American company Intuitive Surgical. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000, it is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach, and is controlled by a surgeon from a console.Kiten (program)Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Visual 1050VisionxMicrofluidic whole genome haplotyping: Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele.Calculator: An electronic calculator is a small, portable electronic device used to perform both basic operations of arithmetic and complex mathematical operations.High throughput biologyCable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Thin Film Electronics ASAThe Flash ChroniclesDesiderata of the Lombards: Desiderata or Ermengarda was one of four daughters of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and his queen, Ansa. She was married to Charlemagne, king of the Franks, in 770, probably to form a bond between the otherwise enemy states of Francia and Lombardy.Birse Civils: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.Sony Xperia ZAtomic mass: right |thumb|200px|Stylized [[lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons, & 3 electrons (total electrons are ~1/4300th of the mass of the nucleus). It has a mass of 7.Webcam: A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to computer network. When "captured" by the computer, the video stream may be saved, viewed or sent on to other networks via systems such as the internet, and email as an attachment.Plant Proteome Database: The Plant Proteome Database is a National Science Foundation-funded project to determine the biological function of each protein in plants.Sun Q, Zybailov B, Majeran W, Friso G, Olinares PD, van Wijk KJ.Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Thermal cyclerHydrogen darkening: Hydrogen darkening is a physical degradation of the optical properties of glass. Free hydrogen atoms are able to bind to the SiO2 silica glass compound forming hydroxyl (OH) - a chemical compound that interferes with the passage of light through the glass.Biopanning: Biopanning is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target.Ehrlich GK, Berthold W, and Bailon P.DR Systems: DR Systems, Inc. is an independent provider of enterprise imaging and information management systems for hospitals, integrated healthcare networks and diagnostic imaging centers.Coles PhillipsCornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility: The Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility (CNF) is a scientific user facility and cleanroom which is located at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. The CNF is one of the fourteen sites of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network.Neural drug delivery systems: Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments.Extracellular: In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentAtlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Wi, Inc.: Wi, Inc. (pronounced as an initialism, "double-u i.Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering: The Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) was founded in 1962 at the University of Toronto (U of T). IBBME is home to the common research and teaching interests of the faculties of Applied Science and Engineering, Dentistry, and Medicine at the U of T.Bulk micromachining: Bulk micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.De novo transcriptome assembly: De novo transcriptome assembly is the method of creating a transcriptome without the aid of a reference genome.Indian trademark law: Indian trademark law statutorily protects trademarks as per the Trademark Act, 1999 and also under the common law remedy of passing off. Statutory protection of trademark is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, a government agency which reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.Biological resistanceSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesLibrary (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Salt (cryptography): In cryptography, a salt is random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function that hashes a password or passphrase.Salts are closely related to the concept of nonce.
(1/1029) Cytotoxicities of alkaloids from processed and unprocessed seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica.
AIM: To examine the cytotoxicities of 6 crude Strychnos alkaloid fractions from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica unprocessed or processed with various traditional processing methods and 13 pure Strychnos alkaloids from the fractions. METHODS: Using cell culture, their inhibitory effects on Vero cell growth-inhibition assay, and host cell DNA synthesis by [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) uptake assay. RESULTS: The IC50 of processed seeds were 155% and 212% of unprocessed ones in cell growth-inhibition assay and in [3H]TdR uptake assay, respectively. The IC50 of 13 compounds were 0.45-0.80 mmol.L-1 and 0.50-12 mmol.L-1, respectively. The processing method with sand bath exhibited a wide safety margin compared with other traditional processing methods or no processing. The isomers of Strychnos alkaloids and their N-oxides showed much lower cytotoxicities among these alkaloids. Isobrucine N-oxide showed the lowest cytotoxicity. The contents of isomers and N-oxides of Strychnos alkaloids were the highest in the sand processing. CONCLUSION: Processing of nux vomica plays a critical role in its toxicity. (+info)
(2/1029) The SHAPES strategy: an NMR-based approach for lead generation in drug discovery.
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been shown that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) may be used to identify ligands that bind to low molecular weight protein drug targets. Recognizing the utility of NMR as a very sensitive method for detecting binding, we have focused on developing alternative approaches that are applicable to larger molecular weight drug targets and do not require isotopic labeling. RESULTS: A new method for lead generation (SHAPES) is described that uses NMR to detect binding of a limited but diverse library of small molecules to a potential drug target. The compound scaffolds are derived from shapes most commonly found in known therapeutic agents. NMR detection of low (microM-mM) affinity binding is achieved using either differential line broadening or transferred NOE (nuclear Overhauser effect) NMR techniques. CONCLUSIONS: The SHAPES method for lead generation by NMR is useful for identifying potential lead classes of drugs early in a drug design program, and is easily integrated with other discovery tools such as virtual screening, high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. (+info)
(3/1029) The newer, 'atypical' antipsychotic drugs--their development and current therapeutic use.
General practitioners (GPs) need to become more aware of a new generation of antipsychotic drugs that are 'atypical' in that, unlike traditional neuroleptics, they do not cause extrapyramidal side-effects; they may also be more effective against both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia by their actions on various neurotransmitter pathways in the brain. This is a non-systematic review of the development of these new drugs and outlines how they are currently being used. It includes information found from an electronic search of the databases MEDLINE (from 1966 to June 1998) and EMBASE (from 1980 to January 1998) using the combined search terms 'antipsychotic agents', 'atypical', and 'schizophrenia'. (+info)
(4/1029) Identification of potential vaccine and drug target candidates by expressed sequence tag analysis and immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries.
The search for appropriate vaccine candidates and drug targets against onchocerciasis has so far been confronted with several limitations due to the unavailability of biological material, appropriate molecular resources, and knowledge of the parasite biology. To identify targets for vaccine or chemotherapy development we have undertaken two approaches. First, cDNA expression libraries were constructed from life cycle stages that are critical for establishment of Onchocerca volvulus infection, the third-stage larvae (L3) and the molting L3. A gene discovery effort was then initiated by random expressed sequence tag analysis of 5,506 cDNA clones. Cluster analyses showed that many of the transcripts were up-regulated and/or stage specific in either one or both of the cDNA libraries when compared to the microfilariae, L2, and both adult stages of the parasite. Homology searches against the GenBank database facilitated the identification of several genes of interest, such as proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, antioxidant or detoxification enzymes, and neurotransmitter receptors, as well as structural and housekeeping genes. Other O. volvulus genes showed homology only to predicted genes from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans or were entirely novel. Some of the novel proteins contain potential secretory leaders. Secondly, by immunoscreening the molting L3 cDNA library with a pool of human sera from putatively immune individuals, we identified six novel immunogenic proteins that otherwise would not have been identified as potential vaccinogens using the gene discovery effort. This study lays a solid foundation for a better understanding of the biology of O. volvulus as well as for the identification of novel targets for filaricidal agents and/or vaccines against onchocerciasis based on immunological and rational hypothesis-driven research. (+info)
(5/1029) Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of and determination of related organic impurities in nevirapine drug substance.
Nevirapine (Viramune), a dipyridiodiazepinone, is a potent and highly specific nonnucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. This paper describes the validation of a specific, sensitive, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for the assay and determination of related organic impurities in nevirapine drug substance. This method uses a Supelcosil LC-ABZ column, a mobile phase of 20:80 (v/v) acetonitrile-25mM NH4H2PO4 (pH 5.0), and ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 220 nm. This method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, detection limit, quantitation limit, stability of analyte solutions, robustness, and intermediate precision. Nevirapine is completely separated from all impurities. The method is shown to be linear with coefficients of determination r2 greater than 0.999. Average accuracy is 100.4% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7% for the assay. Accuracy ranges from 100.1 to 102.6% for related organic impurities. Repeatability is good, with relative standard deviations not more than 1.4%. The detection limit and the quantitation limit are determined to be 0.001 and 0.003%, respectively. Relative response factors of known organic impurities are determined, permitting the use of nevirapine at the 0.1% level as an external standard for the quantitation of these impurities. Analyte solutions are shown to be stable for at least 2 days at ambient temperature. The method is validated as robust, and intermediate precision is high. A system suitability test is developed and validated, and requirements are set. (+info)
(6/1029) Biological considerations in the development of a human immunodeficiency virus vaccine.
Over the last 12 years, many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine candidates have been tried in humans, with disappointing results. In particular, recombinant envelope proteins have failed to elicit strong cellular immune responses or neutralizing antibody against many wild-type isolates of HIV-1. Attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), although capable of protecting against virulent strains of SIV, often retain residual pathogenicity. These difficulties suggest that it will be necessary to address a number of biological questions that underpin the rational development of an AIDS vaccine: (1) Will natural infection with HIV protect against superinfection? (2) Is partial protection induced by an HIV vaccine adequate to prevent AIDS? (3) What are the immune correlates of protection for an AIDS vaccine? (4) Will a monotypic HIV-1 vaccine confer cross-clade immunity? (5) Is mucosal immunity important for an effective AIDS vaccine? (6) Is there a rationale for therapeutic immunization? Ongoing research that is addressing these questions should lead to the formulation of a safe and effective AIDS vaccine. (+info)
(7/1029) The putative beta4-adrenergic receptor is a novel state of the beta1-adrenergic receptor.
The atypical beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist CGP-12177 has been used to define a novel atypical beta-AR subtype, the putative beta4-AR. Recent evaluation of recombinant beta-AR subtypes and beta-AR-deficient mice, however, has established the identity of the pharmacological beta4-AR as a novel state of the beta1-AR protein. The ability of aryloxypropanolamine ligands like CGP-12177 to independently interact with agonist and antagonist states of the beta1-AR has important implications regarding receptor classification and the potential development of tissue-specific beta-AR agonists. (+info)
(8/1029) Efficacy of two alternate vaccines based on Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in an Aotus challenge trial.
In an attempt to produce a more defined, clinical-grade version of a vaccine based on Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), we evaluated the efficacy of two recombinant forms of MSP1 in an Aotus nancymai challenge model system. One recombinant vaccine, bvMSP1(42), based on the 42-kDa C-terminal portion of MSP1, was expressed as a secreted protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells. A highly pure baculovirus product could be reproducibly expressed and purified at yields in excess of 8 mg of pure protein per liter of culture. This protein, when tested for efficacy in the Aotus challenge model, gave significant protection, with only one of seven monkeys requiring treatment for uncontrolled parasitemia after challenge with P. falciparum. The second recombinant protein, P30P2MSP1(19), has been used in previous studies and is based on the smaller, C-terminal 19-kDa portion of MSP1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Substantial changes were made in its production process to optimize expression. The optimum form of this vaccine antigen (as judged by in vitro and in vivo indicators) was then evaluated, along with bvMSP1(42), for efficacy in the A. nancymai system. The new formulation of P30P3MSP1(19) performed significantly worse than bvMSP1(42) and appeared to be less efficacious than we have found in the past, with four of seven monkeys in the vaccinated group requiring treatment for uncontrolled parasitemia. With both antigens, protection was seen only when high antibody levels were obtained by formulation of the vaccines in Freund's adjuvant. Vaccine formulation in an alternate adjuvant, MF59, resulted in significantly lower antibody titers and no protection. (+info)
- Their collective experience and dedication in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and energy industries will align their customers for success. (bio-medicine.org)
- Used primarily by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical, cosmetic, nutraceutical/food and energy companies to research, develop and improve products with efficient processes, more than 3,000 Microfluidizer processors are installed at customer sites in 50 countries around the world. (bio-medicine.org)
- APD ) will be exhibiting its range of industrial gases and advanced technologies for a variety of pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications at INTERPHEX 2015 in New York City from April 21-23. (airproducts.com)
- For more information about Air Products' complete portfolio of offerings to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, call 800-654-4567 (mention code 4976) or visit www.airproducts.com/pharmaceutical . (airproducts.com)
- This total service encompasses all of the European research services completed by the Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnology & Drug Discovery Technologies Group. (frost.com)
- Sanofi partnered with the biopharmaceutical company Regeneron Pharmaceuticals for Zaltrap. (pharmtech.com)
- As a recognized leader in cryogenic technology applications, Air Products offers a range of advanced technology solutions that can help pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical professionals improve productivity, quality and safety, as well as help lower their overall costs. (airproducts.com)
- Despite fast growth in the pharmaceutical industry, it is facing challenges due to expiring blockbuster patents and fewer drugs in the pipeline. (prospects.ac.uk)
- The growth in the oral drug delivery market shall be driven primarily by newer technologies enabling controlled release formulations of oral drugs and oral formulations of injectable only drugs. (aarkstore.com)
- This report will be helpful for those pharma companies who are exploring novel opportunities for their growth by in-licensing formulation technology or value added pipeline drugs available/being studied in the market. (aarkstore.com)
- Experts from Capsugel, Cardinal Health, Catalent Pharma Solutions, PCI, Pharma Tech Industries, and Vetter answer our roundtable question about the future of the contract services industry in the following pages. (pharmtech.com)
- Capsugel, the leading global provider of dosage form solutions, announced today that its CFS1000/1200 capsule filling and sealing machines have now been licensed by eight of the top 10 global pharmaceutical companies. (capsugel.com)
- Although small molecules dominate the global pharmaceutical market, the percentage share of biologic-based drugs is projected to rise reflecting both the entry of new biologic-based drugs and increased revenues for existing biologics. (pharmtech.com)
- The thrust on development of novel formulations and processing technologies has stimulated demand for skilled and innovative human resource. (prospects.ac.uk)
- There is increased need for technologies that can address such industry challenges as bioavailability enhancement, targeted delivery, and abuse deterrent formulations. (pharmtech.com)
- This comprehensive report on novel drug delivery system focuses mainly on the oral and injectable formulations of pharmaceuticals and specialty companies. (aarkstore.com)
- This report enumerates the various formulation technologies involved in making value added formulations, pharmaceutical applications and advantages of specific technologies. (aarkstore.com)
- The innovative Microfluidics Technology Center, located at the company's headquarters outside Boston, Mass., is staffed by expert engineers with a wide range of nanotechnology and application experience for Proof of Concept and Process Development services. (bio-medicine.org)
- Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection . (jefferson.edu)
- Given all the changes affecting the industry, pharmaceutical companies are increasingly looking for end-to-end services. (pharmtech.com)
- As is the case with many industries, thermal and catalytic oxidizers are widely applied air-pollution control devices used throughout the pharmaceutical industry for the destruction of hydrocarbons. (pharmtech.com)
- POWREX is one of the largest providers of technology to the pharmaceutical industry in Japan. (bio-medicine.org)
- The technology has immediate value in pharmaceutical industry, such as creating more effective and targeted drugs. (bio-medicine.org)
- Pharma industry is trying to enhance people's health and this has initiated, boosted the production active pharmaceutical ingredients by the API manufacturing units. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- The share of biologic-based drugs in the global pharmaceutical market is on the rise. (pharmtech.com)
- The past few years have brought drastic changes to the pharmaceutical outsourcing services market. (pharmtech.com)
- Pharmaceutical Technology asked thought leaders at some pharmaceutical contract services companies to share their views on where the business is going, and what can be expected to drive future changes in the services market. (pharmtech.com)
- Japan is the second-largest single-country pharmaceutical market in the world. (bio-medicine.org)
- The contribution of generics is approximately 20% of the overall international pharmaceutical market. (aarkstore.com)
- Innovative Technology Development Corporation Company Profile provides strategic analysis of Innovative Technology Development Corporation Company in current market conditions. (aarkstore.com)
- This MSc has taken into consideration this changed requirement of the global pharmaceutical industries and uses the strong infrastructure and expertise from the Schools of Life Sciences and Engineering Design and Technology. (prospects.ac.uk)
- Graduates completing the course will find opportunities in research and development, pre-formulation, formulation development, patent division, process development and the quality assurance sections of the pharmaceutical industries. (prospects.ac.uk)
- Air Products' materials technologies segment serves the semiconductor, polyurethanes, cleaning and coatings, and adhesives industries. (airproducts.com)
- First degree at Honours or equivalent (2:2) in any Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Pharmacy/Pharmacology/Pharmaceutical Sciences. (prospects.ac.uk)
- Pyclear Protection is based on unique, unagglomerated ceramic microspheres manufactured by a green and "clean-tech" chemistry proprietary process. (pharmtech.com)
- Many pharmaceutical processes, however, also generate emissions that contain halogenated hydrocarbons such as chlorine. (pharmtech.com)
- As more in-house positions have been eliminated, pharmaceutical companies are looking for strategic partners and, where, possible, "one-stop" solutions. (pharmtech.com)
- Pharmaceutical packaging: where should drug companies focus their efforts? (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- MRT allows companies to improve bioavailability, target delivery and encapsulate actives more efficiently than any top-down process or traditional crystallization method,' said Thomai 'Mimi' Panagiotou, PhD., Microfluidics Chief Technology Officer. (bio-medicine.org)
- MRT enables pharmaceutical companies interested in continuous manufacturing to break new ground in crystallization and nanotechnology application development. (bio-medicine.org)
- Established in 1950 as Fuji Kikai Kohgyo Co, Ltd., and based in Hyogo, POWREX has grown over the past half-century to become one of the largest processing technologies companies in Japan. (bio-medicine.org)
- By producing smaller particle sizes and a more narrow distribution than other technologies, with scaleup from lab to production guaranteed, Microfluidics enables companies to create tiny particles that achieve big results. (bio-medicine.org)
- The challenge for both drug and drug delivery companies is to deliver both existing and emerging drug technologies in a manner that improves the current benefits enjoyed by the patients. (aarkstore.com)
- The study of the novel drug delivery companies and their formulation technologies will provide the potential value added opportunity in the generic field in terms of patients compliance or bioavailability enhancement. (aarkstore.com)
- What we are finding now is that the CFS1200 is proving so invaluable that many companies are looking to purchase additional machines in order to capitalize on this unique technology. (capsugel.com)
- These are being used to service pharmaceutical companies that wish to evaluate the Licaps drug delivery technology, as well as to provide additional capacity to those companies who already have the CFS1000/1200 equipment in place. (capsugel.com)
- Since we have a high regard for Evotec's wide range of drug discovery technologies, and the existing collaboration with Evotec targeting a protease has progressed as planned, we are now pleased to enter into a new drug discovery agreement on an ion channel with Evotec utilizing their proprietary drug discovery platform. (technologynetworks.com)
- Pyclear Protection provides an alternative to substitute the use of preservatives in pharmaceuticals products without any change to the primary packaging. (pharmtech.com)
- Air Products also provides solutions for oxidation, fermentation, and hydrogenation applications, the latter of which will be supported by a new R&D hydrogen lab-scheduled to be operational in the third quarter of 2015-that will allow collaborative development of improved hydrogenation techniques for pharmaceutical materials. (airproducts.com)
- Our unique Phytostatin™ has been designed in China especially for Hi-Tech to yield precise active compounds allowing it to be sold as a dietary supplement! (illpumpyouup.com)
- By filling and sealing in one operation, it helps accelerate the development timeframe and achieve faster time to "First in Man" - the critical Phase 1 go/no go decision point for new molecules within the pharmaceutical development process. (capsugel.com)
- Pharmaceutical process emissions are not typical industrial applications, but strategies exist to address them successfully. (pharmtech.com)
- Evotec AG has announced that it has extended its current research collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Ono) and initiated a new discovery collaboration. (technologynetworks.com)
- Newton, MA (PRWEB) April 21, 2010 -- Microfluidics International Corporation (OTCBB: MFLU) today announced that, along with its exclusive Japanese distributor, POWREX Corporation, it has introduced Microfluidics Reaction Technology (MRT) to Japan as the world's only viable large-scale, bottom-up technology for nanoparticle creation. (bio-medicine.org)
- Kores's (India) Limited, a Pharmaceutical Company is a manufacturer of Ambroxol HCL. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- Because we have such confidence in our valued partner, POWREX, we are filing for a patent and are eager to introduce this revolutionary platform technology to Japan,' said Michael C. Ferrara, President and CEO of Microfluidics. (bio-medicine.org)
- Wherever possible, marketed drugs using a similar technology have been discussed as proof of validation along with the status of additional pipeline. (aarkstore.com)
- Continued demand for enabling technologies such as solubility enhancement. (pharmtech.com)
- Our strong partnership with Microfluidics enables us to bring this innovative and important technology to potential customers in Japan. (bio-medicine.org)
- Tbo-filgrastim is a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produced by recombinant DNA technology and is used to reduce neutropenia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies. (pharmtech.com)