Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Tooth DiseasesDental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Libraries, DentalGroup Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.United StatesDental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Pulp CalcificationCurriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Mouth DiseasesForensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.State Dentistry: Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Focal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.OdontoblastsOrthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.

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Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Dental cariesMallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Utah College of Dental HygieneMedical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.SOAP note: The SOAP note (an acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) is a method of documentation employed by health care providers to write out notes in a patient's chart, along with other common formats, such as the admission note. Documenting patient encounters in the medical record is an integral part of practice workflow starting with patient appointment scheduling, to writing out notes, to medical billing.Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.MFDS: MFDS is the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, a government department in South Korea. This is former KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration.Amalgam (chemistry): An amalgam is a substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum.Implant stability quotient: The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the value on a scale that indicates the level of stability and osseointegration in dental implants. The scale ranges from 1 to 100 and is measured by implant stability meters instruments using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) technique.International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.Dental radiographyPostgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Sydney Dental HospitalAmerican Dental Society of Anesthesiology: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA) is an American professional association established in 1953 and based in Chicago.Dental fluorosisUniversity of the East College of Dentistry: The University of the East College of Dentistry was first established as a unit of the Philippine College of Commerce and Business Administration in 1948. The college is one of the pioneers of dental education and labeled as one of the top dental schools in the Philippines.Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayCoronation Dental Specialty GroupDenturist: A Denturist in the United States and Canada, clinical dental technician in the UK or (in Australia) a dental prosthetist, is a member of the oral health care team who provides an oral health examination, takes impressions of the surrounding oral tissues, constructs and delivers removable oral prosthesis (dentures and partial dentures) directly to the patient.American Academy of denturitry.Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent nonprofit technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Morgridge Institute for Research. It provides significant research support, granting tens of millions of dollars to the university each year and contributing to the university's "margin of excellence.Outline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Endodontic files and reamers: Endodontic files and reamers are surgical instruments used by dentists when performing root canal treatment. These tools are particularly used to clean and shape the root canal, with the concept being to perform complete chemomechanical debridement of the root canal to the length of the apical foramen.Cork University Hospital: Cork University Hospital (Irish: Ospidéal Ollscoil Chorcaí), abbreviated as CUH, is the largest university teaching hospital in Ireland and is the only Level 1 trauma center in the country due to the presence of over 40 different medical and surgical specialties on the campus. It is operated by the Health Service Executive.Teledentistry: Teledentistry is the use of information technology and telecommunications for dental care, consultation, education, and public awareness (compare telehealth and telemedicine).Carl E. Misch: Carl E. Misch is an American prosthodontist recognized internationally for his clinical and academic contributions to the field of implant dentistry.Mexican ironwood carvings: Mexican ironwood carvings is a handcraft that began with the Seri indigenous people of the state of Sonora. The wood comes from Olneya tesota, a Sonora Desert tree commonly called ironwood (palo fierro in Spanish).Overeruption: In dentistry, overeruption is the physiological movement of a tooth lacking an opposing partner in the dental occlusion. Because of the lack of opposing force and the natural eruptive potential of the tooth there is a tendency for the tooth to erupt out of the line of the occlusion.Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryPoint Lookout Light, AustraliaDBFS: Decibels relative to full scale, commonly abbreviated dBFS, measures decibel amplitude levels in digital systems such as pulse-code modulation (PCM) which have a defined maximum available peak level.University of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyPorcelain: Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between . The toughness, strength and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures.Dentists Act 1984: The Dentists Act 1984 (c. 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom regulating dentistry.American Dental Association: The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American professional association established in 1859 which has more than 155,000 members. Based in the American Dental Association Building in the Near North Side of Chicago,"Contact Us.Waviness: Waviness is the measurement of the more widely spaced component of surface texture. It is a broader view of roughness because it is more strictly defined as "the irregularities whose spacing is greater than the roughness sampling length".The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Terence Thomas, Baron Thomas of Macclesfield: Terence James Thomas, Baron Thomas of Macclesfield CBE (born 19 October 1937) is a Labour and Co-operative member of the House of Lords, and a retired banker. He is a member of the Regional Policy Forum, President of the Society.OverjetTaurodontismLakes District Technocity: The Lakes District Technocity(established in 2004) is a science park located on the campus of Süleyman Demirel University. The technocity is a full member of International Association of Science Parks.Enamel hypoplasia

(1/64) Firing shrinkage of porcelain-resin composites prepared by laser lithography.

Using porcelain and resin-mixed composites as experimental materials, cubic polymerized composites were prepared by the accumulation of thin slices cured by laser scanning. The composites were then fired, and bulk ceramic bodies were made. The optimal firing conditions of polymerized composites and firing shrinkage were investigated. The results showed that cubic ceramic bodies in a form homologous to that before firing could be reproduced. The volume shrinkage of fired ceramic bodies consisting of 1 g of ceramic powders and 0.3 g of epoxy resin was about 30% under all firing conditions, and there were no significant differences between specimens. It was suggested that with further research and development, three-dimensional forms for clinical use in dentistry could be manufactured by the proposed method.  (+info)

(2/64) 21st-century endodontics.

BACKGROUND: Endodontics as a discipline has offered patients the opportunity to maintain their natural teeth. As the population expands and ages, the demand for endodontic therapy can be expected to increase as patients seek dental options to keep their teeth for a lifetime. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: New materials, techniques and instruments are entering the market-place to assist dentists in providing patients with more predictable and reliable endodontic treatment. In addition, these new systems make the delivery of endodontic services more efficient. This article describes these advances in endodontic treatment for dentists interested in incorporating these advances into their clinical practice.  (+info)

(3/64) A new pattern mouth stick.

The motivation for the severely handicapped tetraplegic patient in using the mouth stick is quite considerable as through this simple oral aid they are able to carry out small jobs and be involved in social activities. We feel that this modified pattern mouth stick fulfils the aims which we require of it.  (+info)

(4/64) Degree of cure of orthodontic adhesives with various polymerization initiation modes.

The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of cure (DC) of a light-cured, and a two- and a one-phase (no-mix) chemically-cured, as well as a dual-cured commercially available orthodontic adhesive resin. Forty stainless steel brackets were divided into four groups of 10 brackets each, and the bracket bases were covered with a standardized volume of adhesive. They were then pressed firmly onto a yellowish background surface of 75 per cent reflectance covered with cellulose film to facilitate detachment of the system and recovery of the set material. The visible light- and dual-cured adhesives were photopolymerized by irradiation from the incisal and cervical edges of the bracket for 10 seconds each, while another group of ceramic brackets was used to assess the differential interference of transparent relative to opaque material in the DC. Micro-multiple internal reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for the estimation of the DC of the adhesives (alpha = 0.05, n = 10), utilizing a method proposed previously. The dual-cured product demonstrated the highest DC followed by the light-cured combined with the ceramic bracket, and the no-mix and the chemically-cured adhesives. The combination of the metallic bracket with the light-cured product resulted in a DC comparable with that of the chemically-cured material.  (+info)

(5/64) In vitro comparison of peak polymerization temperatures of 5 provisional restoration resins.

BACKGROUND: The heat produced by provisional restoration materials may injure the dental pulp. This study measured and compared peak temperatures during polymerization of 5 materials used in the fabrication of provisional restorations. METHODS: The tested materials were 2 self-curing resins (Integrity and Protemp) and 3 dual-cure resins (Iso-Temp, TCB Dual Cure and Provipont DC). A mould the size of a maxillary molar tooth was fabricated to contain 0.5 cc of resin. The temperature rise of the different materials was recorded every 10 seconds over a 10-minute period. RESULTS: The rise in temperature of Integrity (peak temperature of 33.8 degrees C) and Protemp Garant (35.6 degrees C) was significantly higher than the rise in temperature of Iso-Temp (29.5 degrees C), TCB Dual Cure (28.4 degrees C) and Provipont DC (29.5 degrees C). CONCLUSION: Use of the dual-cure resins in provisional restorations may reduce the risk of pulp injury.  (+info)

(6/64) Study of resin-bonded calcia investment: Part 1. Setting time and compressive strength.

This study was carried out to develop a new titanium casting investment consisting of calcia as the refractory material and a cold-curing resin system as the binder. The setting time of the investment was investigated under different N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) contents in methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) contents in calcia without any sintering agent. The effects of the sintering agents, which were calcium fluoride (CaF2) and calcium chloride (CaCl2), on the compressive strength of the investments were investigated at room temperature before and after heating to two different temperatures. The shortest setting time (68 minutes) of the investment was obtained at 0.37 DMPT/BPO (1.5 vol% /1.0 mass%) ratio by mass. The highest strength (16.5 MPa) was obtained from the investment which contained 2 mass% CaF2 and was heated to 1,100 degrees C. It was found that the developed calcia investment containing 2 mass% CaF2 has a possibility for use in titanium castings.  (+info)

(7/64) New initiation system for resin polymerization using metal particles and 4-META.

Fifteen kinds of metal particles were examined to establish whether they could induce the setting of UDMA-based monomer containing BPO without amine under the presence of 4-META at room temperature. FT-IR spectra of the resultant set samples and the monomer were analyzed to see if the setting was caused by the polymerization. The effects of 4-META and BPO concentrations on the setting time were also studied using the metal particles that induced the setting very effectively. As-received Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Co, and In particles could initiate the polymerization of the monomer in combination with BPO and 4-META when they were moistened with water. All the three kinds of silver alloy particles examined also could initiate the polymerization, although pure silver metal particles could not. The presence of 4-META drastically shortened the setting time of the mixture of Cu particles and the monomer containing BPO, while higher concentration of BPO in the monomer significantly shortened the setting time.  (+info)

(8/64) Polymerization of UDMA using zinc particles and 4-META with and without BPO.

The polymerization phenomena of zinc particles moistened with a small amount of water, 4-META, and UDMA without amine in the presence and absence of BPO were investigated. The effects of 4-META and BPO on the setting time and the degree of conversion (DC) were studied. Moreover, the effect of zinc ion amount on the setting time was investigated. As-received zinc particles could induce the polymerization either with or without BPO. A higher concentration of 4-META shortened the setting time and increased DC when BPO was absent. However, the presence of BPO generally retarded the setting time and decreased DC, although its effect was dependent on the 4-META concentration. A higher amount of zinc ion retarded the setting reaction in the presence of 4-META. The zinc particles mixed with 10% zinc sulfate and acetic acid solutions could induce the polymerization of UDMA containing BPO when the amine and 4-META were absent.  (+info)

  • implant
  • Tariq Mahmood Idris BDS, was a UK-based celebrity dental and implant expert. (
  • Tariq Idris graduated from Manchester University Dental School in 1993 and also completed post-graduate training in various implant systems in 1997.There he met his wife (Hannah Hussain) , he later graduated from the Tatum Institute in advanced implantology techniques under famous American "Grandfather of Implantology" Dr. Hilt Tatum in 1999. (
  • He developed several new dental implant designs in conjunction with British Implant Company Osteocare. (
  • Dentist
  • Dental Chairs The first adjustable dental chair was invented in 1790 by Josiah Flagg, who is also credited with being the first American dentist.3 Dr. Flagg began with a large, wooden Windsor chair and modified it to accommodate an adjustable headrest. (
  • Imagine going to a dental office because you've lost a crown and having the dentist clean up your tooth, freshen the edges, and take a wand to scan your tooth so that via CAD (Computer Aided Design) CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology he can make your new restoration. (
  • orthodontic
  • The Society for Orthodontic Dental Technology (German: Gesellschaft für Kieferorthopädische Zahntechnik e.V (GK)), is a professional body that represents orthodontic technicians and is based in Germany. (
  • The aims of the association are to promote high quality of orthodontic dental technology, to stimulate and support interdisciplinary engagement, to hold an annual congress and build relationships with international professional organisations. (
  • Membership benefits include contact with colleagues and other professional organisations both national and internationally, a regularly updated membership register (German: mitgliederliste), new innovations at national and international level, opportunities for active participation in the society, an online encyclopaedia of orthodontic technology as well as regular updates about the society. (
  • practice management software
  • Practice management software: This technology has been around for quite a few years and is helping streamline everything from schedulig to billing. (
  • Digital radiographs: This technology links in with the practice management software to produce instant radiographs with a fraction of radiation exposure to the patient. (
  • Dentrix was the first dental practice management software for Microsoft Windows when it was launched in 1989 by Dentrix Dental Systems, a firm founded by Larry M. Gibson in 1985 and is based in American Fork, Utah. (
  • Dentrix products include practice management software for dental offices, imaging software, patient education software, computer-based training software, voice recognition software, and other products designed to enhance the dental office experience. (
  • centre
  • Two specialized high-tech diagnostic/treatment clinics were opened to receive the students for training: Yastabshiroon Centre where imaging techniques are housed, e.g. (
  • He is the director of the Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave and Photoacoustic Technologies (CADIPT) at the University of Toronto, formerly known as Centre for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT). (
  • Chair
  • The patient is led to the treatment area and sits in a dental chair, which is adjusted to the individual's size and position for the treatment, and the light is positioned. (
  • Before this, dental patients sat in a wooden chair without any headrest at all. (
  • Forty years later, James Snell designed and created the first fully reclining dental chair, which was an improvement, but it still sat on four legs.3 The first pump-style chair incorporated the adjustable features of the Snell model and provided a foot pump that raised and lowered the patient. (
  • 4 In 1887, Dewell Stuck had an idea for a new type of dental chair. (
  • The original Stuck Dental Chair had a completely dry movement, with no oil used whatsoever. (
  • In the 1970s, Planmeca manufactured dental stools and instrument cabinets, and created its first patient chair and dental unit. (
  • Planmeca introduced a microprocessor-controlled dental chair, panoramic X-ray device and dental unit. (
  • In the 1990s, Planmeca introduced a dental unit with an integrated patient chair. (
  • tooth
  • Caries detection: Sonar enables dental providers to detect decay by looking at the density of the enamel in a tooth. (
  • teeth
  • Dental hygienists clean teeth, examine patients for signs of oral diseases such as gingivitis, and apply sealants and fluorides to help protect teeth. (
  • Nigeria
  • The Federal School of Dental Technology & Therapy is a higher education institute in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu State, Nigeria. (
  • Graduates may practice as professionals after registration with the Dental Technologists or Dental Therapists Registration Boards of Nigeria. (
  • The school was once the only school which trained dental technologists and therapists in Nigeria, until recently when other schools were established for this purpose. (
  • patient
  • A patient entering a dental office is often greeted and then checked in through the practice management system's digital appointment book. (
  • I'm sure there are a lot of you that are already using technology in your offices to help streamline the patient experience. (
  • In the 2000s, Planmeca introduced a dental unit that could be converted from right- to left-handed use with motorised movements as well as the Planmeca Romexis software for processing patient information, dental unit's user activities and images. (
  • office
  • Computers have become embedded into dental equipment, as well as the management side of the office. (
  • Imagine going into a dental office because you've lost an old crown. (
  • Some of the more basic technologies that have been implemented in the dental office are things that we now take for granted. (
  • The Deans office, the lecture theatres and the laboratories are in one block and within 50 meters of the dental outpatient department. (
  • Center
  • Andreas Mandelis (born 22 June 1952), is a professor and researcher at the department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Toronto and director of the Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave and Photoacoustic Technologies (CADIPT). (
  • TCELS conducts projects in medical robotics, medical devices, and operates the Advanced Dental Technology Center (ADTEC). (
  • Society
  • He is the editor-in-chief of the book series "Progress in Photothermal and Photoacoustic Science and Technology" which is published by the Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). (
  • software
  • Planmeca offers integrated product concepts consisting of a dental unit, digital imaging equipment and software. (
  • In addition to Planmeca Oy, the companies belonging to Planmeca Group are: Planmed Oy, a manufacturer of mammography and orthopaedic imaging equipment, Plandent Oy, a full-service dental supply company, LM-Instruments Oy, a manufacturer of dental hand instruments, Opus Systemer AS, a developer of dental software solutions and Triangle Furniture Systems Inc., a manufacturer of dental practice cabinetry solutions. (
  • free
  • Planmeca also introduced a new SCARA technology in its X-ray units, which enabled free formation of imaging geometry. (
  • patients
  • Practically everything you use on a daily basis to treat your patients has been improved upon because of technology. (