Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Dysgeusia: A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.PhenylthioureaSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Cyclamates: Salts and esters of cyclamic acid.

*  Savory And Sweet: A Taste For Infertility | WFIT

A bitter taste alerts us to a plant that may be poisonous. A sweet ... Humans have long relied on the sense of taste in the struggle to survive and multiply. ... A bitter taste alerts us to a plant that may be poisonous. A sweet taste tells us that a plant is likely high in calories and ... who specializes in the science of taste. "Experiencing a taste is like hearing a sound through an amp," he tells Shots. "If you ...
wfit.org/post/savory-and-sweet-taste-infertility

*  ALCOHOLISM 'ALL A MATTER OF TASTE' | New York Post

Scientists hope to develop a taste test that could identify which people are at risk of becoming alcoholics. A new study by the ... "A taste test would allow us to evaluate a child's risk of becoming an alcoholic long before he or she touches an alcoholic ... "Taste preference is an innate reaction that may be detected within minutes after birth." ... Scientists hope to develop a taste test that could identify which people are at risk of becoming alcoholics. ...
nypost.com/2003/06/17/alcoholism-all-a-matter-of-taste/

*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in ... Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, ... Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and ... and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p , 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories ...
mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/4/241

*  Expensive Taste - Wikipedia

Expensive Taste Official Web site, expensivetaste.net. (EN) Expensive Taste, su Discogs, Zink Media. (EN) Expensive Taste, su ... Expensive Taste - Expensive Taste Famous Anthem (con artisti vari) Can't Fuck With It Trunk Full Of Boom I'm The Shit Them Are ... Expensive Taste (scritto anche Expen$ive Ta$te) è una band composta dal rapper texano Paul Wall, il cantante californiano Rob ... Un mixtape di 15 tracce di Expensive Taste è stato pubblicato gratuitamente in internet Lista delle canzoni da DJ Skee & ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expensive_Taste

*  Smell & Taste | Science Project | Education.com

Using blindfold and noseplugs, administer blind taste test. Analyze results and organize data. ... Experiment about connection of senses of taste and smell. ... Terms/Concepts: Senses: Smell & Taste; Taste Buds; Taste ... Either good or bad our sense of smell plays a role in taste. A common example is a stuffy nose. When you get a cold and your ... What is the evolutionary significance of our sense of taste?. The aroma of turkey on Thanksgiving, cookies baking in the oven, ...
https://education.com/science-fair/article/smell-taste-connection/

*  Why is it... - Breast & bottle feeding - MadeForMums Chat

If you cut this out your milk taste will change! If you dont think it is that then try drinking lots of water to compensate for ... it is prob not a reduced milk supply but more likely a change in taste??? if you eating a lot of chocolate etc.. your milk ... that when you lose weight you release toxins and this comes through in breast milk and can affect taste!!!!!!!???????????. ...
madeformums.com/forum/breast-and-bottle-feeding/why-is-it/107527.html

*  M5 Receptors

The -ASTREE e-Tongue instrument uses seven sensors to characterize taste signals. M5 Receptors 852808-04-9 IC50, Rabbit ... 4) The four standard taste preparations did not correspond to orthogonal sizes in the principal component axes. (5) The three ... The -ASTREE e-Tongue instrument uses seven sensors to characterize taste signals associated with a liquid sample. total ...
techblessing.com/category/m5-receptors/

*  Taste-related activity in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. - Department of Psychiatry

Cortical taste responses were investigated using neuroimaging in 40 subjects tasting a range of different taste stimuli ... A novel finding in this study was a highly significant response to taste in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This may ... Activation was found in the anterior insula/frontal opercular taste cortex and caudal orbitofrontal cortex, both areas ... or it could reflect the engagement of this region in attentional processing by a taste input. ...
https://psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/139912

*  Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria - ppt video online download

Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius Definition: acids increase [H+] bases increase [OH-] in solution. Arrhenius: acid ... taste sour and cause dyes to change color. ... Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. Bases: taste ... Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acid: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. ...
slideplayer.com/slide/243608/

*  Prodrugs for masking bitter taste of antibacterial drugs--a computational approach.

... between the calculated and experimental rates provided a credible basis for designing prodrugs for masking bitter taste of the ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/prodrugs-for-masking-bitter-taste-of-antibacterial-drugsa-computational-approach-1603092.html

*  PPT - Chemical Senses PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3348539

Taste and smell (olfaction) Their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution. Sense of Smell. The organ of smell- ... Taste Transduction *The stimulus energy of taste causes gustatory cell depolarization by: *Na+ influx in salty tastes (directly ... Influence of Other Sensations on Taste *Taste is 80% smell *Thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nociceptors in the mouth also ... why is a dog\'s sense of smell so much better than a human\'s?why does a cold inhibit the ability to taste?how do neurons in ...
slideserve.com/tansy/chemical-senses

*  Firebrand Sub-OHM and Liquitine Diacetyl-Free Taste Test and Review

I used a 1.2% nicotine level which gave me a nice throat hit. Whiplash doesn't taste sweet/sour to me as in description, but e- ... Tobacco Gold is such a true tobacco taste it's almost unheard of in e-liquid circles. Their Tobacco Royal is a close second if ... It's has such a true-to-grape taste it's almost addicting (even with zero nicotine). There's no waxy aftertaste either. ... Apple Pie - Surprisingly accurate, this flavor really does taste like apple pie. You can distinguish every ingredient including ...
cloudnine.hillarymilesproductions.com/e-liquid-reviews/firebrand-sub-ohm-and-liquitine-taste-tests/

*  Leslie Vosshall Archives - Knowing Neurons

However, smell and taste are not entirely independent of each other. Studies have shown that odor affects our taste perception ... So the next time you want your lemon to taste less sour or your chocolate to taste sweeter, try smelling caramel while eating ... This particular neuronal integration of the smell and taste may be the reason why mosquitoes love to suck our blood - because ... Christopher Potter's group suggested that a specialized area of the mosquito brain can mix taste with smell to create unique ...
knowingneurons.com/tag/leslie-vosshall/

*  "What Does Light Taste Like?" I Don't Know, Ask A Nematode. -...

Since the sight of light is so great, the taste of it must be even better. Though we don't know the taste of light, there may ... located among its taste receptors, so that it can convert light into something that the worm can taste in order to perceive it ... "What Does Light Taste Like?" I Don't Know, Ask A Nematode.. By phospholipidbellayer ... Xu also says that "LITE-1 actually comes from a family of taste receptor proteins first discovered in insects." ...
jnewbio.edublogs.org/2016/11/28/what-does-light-taste-like-i-dont-know-ask-a-nematode/

*  Taste the Pain - Wikipedia

Taste the Pain fa parte anche della colonna sonora del film Non per soldi... ma per amore. CD1 (1989) "Taste The Pain (Album ... "Taste The Pain (Album)" "Show Me Your Soul (Previously Unreleased)" "Castles Made Of Sand (Live)" 12" (1989) "Taste The Pain ( ... "Taste The Pain (Single)" "Taste The Pain (Album)" "Show Me Your Soul (Previously Unreleased)" "Nevermind (Album)" 7" (1989) " ... Taste the Pain è un singolo dei Red Hot Chili Peppers, estratto dal quarto album in studio, Mother's Milk (1989). La canzone fu ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste_the_Pain

*  Free Fatty Acids: Short Exposure Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Taste descriptor [ Time Frame: 10 days ]. Description of NEFA taste by participant, e.g., sour, bitter, etc. ... The possibility that humans can taste non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) - so-called fat taste - is a relatively new area of ... Taste Disorders. Sensation Disorders. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. ... Other taste qualities, including umami and sweet, have shown improvement in detection sensitivity in subjects that have ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01686113?recr=Open&cond="Taste Perception"&rank=16

*  PLEASURES OF THE TABLE | Manhattan, New York, NY | News

Loss of taste can lead us to overeat, under-eat or add too much salt or sugar to our food. While taste is important, we ... Loss of taste occurs less frequently than loss of smell in older people. When an older person has a problem with taste, it is ... Q. I have a bet with a friend that you start losing your sense of taste as you get older. She says that her taste is as strong ... Taste also has a major impact upon our physical and mental health. Our sense of taste is especially important if we have to ...
nypress.com/pleasures-of-the-table/

*  Supermarket Standoff: Bacon | Bon Appetit

We have embarked on a taste test tour of supermarket foods. We nibble, we score, and we share the results to help you avoid the ... We have embarked on a taste test tour of supermarket foods. We nibble (or sip), we score, and we share the results to help you ... which became quite clear when we were researching for this taste test. We whittled down the large volume of brands by choosing ...
https://bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/inside-our-kitchen/article/supermarket-standoff-30

*  Muscle Moose Protein Pancakes - Golden Syrup 500g

These extra fluffy, easy to make pancakes are a taste sensation. ... These extra fluffy, easy to make pancakes are a taste sensation ... These extra fluffy, easy to make pancakes are a taste sensation. The world is your oyster when it comes to toppings - fresh ...
https://musclemoose.co.uk/product/pancakes

*  Vote For David: Dentinal fluid tastes funny

You know that funky taste when they are grinding out your tooth to put in a filling? That's dentinal fluid, mostly. If you are ...
votefordavid.blogspot.com/2011/06/dentinal-fluid-tastes-funny.html

*  How Genes Affect Food Preferences - Taste Gened, Receptors and Taste Buds

Find out out how genes affect bitter taste and other taste receptors and taste sensations. Parents know how difficult it can be ... There are taste receptors that are located on the surface of taste cells on our taste buds. Signals sent to the brain enable us ... Food Preferences and Bitter Taste. Differences in the sense of taste can have a profound impact on the food choices we make. ... As a person ages, food preferences may change due to a possible diminished perception of taste. An altered perception of taste ...
brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/40498.aspx

*  Have a taste for fat? Yes! A sensor in the mouth promotes preference for fatty foods

... taste_informs_the_organism_about_the_quality_of_ingested_food_it_comprises_five_submodalities_that_perceive_sweet_salt_sour_ ... bitter_and_umami_stimuli_the_possibility_for_an_additional_taste_modality_directed_to_lipid_has_often_been_suggested_because_ ... The sense of taste informs the organism about the quality of ingested food. It comprises five sub-modalities that perceive ... Have a taste for fat? Yes! A sensor in the mouth promotes preference for fatty foods. ...
biologynews.net/archives/2005/11/01/have_a_taste_for_fat_yes_a_sensor_in_the_mouth_promotes_preference_for_fatty_foods.html

*  Homemade Egg Substitute Recipe | Taste of Home

I really enjoy egg dishes, but I have to watch how many I eat. This recipe is easy to whip up anytime plus it tastes better than prepackages egg substitute products. I use this whenever a recipe calls for egg substitute.
https://tasteofhome.com/recipes/homemade-egg-substitute/print

*  Taste | HuffPost

TASTE. Make Better Chocolate Chip Cookies With Advice From These 5 Pro Bakers ...
huffingtonpost.com/section/taste

*  Taste | HuffPost

Explore Taste cooking recipes, food hacks, entertaining ideas, and more. ...
https://huffingtonpost.com/section/taste

Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Gourangkocha: Gourangkocha is a town in the Ichagarh block of Seraikela Kharsawan district of Jharkhand. It is situated on the Patkum Chowka road.Hypergeusia: Hypergeusia is a taste disorder where the sense is abnormally heightened. It can be associated with a lesion of the posterior fossa and Addison's Disease; where a patient will crave for salty and sour taste due to the abnormal loss of ions with urine.Electrogustometry: Electrogustometry is the measurement of taste threshold by passing controlled anodal current through the tongue. When current passes through the tongue a unique and distinct metallic taste is perceived.Chorda tympani: The chorda tympani is a branch of the facial nerve that originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain. It joins the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) inside the facial canal, at the level where the facial nerve exits the skull via the petrotympanic fissure.Sweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Quinine total synthesis: 400px|right|quinine carbon atom numbering scheme left and asymmetric centers rightKikunae Ikeda: was a Japanese chemist and Tokyo Imperial University professor of Chemistry who, in 1908, uncovered the chemical basis of a taste he named umami. It is one of the five basic tastes along with sweet, bitter, sour and salty.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.DysgeusiaAgeusiaArtificial butter flavoring: Artificial butter flavoring may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that contribute to its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of margarines or similar oil-based products typically add diacetyl, acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because it would otherwise be relatively tasteless.Proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptorsTransducinAvoidance reactionPhenylthiocarbamideHalotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Thioinosinic acidLithium chlorideCentral chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.AspartameTRPM: TRPM is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels (the "M" stands for "melastatin"). Functional TRPM channels are believed to form tetramers.Conditioned place preference: Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences. This paradigm can also be used to measure conditioned place aversion with an identical procedure involving aversive stimuli instead.PropylthiouracilShape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Assugrin

(1/2302) Modification of behavioral and neural taste responses to NaCl in C57BL/6 mice: effects of NaCl exposure and DOCA treatment.

To investigate the possible role of peripheral gustatory responsiveness to changes in NaCl acceptance, we studied NaCl consumption and the chorda tympani nerve responses to lingual application of NaCl in C57BL/6ByJ mice. The mice were treated with 300 mM NaCl (given to drink in 96-h two-bottle tests with water) or with injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 33 mg/kg daily). Naive mice were neutral to 75 mM NaCl, but mice previously exposed to 300 mM NaCl avoided 75 mM NaCl. The NaCl-exposed (300 mM for 4 days and 75 mM for 2 days) mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to 10-30 mM NaCl applied at room temperature (24 degrees C). DOCA injections increased acceptance of 300 mM NaCl, but did not change the chorda tympani responses to 100-1000 mM NaCl. However, the DOCA-treated mice had enhanced amiloride-sensitive components of the chorda tympani responses to cold (12 degrees C) 10-30 mM NaCl. These data suggest that peripheral gustatory responsiveness possibly contributes to the NaCl aversion induced by exposure to concentrated NaCl, but not to the DOCA-induced increase of NaCl acceptance.  (+info)

(2/2302) Serum leptin is associated with the perception of palatability during a standardized high-carbohydrate breakfast test.

Leptin is an adipocyte-derived signalling molecule which plays a key role in the regulation of body weight and energy expenditure. Since its involvement in human eating behaviour is still poorly understood, we investigated whether the perception of palatability of food was related to fasting serum leptin levels. Twenty-six non-diabetic subjects, six men and twenty women of widely ranging age and body mass index, performed a standardized high-carbohydrate breakfast test. Palatability was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, body composition by bioelectrical impedance, serum leptin and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Palatability was correlated to fasting serum leptin levels independently of body mass index, body fat mass and percentage of body fat (P<0.01). No significant relation was observed with peaks of insulinaemia, integrated concentrations of insulin or insulin resistance indices. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that serum leptin gave the strongest predictive association with palatability. These results suggest that the leptin system may be involved in the regulation of human eating behaviour in relation to the perception of palatability of food.  (+info)

(3/2302) Glossopharyngeal nerve transection eliminates quinine-stimulated fos-like immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract: implications for a functional topography of gustatory nerve input in rats.

The relationship between specific gustatory nerve activity and central patterns of taste-evoked neuronal activation is poorly understood. To address this issue within the first central synaptic relay in the gustatory system, we examined the distribution of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) activated by the intraoral infusion of quinine using Fos immunohistochemistry in rats with bilateral transection of the chorda tympani (CTX), bilateral transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GLX), or combined neurotomy (DBLX). Compared with nonstimulated and water-stimulated controls, quinine evoked significantly more Fos-like-immunoreactive (FLI) neurons across the rostrocaudal extent of the gustatory NST (gNST), especially within its dorsomedial portion (subfield 5). Although the somatosensory aspects of fluid stimulation contributed to the observed increase in FLI neurons, the elevated number and spatial distribution of FLI neurons in response to quinine were remarkably distinguishable from those in response to water. GLX and DBLX produced a dramatic attenuation of quinine-evoked FLI neurons and a shift in their spatial distribution such that their number and pattern were indiscernable from those observed in water-stimulated controls. Although CTX had no effect on the number of quinine-evoked FLI neurons within subfield 5 at intermediate levels of the gNST, it produced intermediate effects elsewhere; yet, the spatial distribution of the quinine-evoked FLI neurons was not altered by CTX. These findings suggest that the GL provides input to all FLI neurons responsive to quinine, however, some degree of convergence with CT input apparently occurs in this subpopulation of neurons. Although the role of these FLI neurons in taste-guided behavioral responses to quinine remains speculative, their possible function in oromotor reflex control is considered.  (+info)

(4/2302) The perceived intensity of caffeine aftertaste: tasters versus nontasters.

The length and intensity of the aftertaste of caffeine was measured in groups of tasters and nontasters in order to determine if any differential information could be provided by aftertaste perception. Results indicate that a period of 4 min is sufficient to see differences between tasters and nontasters, and that nontasters' aftertaste of the saturated solution is equal in intensity with tasters perception immediately after stimulus presentation, but then after approximately 1 min fade faster. Nontaster ratings for the weaker solution were lower throughout the entire time period.  (+info)

(5/2302) Taste qualities of solutions preferred by hamsters.

Molecules of diverse chemical structure are sweet to humans and several lines of evidence (genetic, physiological, behavioral) suggest that there may be distinct sweet perceptual qualities. To address how many perceptual categories these molecules elicit in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), we studied patterns of generalization of conditioned taste aversions for seven sweeteners: 100 mM sucrose, 320 mM maltose, 32 mM D-phenylalanine, 3.2 mM sodium saccharin, 16 mM calcium cyclamate, 10 mM dulcin and 32 mM sodium m-nitrobenzene sulfonate. Each stimulus was preferred versus water in two-bottle intake tests and stimulated the chorda tympani nerve. For each of seven experimental groups the conditional stimulus (CS) was a sweetener and for the control group the CS was water. Apomorphine.HCl was injected i.p. after a CS was sampled and, after recovery, test stimuli (TS) were presented for 1 h daily. The intake (ml) of each TS consumed by experimental animals was compared with mean TS intake by the control group. Learned aversions for 18/21 stimulus pairs cross-generalized, resulting in a single cluster of generalization patterns for the seven stimuli. Cross-generalization failures (maltose-cyclamate, maltose-sucrose, cyclamate-NaNBS) may be the consequence of particular stimulus features (e.g. salience, cation taste), rather than the absence of a 'sucrose-like' quality. The results are consistent with a single hamster perceptual quality for a diverse set of chemical structures that are sweet to humans.  (+info)

(6/2302) Possible novel mechanism for bitter taste mediated through cGMP.

Taste is the least understood among sensory systems, and bitter taste mechanisms pose a special challenge because they are elicited by a large variety of compounds. We studied bitter taste signal transduction with the quench-flow method and monitored the rapid kinetics of the second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production and degradation in mouse taste tissue. In response to the bitter stimulants, caffeine and theophylline but not strychnine or denatonium cGMP levels demonstrated a rapid and transient increase that peaked at 50 ms and gradually declined throughout the following 4.5 s. The theophylline- and caffeine-induced effect was rapid, transient, concentration dependent and gustatory tissue-specific. The effect could be partially suppressed in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC) inhibitor 10 microM ODQ and 30 microM methylene blue but not 50 microM LY 83583 and boosted by nitric oxide donors 25 microM NOR-3 or 100 microM sodium nitroprusside. The proposed mechanism for this novel cGMP-mediated bitter taste signal transduction is cGMP production partially by the soluble GC and caffeine-induced inhibition of one or several phosphodiesterases.  (+info)

(7/2302) A non-pungent triprenyl phenol of fungal origin, scutigeral, stimulates rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via interaction at vanilloid receptors.

1. A [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding assay utilizing rat spinal cord membranes was employed to identify novel vanilloids in a collection of natural products of fungal origin. Of the five active compounds found (scutigeral, acetyl-scutigeral, ovinal, neogrifolin, and methyl-neogrifolin), scutigeral (Ki=19 microM), isolated from the edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus, was selected for further characterization. 2. Scutigeral induced a dose-dependent 45Ca uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with an EC50 of 1.6 microM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (IC50=5.2 microM). 3. [3H]-RTX binding isotherms were shifted by scutigeral (10-80 microM) in a competitive manner. The Schild plot of the data had a slope of 0.8 and gave an apparent Kd estimate for scutigeral of 32 microM. 4. Although in the above assays scutigeral mimicked capsaicin, it was not pungent on the human tongue up to a dose of 100 nmol per tongue, nor did it provoke protective wiping movements in the rat (up to 100 microM) upon intraocular instillation. 5. In accord with being non-pungent, scutigeral (5 microM) did not elicit a measurable inward current in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. It did, however, reduce the proportion of neurons (from 61 to 15%) that responded to a subsequent capsaicin (1 microM) challenge. In these neurons, scutigeral both delayed (from 27 to 72 s) and diminished (from 5.0 to 1.9 nA) the maximal current evoked by capsaicin. 6. In conclusion, scutigeral and its congeners form a new chemical class of vanilloids, the triprenyl phenols. Scutigeral promises to be a novel chemical lead for the development of orally active, non-pungent vanilloids.  (+info)

(8/2302) Reduced urination rate while drinking beer with an unpleasant taste and off-flavor.

A lowered subjective evaluation of the taste and flavor of beer due to staleness or to the addition of an unpleasant taste and flavor was found to be closely correlated with the urination rate. Beer in the same lot was compared immediately after shipment from the brewery and after leaving at room temperature for 1 month or 5 months. Each beer sample was given to volunteers at the rate of 3 ml/kg/15 min for 2 hours, and the urine volume was measured every 30 minutes. The urination rate was highest from the volunteers who drank fresh beer and lowest from those who drank 5-month-old beer. The subjective evaluation of both the taste and drinkability of 5-month-old beer was significantly lower than that of fresh beer. Beer samples with various unpleasant taste and flavor substances added lowered the urination rate. The results suggest that the perception of an unpleasant taste and off-flavor would lower the urination rate.  (+info)



umami


  • A taste disorder means a peson cannot properly identify a taste as sweet, salty, bitter, sour or savoury (umami). (abc.net.au)
  • 4) -MSG simply makes food taste better - it increases their umami quality, making people rate foods that are higher in MSG as tasting better. (sodiumglutamate.net)

disorders


  • Taste disorders have been shown to contribute to changes in eating behaviour and could be a contributing factor in childhood obesity. (abc.net.au)
  • Taste disorders appear to be generally confined to losing one or more of those tastes," neuropsychologist and study co-author Professor David Laing says. (abc.net.au)
  • Tthe important thing about that is that the World Health Organisation draws a line at 4 per cent for any disorder, not just taste disorders, but any disorder or disease in a population. (abc.net.au)
  • Laing says the problem for health authorities is that taste disorders are difficult to detect, and the health consequences for children can be significant. (abc.net.au)
  • Taste disorders can be caused by a variety of diseases and conditions, including Bell's palsy, renal failure and diabetes. (abc.net.au)
  • Aboriginal children under the age of six have a high rate of middle ear infections and Laing says this could explain the high prevalence of taste disorders in this group. (abc.net.au)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Taste disorders linked to childhood obesity . (abc.net.au)

occur


  • Although we are not claiming that, for example, all children who are obese have a taste disorder, there will be a reasonable percentage that will be obese or anorexic as a result of a change in their taste, which can occur through various diseases, through a lot of drugs - and I don't mean harmful drugs. (abc.net.au)
  • An unpleasant perception may occur when a normally pleasant taste is present, or the perception may occur when no tastant is present (gustatory hallucination). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DYSGEUSIA , a change in the sense of taste may occur as part of some health problems like thyroid, dental infections or after procedures like the radiation therapy, tonsillitis surgery, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)

food


  • Tasting troubles A new study has found one in 10 Australian children are unable to taste their food properly. (abc.net.au)

changes


  • The most common treatment-related adverse events seen in the ongoing Phase 1 study of pexidartinib included fatigue, hair color changes, nausea, dysgeusia (abnormal taste), and periorbital edema (swelling around the eyes), which rarely led to drug discontinuation. (thefreedictionary.com)

change


  • If you lose a taste, even if it is only, for example, sweet or sour, you change your eating habits in most cases and as a result, the information we've got so far, indicates you can either become quite obese or you can become anorexic. (abc.net.au)

high


  • EZ-Sweetz Sodium Saccharin has no after taste, and is very stable when exposed to high temperatures. (ez-sweetz.com)

disease


  • That patients with chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma has taste disturbance already before surgery due to the disease itself, of course depending on degree of the disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)