Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.

*  Tanzania

Tanzania: Country Assistance Evaluation (1996-2004). Tanzania is making major strides with its economic reforms. The rate of ... Country Assistance Evaluation of Tanzania, 1999-2009. The report shows that decentralisation has increased the efficiency of ...

*  Africa Tanzania Videos - Metacafe

One of the world's largest video sites, serving the best videos, funniest movies and clips.

*  Tanzania and the IMF

Material about Tanzania and its activities with the IMF ... Office in Tanzania. Tanzania: The Story of an African ... Tanzania: Financial Position in the Fund. Transactions with the Fund. Central Bank. Bank of Tanzania. Africa Training Institute ... on Tanzania:. Previous:. June 23, 2017. July 18, 2016. January 22, 2016. July 6, 2015. January 7, 2015. ... April 28, 2001 -- Transcript -- Press Conference - African Prospects: Facing the Challenges, Finance Ministers from Tanzania, ...

*  Tanzania in 2013 | Britannica.com

Tanzania in 2013: Area: 945,249 sq km (365,963 sq mi) Population (2013 est.): 45,941,000 De facto capital: Dar es Salaam; only ... Tanzania. East African country situated just south of the Equator. Tanzania was formed as a sovereign state in 1964 through the ... In Tanzania signs of division within the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party grew in 2013 as the general election of 2015 ... Tanzania's position in the global economy was highlighted by the visits of the new Chinese president, Xi Jinping, in late March ...

*  Transactions with the Fund, Tanzania

Tanzania: Transactions with the Fund. from May 01, 1984 to July 11, 2013 Download this file. ...

*  Diocese - Tanzania - Mpwapwa

Archbishop of Tanzania & Bishop of Mpwapwa The Most Revd Jacob Erasto Chimeledya. Address:. PO Box 2, Mpwapwa, Tanzania. Office ...

*  Diocese - Tanzania - Kibondo

Published by the Anglican Communion Office © 2017 Anglican Consultative Council. Built thanks to the generosity of the Church Mission Publishing Company and the Compass Rose Society. Web Design by Zebedee Creations. ...

*  Member Church Links - Tanzania

The Anglican Church of Tanzania - Religious Communities. CMM - Chama cha Mariamu Mtakatifu (Community of St Mary of Nazareth ... Address: The Convent,Kilimani, SLP 502, Masasi, Tanzania. Email: Click here for email. ...

*  China's President Xi arrives in Tanzania | Reuters.com

Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives in Tanzania for his first state visit to Africa. Rough Cut (no reporter narration).} ... March 25 - Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives in Tanzania for his first state visit to Africa. Rough Cut (no reporter ... ROUGH CUT ONLY - NO REPORTER NARRATION) Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in Tanzania's commercial capital on Sunday (March ... China's President Xi arrives in Tanzania. Monday, March 25, 2013 - 00:44 ...

*  Back Home Blues - Tanzania Message Board - TripAdvisor

Ther is always a next one! - Travel forums for Tanzania. Discuss Tanzania travel with TripAdvisor travellers. ... I would like to volunteer while I am in Tanzania, how do I do that? ... With so many safari operators, and operators outside Tanzania, how do I choose one? ... Well our 3 1/2 week trip to Tanzania has come to an end :( ... Popular Tanzania Categories * All Inclusive Resorts in Tanzania ...

*  Items where Year is 2010 - IHI Digital Library

2010) A Profile of Acquired Causes of Childhood Anaemia in General Paediatric Wards at Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Masters thesis, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science. (2010) High ANC Coverage and Low Skilled Attendance in a Rural Tanzanian district: A Case for Implementing a Birth Plan Intervention. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 10. p. 13. ISSN 1471-2393 (2010) Pleomorphic Adenoma. Dar es Salaam Medical Students Journal. ISSN 0856-7212 (2010) Evaluation of Malaria Vector Susceptibility to Insecticide in After Indoor Residual Spraying in Muleba District Kagera Region. Technical Report. UNSPECIFIED. (Submitted) (2010) Drug coverage in treatment of malaria and the consequences for resistance evolution--evidence from the use of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Malaria journal, 9 (190). pp. 1-12. ISSN 1475-2875 (2010) The Development and Implementation of a Public Health Strategy:Cost and Health System Analysis of Intermittent Preventive ...

*  Bugando Medical Centre

The Catholic Church built the Hospital between 1968 - 1977 and it was offically opened by His Excellency the late President Julius Kambarage Nyerere on 3rd November 1971. In 1972 the Hospital was nationlized by the Government. However, in October 1985 the Government handed back the Hospital to the Tanzania Episcopal Conference of the Catholic Bishops of Tanzania who is the owner with an agreement that the hospital be run in partnership with the government to provide Government Services as a referral and consultant hospital for the Lake Zone.. Bugando Medical Centre is a referral, consultant and university teaching hospital for the Lake and Western zones of the United Republic of Tanzania. It is situated along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza City. It has over 950 beds and over 1300 employees. It is a referral tertiary specialist care for eight regions and serves a catchment's population of over 14 million people.. It is an exciting time to join our team ...

*  Baseline survey of sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania | Sexually...

We wish to acknowledge the contributions of our collaborators from various institutions, including Fred Mhalu and Judica Mbwana of the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Titus Nkulila and Eleuter Samki of the Mbeya Consultant Hospital, Mbeya, Tanzania; John Changalucha of the National Institute of Medical Research in Mwanza, Tanzania; David Mabey, Brent Wolff, Tamara Hurst, John Williams, Aura Beltran, and Dean Everett of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) in London, UK; Frank von Sonnenburg of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; and Ian MacLean and Faye Kingyens of the Department of Microbiology of the University of Manitoba. Further, we are grateful to those who were involved in the field and laboratory work in Mbeya, in particular Joshua Mwakyelu, Leonard Ndeki, ...

*  Continuing Medical Education

HIV/AIDS Forum for Women Professionals 2005. The discussion forum on Women and HIV/AIDS was organized by Medical Women Association of Tanzania (MEWATA) as part of commemorating the 2005 International Women's day. The forum was financially supported by Tanzania AIDS Commission (TACAIDS). Several key stakeholders working on HIV/AIDS were invited and actively participated in the discussion and coming up with resolutions. Participating organizations included MEWATA, TACAIDS, TAWLA, TAMWA, UNFPA, TGNP, PASADA, AYA, UMATI and MUHIMBILI NATIONAL HOSPITAL. Others were ACTION AID, UNAIDS, TNW+, OXFAM, TPDF, AMREF, ITV/RADIO ONE, CLOUDS FM and TANOPHA ...

*  Items where Year is 2005 - IHI Digital Library

2005) Spatial Effects of the Social Marketing of Insecticide-Treated Nets on Malaria Morbidity. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH, 10 (1). pp. 11-18. ISSN 1360-2276 (2005) Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2004-2005. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2005) Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Strategies for Maternal and Neonatal Health in Developing Countries. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 331 (7525). p. 1107. ISSN 1756-1833 (2005) Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness cost more than routine care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83 (5). pp. 369-377. ISSN 0042-9686 (2005) Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness cost more than routine care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83 (5). pp. 369-377. ISSN 0042-9686 (In Press) (2005) Cultural Epidemiology for Malaria Control in Ghana. Doctoral thesis, University of Basel. ...

*  Items where Year is 2014 - IHI Digital Library

2014) High Prevalence of Plasmodium Falciparum pfcrt K76T Mutation in Children with Sickle cel Disease at a Tertiary Hospital in North-western Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 16 (4). ISSN 0856-6496 (2014) Determinants of Community Health fund Membership in Tanzania: a Mixed Methods Analysis. BMC health services research, 14 (1). p. 538. ISSN 1472-6963 (2014) Supply Chain Management Curriculum Integration in Pre-service Training in Tanzania. Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. ISSN 2052-3211 (2014) Outcome of Artemether-lumefantrine Treatment for Uncomplicated Malaria in HIV-Infected Adult Patients on Anti-Retroviral Therapy. Malaria journal, 13 (1). p. 205. ISSN 1475-2875 (2014) Aetiology of Acute Febrile Episodes in Children Attending Korogwe District Hospital in North-eastern Tanzania. PloS one, 9 (8). e104197. ISSN 1932-6203 (2014) Cost-effectiveness of larviciding for urban malaria control in ...

*  Tanzania: Mtwara-Dar es Salaam Gas Pipeline Capacity to Increase Progressively - allAfrica.com

The completion of all the gasfired power projects will bring the Mtwara-Dar es Salaam gas pipeline into almost full capacity, the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) Acting Managing Director, Mr Kapuulya Musomba, said in Dar es Salaam yesterday.

*  Sivert, Ilja, Jerek and Vandorn United republic of tanzania

You've apply in each that semihard employ and it faculty sign to show, dieting achiever bequeath be yours! Good, I didn't cerebrate so. They heap with your hor

*  Xornais Tanzania - Xornais e diarios en Tanzania

Índice de xornal de Tanzania - Os xornais en liña Tanzania - Todos os xornais online Tanzania son coidadosamente seleccionados, todos teñen libre acceso ás últimas noticias de hoxe Tanzania

*  Who Has Mycobacterial Disease? A Cross Sectional Study in Agropastoral Communities in Tanzania

Objective: To determine and describe clinical symptoms, demographic characteristics and environmental exposures as determinants of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases among patients examined for tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania.. Methods: This was a cross sectional study. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending three hospitals in Tanzania, and were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis by microscopy between November 2010 and June 2012. The patients were interviewed about background information, and potential exposure to mycobacteria.. Results: We examined 1,711 presumptive tuberculosis cases where 936 (54.2%) were males and 775 (45.3%) females. Of all the study participants, 277 (16%) were found to have sputum samples positive for mycobacteria; 228 (13%) were smear positive, 123 (7%) were culture positive and 74 (4%) were positive by both smear microscopy and culture. Of the 123 mycobacterial culture positive, 15 (12.2%) had ...

*  Tanzania: Poaching Annoys Dodoma, Iringa RCS

Members of the public have been requested to volunteer information on the presence of poachers in their communities, so as to curb wanton killing of wild animals at Ruaha National Park. Addressing security and peace committee officials from Chamwino and Iringa Rural districts last Friday, Iringa Regional Commissioner, Dr Christine Ishengoma and her Dodoma peer, Dr Rehema Nchimbi, said the fight against poaching cannot succeed if communities don't take part in the exercise ...

*  Items where Year is 2001 - IHI Digital Library

2001) Nutrition of Young Children and Mothers. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2001) HIV and Partner Violence: Implications for HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Programs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Population Council Inc.. (2001) Reconstructing the Causes of Death in Songea District,Tanzania During the Colonial Period:Peramiho parish register,1900-1925. Tanzania Journal of Population Studies and Development, 8 (1&2). pp. 73-89. (2001) Mambo muhimu ya mabadiliko katika sekta ya afya. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2001) Progress in Safe Motherhood in Tanzania during the 1990s:Findings Based on NSS/AMMP Monitoring. Working Paper. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2001) Public Health Sector Performance Profile 2001. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2001) District Health Management Training (Module one:Planning and Implementation of District Health Services). UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished) (2001) District Health Management Training Module Two:Promoting ...

*  Dickson Wilson Lwetoijera | IHI

Dr. Dickson Wilson Lwetoijera is an IHI Research Scientist with a PhD in Health and Life Science from Liverpool school of Tropical Medicine, UK. He holds an MSc in Applied Zoology from University of Dar es Salaam and BSc in Biotechnology and Laboratory sciences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, and currently is pursuing a MBA in International Health Management at the Swiss Tropic Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland. Since he joined Ifakara Health Institute in November 2007, Dr. Lwetoijera has conducted research on various technologies including the use biopesticide entomopathogenic fungi, and synthetic juvenile hormone Pyriproxyfen for controlling malaria vectors, in Tanzania. He has been strongly involved in assessing the changing structures of rural houses, and long term surveillance of diseases vector particularly An. funestus mosquitoes on malaria transmission in Tanzania. Dr Lwetoijera has recently taken up a ...

*  Tanzania: Industrial Policy Execution Tanzania's Big Challenge - allAfrica.com

Tanzania's gradual path to an industrial economy has been adventurous, full of challenges and, mostly, tough challenges. But all this has not been because of lack of policies, for the country has had its full share of the same since independence.

*  Tanzania Home

Latest news and information from the World Bank and its development work in Tanzania. Access Tanzania's economy facts, statistics, project information, development research from experts and latest news.

*  Mob Lynches Suspected Somali Militant in Tanzania

Security forces have arrested 10 other suspected militants in raid on a mosque in Morogoro region, about 200 km from Dar es Salaam

*  Morgue workers in Tanzania jailed for stealing drugs from corpse's stomach » Capital News

NAIROBI, Kenya, May 27 - Tanzanian police said Saturday that they had arrested two morgue employees in Dar es Salaam after they admitted to cutting open a - Kenya breaking news | Kenya news today | Capitalfm.co.ke

*  Epidemiology and molecular monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Tanzania | IHI

The prognosis of HIV/AIDS has dramatically changed after the introduction of potent anti-retroviral therapy in the mid 90's with a more than 80 percent decrease of mortality and morbidity where anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is available. Most of the data about the out-come of patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) under ART are generated by cohort studies in developed countries. Since 2004 the Tanzanian National HIV/AIDS Control and Treatment Plan (NACP) provides ART in Tanzania. The Chronic Diseases Clinic in Ifakara (CDCCI) at the St. Francis Designated District Hospital (SFDDH) is on of the first rural clinics accredited by and implementing the aims of NACP since May 2005. Until mid September 2008 3,003 PLWHAs were included in the NACP and 1,677 started with ART at CDCI. To our knowledge, studies on the outcome of PLWHAs cared for in rural Sub-Saharan Africa are scarce.. The Kilombero-Ulanga-Anti-Retroviral-Cohort (KUILARCO) intents to generate data on clinical out-come, ...

*  FRONTLINE/WORLD . Tanzania - Hero Rats. Story Home Page . PBS

For the past seven years, Bart Weetjens has been running a unique lab in Tanzania, where he trains rats to sniff out deadly unexploded land mines -- the legacy of countless bloody conflicts. Although dogs have traditionally been used to help humans detect mines, Weetjens realized that rats are lighter, cheaper to maintain and less susceptible to tropical disease. "I've always felt a very strong bonding with rodents," he says. In "Hero Rats," FRONTLINE/World reporter Alexis Bloom accompanies Weetjens to work in Mozambique to watch his trained rodents in action.. ...

*  Tanzania raises power tariffs by 8.5 pct | Reuters

Tanzania's energyregulator has approved a power tariff hike of 8.53 percent bythe state-run utility, less than half of what the utility saidit needed to stem losses.

*  Tanzania: Bigger Tax Burden Beckons in the 2016/17 Financial Year - allAfrica.com

A huge tax burden is lurking in the shadows and may affect Tanzanians adversely during the next financial year, due to what critics within and outside Parliament claim is the consequence of the government's failure to tap onto new potential revenue sources.


The project has been developed to include a 30Mtpa Open Pit Mine and 4.4 Mtpa Process Plant. Over a 15 year mine life, Buzwagi will produce more than 3M oz gold as dore` and in copper concentrate. Infrastructure associated with the project includes a 107 km power line, plus extensive security, water harvest and site accommodation facilities ...

Federal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Natrocarbonatite: Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Benzo(a)fluorenePfATP6: PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The protein is thought to be a P-type ATPase involved in calcium ion transport.Intermittent preventive therapy: Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp). The intervention builds on two tested malaria control strategies: a) to clear existing parasites (treatment effect seen in mass drug administrations) and b) to prevent new infections (prophylaxis).Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}International Coalition for Trachoma ControlSociety for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}

(1/1943) Cryptosporidium, enterocytozoon, and cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania.

Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diarrhea (0/7, HIV+), and 0/20 control children. Among children with acute diarrhea, 7/7 with cryptosporidiosis were malnourished, compared with 10/48 without cryptosporidiosis (P < .01). Enterocytozoon was identified in specimens from 3/86 adults, 2/59 children with chronic diarrhea (1 HIV+), 0/55 children with acute diarrhea, and 4/20 control children. All four controls were underweight (P < .01). Cyclospora was identified in specimens from one adult and one child with acute diarrhea (HIV-). Thus, Cryptosporidium was the most frequent and Cyclospora the least frequent pathogen identified. Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon were associated with malnutrition. Asymptomatic fecal shedding of Enterocytozoon in otherwise healthy, HIV children has not been described previously.  (+info)

(2/1943) Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis?

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

(3/1943) Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels.

The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children.  (+info)

(4/1943) Controlling schistosomiasis: the cost-effectiveness of alternative delivery strategies.

Sustainable schistosomiasis control cannot be based on large-scale vertical treatment strategies in most endemic countries, yet little is known about the costs and effectiveness of more affordable options. This paper presents calculations of the cost-effectiveness of two forms of chemotherapy targeted at school-children and compares them with chemotherapy integrated into the routine activities of the primary health care system. The focus is on Schistosoma haematobium. Economic and epidemiological data are taken from the Kilombero District of Tanzania. The paper also develops a framework for possible use by programme managers to evaluate similar options in different epidemiological settings. The results suggest that all three options are more affordable and sustainable than the vertical strategies for which cost data are available in the literature. Passive testing and treatment through primary health facilities proved the most effective and cost-effective option given the screening and compliance rates observed in the Kilombero District.  (+info)

(5/1943) Employer's willingness to pay: the case for compulsory health insurance in Tanzania.

This article documents employers' expenditure on the arrangements for the health care of their employees in one of the least developed countries; Tanzania. The case for compulsory health insurance is considered in the light of the fact that only 3% of the population is employed in the formal sector and could be covered at first. It is shown from a survey of larger employers, outside government, that they were spending on average 11% of payroll on health care for their employees. This demonstrated their lack of satisfaction with the government health services. Nevertheless, those who could readily be covered by insurance were making considerable use of the more expensive government hospital services. It is argued that a compulsory health insurance scheme could be introduced for the formal sector of employment which would cover a wider range of health services at lower cost. The scheme would also have the desirable economic effect of lowering employers' labour costs while making it possible to improve the standards of the government health services.  (+info)

(6/1943) Reducing maternal mortality in Kigoma, Tanzania.

An intervention programme aiming at a reduction of maternal deaths in the Regional Hospital, Kigoma, Tanzania, is analyzed. A retrospective study was carried out from 1984-86 to constitute a background for an intervention programme in 1987-91. The retrospective study revealed gross under-registration of data and clarified a number of potentially useful issues regarding avoidable maternal mortality. An intervention programme comprising 22 items was launched and the maternal mortality ratio was carefully followed in 1987-91. The intervention programme paid attention to professional responsibilities with regular audit-oriented meeting, utilization of local material resources, schedules for regular maintenance of equipment, maintenance of working skills by regular on-the-job training of staff, norms for patient management, provision of blood, norms for referral of severely ill patients, use of antibiotics, regular staff evaluation, public complaints about patient management, travel distance of all essential staff to the hospital, supply of essential drugs, the need of a small infusion production unit, the creation of culture facilities for improved quality of microbiology findings, and to efforts to stimulate local fund-raising. The results indicate that the maternal mortality ratio fell from 933 to 186 per 100,000 live births over the period 1984-91. Thus it is underscored that the problem of maternal mortality can be successfully approached by a low-cost intervention programme aiming at identifying issues of avoidability and focusing upon locally available problem solutions.  (+info)

(7/1943) Quality of primary outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam: a comparison of government and voluntary providers.

This study aimed to test whether voluntary agencies provide care of better quality than that provided by government with respect to primary curative outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam. All non-government primary services were included, and government primary facilities were randomly sampled within the three districts of the city. Details of consultations were recorded and assessed by a panel who classed consultations as adequate, inadequate but serious consequences unlikely, and consultations where deficiencies in the care could have serious consequences. Interpersonal conduct was assessed and exit interviews were conducted. The study found that government registers of non-government 'voluntary' providers actually contained a high proportion of for-profit private providers. Comparisons between facilities showed that care was better overall at voluntary providers, but that there was a high level of inadequate care at both government and non-government providers.  (+info)

(8/1943) The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania.

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)


  • DAR ES SALAAM (Reuters) - Tanzania and Malawi agreed on Saturday to appoint an international mediator to resolve a long-running border dispute over Lake Malawi, thought to sit over rich oil and gas reserves. (reuters.com)


  • March 25 - Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives in Tanzania for his first state visit to Africa. (reuters.com)
  • Unlike Kenya, Tanzania, which is roughly evenly split between Christians and Muslims, has not sent troops to Somalia and it does not share a border with the Horn of Africa nation. (voanews.com)
  • Wood Mackenzie , an energy consultant group, published a report in October saying Tanzania was a part of a growing number of emerging producers in East Africa. (upi.com)
  • A statement from the African Chapter for the State Atomic Energy Corporation (ROSATOM) made available here through its South-Africa based, Press Secretary, Mr Ryan Collyer, indicates that tsetse flies have been killing more than 3 million livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa region, Tanzania included, but the Isles have already been declared 'Tsetse fly free area. (allafrica.com)
  • Tanzania with about 21.3 million cattle, 15.2 million goats and 6.4 million sheep, or about 43 million livestock, is third in Africa after Sudan and Ethiopia in having the highest number of kept animals on the continent. (allafrica.com)


  • Officials said Tanzania was on high alert for al-Shabab attacks after the group claimed an attack on a university in neighboring Kenya this month that killed 148 people. (voanews.com)
  • Tanzania has been spared the level of assaults by al-Shabab militants seen in Kenya although there have been sporadic attacks on tourists. (voanews.com)


  • US President Barack Obama has arrived in Tanzania for the final leg of his three country tour of the African continent. (itv.com)


  • US President Barack Obama and his family will travel to Tanzania today on the last stop of their African trip. (itv.com)
  • Our travel company Tanzania Journeys booked us a trip in the Usambara Mountains, starting from Lushoto. (tripadvisor.com)


  • The report said output from Tanzania could help regional production increase from the current rate of 500,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day to 1.5 million barrels of oil equivalent. (upi.com)


  • Gas finds off Tanzania and Mozambique have led to predictions the region could become the third largest exporter of natural gas on the planet. (reuters.com)


  • In April young cashew nut farmers in southwestern Tanzania rioted against payouts that were much lower (half or even less) than that initially offered by the government. (britannica.com)


  • The regimen of single dose of nevirapine to the mother just before delivery and a single dose of nevirapine to the newborn within 24 - 72 hours after birth reduces the risk of MTCT by 50%, is affordable in many situations and is therefore standard of care in many African countries, like Tanzania. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Read all about iton her blog [ Liz Goes To Tanzania ]! (ibm.com)


  • It isn't too strenuous, but it was nice to experience a side of Tanzania that isn't inundated with tour groups. (tripadvisor.com)


  • Malawi also wants Tanzania to withdraw a map that shows the border line passing in the middle of the disputed lake. (reuters.com)