Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.
Transport in Suriname: The Republic of Suriname () has a number of forms of transport.Rice production in Guyana: Rice production in Guyana reached a high of over 180,000 tons in 1984 but declined to a low of 130,000 tons in 1988. The fluctuating production levels were the result of disease and inconsistent weather.Nannostomus anduzei: Nannostomus anduzei (common name: Anduzi's pencilfish) is a freshwater species of fish belonging to the genus Nannostomus in the Lebiasinidae family of characins. It is native to Venezuela and northern Brazil, particularly the upper Orinoco and Rio Ererê, a tributary of the Rio Negro.
(1/92) Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Netherlands: a nationwide study from 1993 through 1997.
To disclose risk factors for active tuberculosis transmission in the Netherlands, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of 78% of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from the period 1993-1997, were analyzed. Of the respective 4266 cases, 46% were found in clusters of isolates with identical RFLPs, and 35% were attributed to active transmission. The clustering percentage increased strongly with the number of isolates; taking this into account, fewer cases were clustered than has been reported in other studies. Contact investigations in the five largest clusters of 23-47 patients suggested epidemiological linkage between cases. Of patients identified through contact tracing, 91% were clustered. Demographic risk factors for active transmission of tuberculosis included male sex, urban residence, Dutch and Surinamese nationality, and long-term residence in the Netherlands. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was not an independent risk factor for active transmission. Isoniazid-resistant strains were relatively less frequently clustered, suggesting that these generated fewer secondary cases. (+info)
(2/92) Diabetes mellitus among South Asian inhabitants of The Hague: high prevalence and an age-specific socioeconomic gradient.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is known to be high among South Asians. The Municipal Health Service in The Hague investigated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among South Asian inhabitants of The Hague, and the relationship between diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status in this population. METHODS: A total of 3,131 South Asians >30 years of age, randomly selected (stratified according to age and sex) from the municipal register, were included in a postal survey with subsequent telephone interviews with non-respondents. RESULTS: Self-reported diabetes prevalence varies from 6.4% in the 31-49 year age group to 37.1% in the over 60s age group. The relationship with age varies across the different socioeconomic strata. There are only a few people with diabetes in the 31-39 year age group in the highest stratum, whereas in the lowest stratum at the same age the prevalence of self-reported diabetes approximates 20%. In the over 60s age group the prevalence of diabetes does not significantly differ between the higher and lower socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is an extremely common disease among South Asian inhabitants of The Hague. In this population, the relationship between diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status varies with age. Cohort and age effects may account for this variation. (+info)
(3/92) The effect of a health promotion campaign on mortality in children.
Previous research has shown that in the Netherlands there is a certain degree of preventable mortality associated with long-distance travel, particularly among children of ethnic minority descent. In 1985 a health promotion campaign was launched in Amsterdam with the aim of reducing travel-related deaths by increasing knowledge in ethnic minority communities about the risks involved in travel. In the present study, two data sets are used to examine the possible effects of this health promotion campaign on travel-related mortality in children. The first data set, which was collected locally, indicates that the number of Amsterdam children dying abroad has dropped considerably since 1985. This is particularly true within one group which is highly likely to exhibit risky travel behavior. The second data set, which was collected nationally, shows that an upward trend in mortality among children aged 0-14 years before 1985 has in fact changed into a downward trend since 1985. A similar pattern is observed in the Netherlands as a whole, but to a significantly less pronounced degree than in Amsterdam. Although the influence of extraneous factors can never be fully dismissed, the analysis provides support for the conclusion that the health promotion campaign did in fact succeed in reducing the number of travel-related deaths. (+info)
(4/92) Immigrants in the Netherlands: equal access for equal needs?
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines whether equal utilisation of health care services for first generation immigrant groups has been achieved in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Survey data were linked to an insurance register concerning people aged 16-64. Ethnic differences in the use of a broad range of health care services were examined in this group, with and without adjustment for health status and socioeconomic status, using logistic regression. SETTING: Publicly insured population in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 1422 people from the indigenous population, and 378 people from the four largest immigrant groups in the Netherlands-that is, the Surinamese, the Netherlands Antilleans, and the Turkish and Moroccan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General practitioner service use (past two months), prescription drug use (past three months), outpatient specialist contact (past two months), hospital admission (past year), physiotherapist contact (past two months) and contact with other paramedics (past year). MAIN RESULTS: Ethnicity was found to be associated with the use of health care after controlling for health status as an indicator for need. The use of general practitioner care and the use of prescribed drugs was increased among people from Surinam, Turkey and Morocco as compared with the indigenous population. Compared with the indigenous group with corresponding health status, the use of all other more specialised services was relatively low among Turkish and Moroccan people. Among the Surinamese population, the use of more specialised care was highly similar to that found in the Dutch population after differences in need were controlled for. Among people from the Netherlands Antilles, we observed a relatively high use of hospital services in combination with underuse of general practitioner services. The lower socioeconomic status of immigrant groups explained most of the increased use of the general practitioner and prescribed drugs, but could not account for the lower use of the more specialised services. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the utilisation of more specialised health care is lower for immigrant groups in the Netherlands, particularly for Turkish and Moroccan people and to a lesser extent, people from the Netherlands Antilles. Although underuse of more specialised services is also present among the lower socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands, the analyses indicate that this only partly explains the lower utilisation of these services among immigrant groups. This suggests that ethnic background in itself may account for patterns of consumption, potentially because of limited access. (+info)
(5/92) Intercultural communication in general practice.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of problems in communication between health care professionals and ethnic-minority patients. Not only language difficulties, but also cultural differences may result in these problems. This study explores the influence of communication and patient beliefs about health (care) and disease on understanding and compliance of native-born and ethnic-minority patients. METHODS: In this descriptive study seven general practices located in a multi-ethnic neighbourhood in Rotterdam participated. Eighty-seven parents who visited their GP with a child for a new health problem took part: more than 50% of them belonged to ethnic-minorities. The consultation between GP and patient was recorded on video and a few days after the consultation patients were interviewed at home. GPs filled out a short questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Patient beliefs and previous experiences with health care were measured by different questionnaires in the home interview. Communication was analysed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System based on the videos. Mutual understanding between GP and patient and therapy compliance was assessed by comparing GP's questionnaires with the home interview with the parents. RESULTS: In 33% of the consultations with ethnic-minority patients (versus 13% with native-born patients) mutual understanding was poor. Different aspects of communication had no influence on mutual understanding. Problems in the relationship with the GP, as experienced by patients, showed a significant relation with mutual understanding. Consultations without mutual understanding more often ended in non-compliance with the prescribed therapy. CONCLUSION: Ethnic-minority parents more often report problems in their relationship with the GP and they have different beliefs about health and health care from native-born parents. Good relationships between GP and patients are necessary for mutual understanding. Mutual understanding has a strong correlation with compliance. Mutual understanding and consequently compliance is more often poor in consultations with ethnic-minority parents than with native-born parents. (+info)
(6/92) Multiple paternity and female-biased mutation at a microsatellite locus in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).
Multiple paternity in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population nesting in Suriname was demonstrated using two microsatellite loci, viz., Ei8 and Cm84. The large number of offspring sampled per clutch (70 on average, ranging from 15 to 103) and the number of alleles found at the two loci (18 and eight alleles, respectively) enabled unambiguous assessment of the occurrence of multiple paternity. In two out of 10 clutches analysed, the offspring had been sired by at least two males, which was confirmed at both loci. In both clutches, unequal paternity occurred: 73% and 92% of the offspring had been sired by the primary male. The probability of detecting multiple paternity was 0.903, and therefore there is a small chance that multiple paternity occurred but remained undetected in some of the eight clutches that appeared to be singly sired. Analysis of 703 offspring revealed a high mutation rate for locus Ei8 (micro = 2.3 x 10(-2)) with all 33 mutations occurring in maternal alleles. In particular, one allele of 274 bp mutated at a high frequency in a clutch to which the mother contributed the allele, but in another clutch where the father contributed the same allele, no such mutations were observed. Inferred allele-specific mutation rates for Ei8 and expected numbers of mutations per clutch confirmed that maternal alleles for Ei8 are more likely to mutate in the olive ridley sea turtle than paternal alleles. Possible explanations are discussed. (+info)
(7/92) Ischaemic heart disease in Turkish migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: wait for the next generation?
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in Turkish and Surinam-Asian migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands as compared with Europeans. METHODS: In a consecutive case-control study, 59 Turkish and 62 Surinam-Asian patients were compared with 185 Europeans referred to a diabetes clinic for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the period 1992 to 1998. Main outcome measures were ischaemic heart disease and its associated risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease was lower (9%) in the Turks (p < 0.02), but higher (29%) in the Surinam-Asians compared with the Europeans (23%). The Turks (52 +/- 10 years) and Surinam-Asians (46 +/- 12 years) were younger than the Europeans (64 +/- 11 years, p < 0.001). Body mass index was 32 +/- 5 (p < 0.001) in the Turks, 27 +/- 5 in the Surinam-Asians (p < 0.05) and 29 +/- 5 in the Europeans. Turkish patients smoked less (23%, p < 0.05) and used less alcohol (4%, p < 0.05) than the Europeans. Proteinuria was found in 24% of the Turks (p < 0.05), 37% of the Surinam-Asians (NS) and 46% of the Europeans. In univariate analysis ischaemic heart disease was related to Turkish origin, OR 0.34 (0.14-0.83) p < 0.02, to Surinam-Asian origin, OR 1.84 (1.00-3.38) p = 0.05, and smoking, OR 1.78 (1.18-2.68) p < 0.01. Other variables were not related to ischaemic heart disease. Multivariate analysis in a model with ethnicity and smoking showed significant relations between ischaemic heart disease and Turkish ethnicity, OR 0.19 (0.06-0.65) p = 0.007, Surinam-Asian origin, OR 2.77 (1.45-5.28) p = 0.002, and smoking, OR 1.79 (1.20-2.66) p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus in different ethnic groups results in a significant difference in incidence of ischaemic heart disease. The most remarkable finding is a low incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of smoking. The high prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in young migrant Asians with diabetes is confirmed. (+info)
(8/92) Gonorrhoea and foreign immigrants at Rotterdam University Hospital.
It is estimated, contrary to public opinion and a quick glance at the waiting room of the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Rotterdam, that the incidence of gonorrhoea among foreign immigrants is only a little greater than among the Dutch population. The analysis corroborates the common sense idea that the higher incidence of gonorrhoea among foreign immigrants stems largely from their difficulty in finding sexual partners. To solve this problem is a matter of national policy. It is within the scope of the STD clinics and related organizations to start small-scale experiments to improve the difficult medical situation of the foreign immigrants by lowering the linguistic and cultural barriers between the medical staff and their foreign patients. Research on the sexual habits of the patients is of limited value, and a redirection of our efforts seems necessary to tackle this problem. (+info)
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