Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Elder Abuse: Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.United StatesOpioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.PrisonersPrisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Physician Impairment: The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)National Health Insurance, United StatesArkansasReceptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Inhalant Abuse: Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.Professional Impairment: The inability of a health professional to provide proper professional care of patients due to his or her physical and/or mental disability.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.CaliforniaCultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.KentuckyMandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Couples Therapy: Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Phencyclidine Abuse: The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.MaineSocial Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.WashingtonPatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.New York CityInterpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.Parental Death: The death of the father or mother or another person in this role.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Bosnia-Herzegovina: A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)FloridaAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.

*  Reducing Health Problems Associated With Injection Drug Use - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Substance-Related Disorders. Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections ... Intravenous Drug Abuse HIV Infections Behavioral: Skin and Needle Hygiene Intervention Other: No intervention - assessment-only ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01128920?view=record

*  A Study of HIV in Newly Infected Individuals - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Disease Progression. Homosexuality, Male. Genotype. Phenotype. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000930?order=42

*  Reducing Health Problems Associated With Injection Drug Use - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Substance-Related Disorders. Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections ... Intravenous Drug Abuse HIV Infections Behavioral: Skin and Needle Hygiene Intervention Other: No intervention - assessment-only ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01128920?term=" April 24, 2010":" May 24, 2010"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=14

*  Ingrid Binswanger, MD, MPH, MS | Division of General Internal Medicine | University of Colorado Denver

Associate Editor: Substance Abuse (journal). - Assistant Editor: Addiction. School of Medicine. - Participant in Leadership for ... Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Substance-Related Disorders. Prisoners. Professional Memberships:. Fellow, ACP. SGIM ... Co-chair, Data/Analysis subgroup of the Colorado Consortium for Prescription Drug Abuse ...
ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicalschool/departments/medicine/GIM/Faculty/Pages/Ingrid-Binswanger,-MD,-MPH.aspx

*  Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for ischaemia of the hand due to intra-arterial injection of methadone and flunitrazepam.

Substance Abuse, Intravenous / complications*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 1622-62-4/Flunitrazepam; 76-99-3/Methadone ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-ischaemia-hand/1756884.html

*  Percutaneous innominate vein catheterisation: a new technique for venous access in the critically ill.

Substance Abuse, Intravenous / therapy. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... a small subgroup of patients with venous thrombosis from a previous catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse for whom a ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Percutaneous-innominate-vein-catheterisation-new/10150045.html

*  Efficacy, adherence and tolerability of once daily tenofovir DF-containing antiretroviral therapy in former injecting drug...

Substance Abuse, Intravenous / drug therapy*. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Young Adult. ... No./Substance: 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Anti-HIV Agents; 0/Organophosphonates; 0/tenofovir disoproxil; 73-24-5/Adenine; 76-99-3/ ... Tucker JS,Burnam MA,Sherbourne CD,Kung FY,Gifford AL,Substance use and mental health correlates of nonadherence to ... which has been shown to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of methadone and other substances for opiate treatment [14,15], ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Efficacy-Adherence-Tolerability-Once-Daily/22024421.html

*  A Phase I/II Dose Escalation Study of Intradermal gp160 to Evaluate Safety, Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (Skin Test) Responses...

Active substance abuse (either continuing daily alcohol abuse or intravenous drug use). ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000667?order=54

*  Liver Fibrosis in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Active substance abuse including, but not limited to, alcohol, intravenous or, inhaled drugs; ... Procedure: Intravenous catheter Every study participant will have and intravenous catheter (IV) placed at every study visit. ... Participants will get a history and physical (H&P) and have an intravenous catheter (IV) placed, for blood draws, at the ... Device: Abdominal ultrasound Procedure: History and physical Procedure: Intravenous catheter Procedure: Blood draw Other: Liver ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01810458?cond="alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency"&rank=1

*  Study of PEG-Intron Plus REBETOL in Pediatric Subjects With Chronic Hepatitis C (Study P02538 Part 1) - Full Text View -...

History of substance abuse, including alcohol (e.g., binge drinking, blackouts), intravenous drugs and inhaled drugs ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00104052

*  Adult Substance Abuse Services

Services are also available to assist family members of individuals who have a substance use disorder. Intravenous drug users ... Adult Substance Abuse Services (SA) provides outpatient treatment to individuals who have a substance use disorder or a co- ... For more information on our Substance Abuse programs, call Community Services in Manassas at 703-792-7800 or in Woodbridge at ...
pwcgov.org/government/dept/cs/pages/adult-substance-abuse-services.aspx?PF=1

*  Drug Addiction

Condition: Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Interventions: Behavioral: Abstinence-contingent wage supplements; Behavioral: ... Conditions: Addiction; Substance Abuse Drug Chronic; Child Neglect; Child Neglect Emotional; Child Abuse; Parenting; Parent- ... Condition: Substance Abuse. Intervention: Other: cbt4cbt. Sponsors: University of Prince Edward Island; Yale University. ... Conditions: Substance Abuse; Depression; Anxiety Disorder. Interventions: Behavioral: Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention ( ...
paidclinicaltrials.org/dir/category/by-addictions/drug-addiction/

*  The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention...

... or the mother has a documented history of domestic violence or intravenous substance abuse or self-reports eating, psychiatric ... The exclusion criteria of psychiatric morbidity, domestic violence and substance abuse will identify 'at risk' mothers for whom ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2770488/

*  A Phase I/II Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Topical 1-(S)-(3-Hydroxy-2-Phosphonylmethoxypropyl)Cytosine Dihydrate ...

Substance abuse.. Contacts and Locations. Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your ... At least 10 days of prior acyclovir at a minimum dose of 1 g/day (oral) or 15 mg/kg/day (intravenous). ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00002116?view=record

*  Trial to Evaluate Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters, Efficacy and Safety of Nevirapine in Antiretroviral Drug naïve...

allergy or known drug hypersensitivity to any of the study drugs intravenous drug abuse, alcohol or substance abuse ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00273975?order=401

*  Learn how a progressive nutrition protocol can increase success of sobriety and reduce medications typically prescribed for...

A common problem in addiction recovery is the substance the patient is addicted to is often replaced with food, typically junk ... NAMI is the largest non profit in the United States dealing with Mental Illness including substance abuse. He has a PhD in ... The Fight Against Cancer: Intravenous High Dose Vitamin C And Poly-MVA Are Powerful Weapons Used To Fight Everything From ... He is the CEO and founder of NAMED program which helps people with substance abuse problems and the top twelve mental illnesses ...
https://voiceamerica.com/episode/98914/learn-how-a-progressive-nutrition-protocol-can-increase-success-of-sobriety-and-reduce-medications

*  A Study to Assess the Effect of Severe Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Conivaptan - Full Text View -...

Subject has a history of substance abuse within past 6 months prior to Screening Visit or the subject tests positive at ... Subject has a history of substance abuse within past 6 months prior to Screening Visit or the subject tests positive at ... A Study to Assess the Effect of Severe Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Conivaptan. This study has ... A Phase 1, Open-Label Study to Assess the Effect of Severe Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Conivaptan ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01370148

*  Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Through Transplanted Organs and Tissue - Kentucky and Massachusetts, 2011

His medical history was significant for schizophrenia, substance abuse, and a 5-month incarceration approximately 10 years ... The donor had no known history of intravenous drug use or other hepatitis risk factors, according to his father at the time of ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6050a1.htm

*  Cocaine esterase prevents cocaine-induced toxicity and the ongoing intravenous self-administration of cocaine in rats. -...

Substance Abuse, Intravenous/drug therapy*. *Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology*. Substances. *Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication type. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Cocaine esterase prevents cocaine-induced toxicity and the ongoing intravenous self-administration of cocaine in rats.. Collins ... Cocaine Esterase Prevents Cocaine-Induced Toxicity and the Ongoing Intravenous Self-Administration of Cocaine in Rats ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19710369

*  2011 - Page 35 of 42 - Judicial Watch

... addicts because the Obama Administration has creatively designated them as treatment programs that qualify for substance abuse ... For the first time in more than two decades federal tax dollars will be spent on intravenous needle exchanges for drug ...
https://judicialwatch.org/blog/2011/page/35/

*  Heroin, opioid users could be forced into treatment under new bill | WTSP.com

... had one or more hospitalizations related to drug abuse or if they have three or more visible track marks indicating intravenous ... they've had three or more arrests connected to substance abuse, ... they've had three or more arrests connected to substance abuse ... had one or more hospitalizations related to drug abuse or if they have three or more visible track marks indicating intravenous ... the District of Columbia have statutes in place allowing for the involuntary commitment of individuals suffering from substance ...
wtsp.com/news/politics/heroin-opioid-users-could-be-forced-into-treatment/422529126

*  Neff Walker

intravenous substance abuse*vietnam*central asia*hiv 1*prevalence*swaziland*namibia*highly active antiretroviral therapy ...
https://labome.org/expert/switzerland/joint/walker/neff-walker-563397.html

*  R J Noel

intravenous substance abuse*hiv*viral drug resistance*animal disease models*cd4 lymphocyte count*missense mutation*viral load* ... Thus, morphine abuse may change the nature and extent of mutations that drive viral evolution... ...
https://labome.org/expert/ponce/noel/r-j-noel-396780.html

*  M J Rotheram-Borus

intravenous substance abuse*community health services*program development*acquired immunodeficiency syndrome*homosexuality*aids ... To examine predictors of the current level of substance use and reductions in seriousness of substance use among adults living ... Interventions that address parental substance use among PWH should be developed to ameliorate the impact of substance use ... Substance use among adolescents of parents living with HIV in New York City. Nancy Wu. Center for Community Health, University ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/university/rotheram-borus/m-j-rotheram-borus-221599.html

Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre: The Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre, or SDATC (), is a governmental organization providing drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation services in Shanghai, China. SDATC is the only government-supported centre in Shanghai and was established in 1997 on the approval of Shanghai Narcotic Control Commission and Shanghai Public Health Bureau.Substance-related disorderAutopharmacology: Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent (or endogenous) chemical factors of the tissues. A more restricted definition would consider substances that were first identified as external agents which had a documented action on physiological functions, but later were discovered as existing as endogenous factors.Survivors Healing Center: The Survivors Healing Center is a not-for-profit located in Santa Cruz County, California. Founded in 1987, its mission is to provide services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse and educate the public and service agencies about the issue.Treatment Improvement Protocols: Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) are a series of best-practice manuals for the treatment of substance use and other related disorders. The TIP series is published by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA an agency of the U.The Ted Noffs Foundation Inc: The Ted Noffs Foundation is a nonprofit organization located in Randwick, New South Wales, Australia. Since its foundation in 1992, the foundation has grown from one residential treatment centre for adolescents to a broad range of initiatives, from four residential treatment centres for adolescents with drug and alcohol problems (PALM: Programme for Adolescent Life Management), to adolescent life management aftercare, family and adolescent counselling on an 'outclient' basis, schools counselling, indigenous counselling, an outreach/educational project called 'Street University' and a number of Social Enterprise endeavors such as fashion-oriented op-shops and 'Gideon's Shoes,' dealing in design, manufacture and retailing.Drug test: A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.List of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:Mental disorderList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Criminal justice system of the Netherlands: The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. The Netherlands criminal code is based on the Napoleonic Code, imposed during the time of the French Empire.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.FBI Criminal Investigative Division: The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) is a division within the Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The CID is the primary component within the FBI responsible for overseeing FBI investigations of traditional crimes such as narcotics trafficking and violent crime.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.Amphetamine dependence: .0–.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Homeless dumping: Homeless dumping is the practice of hospital employees or emergency services releasing homeless patients on the streets instead of placing them into the custody of family, a warming center or homeless shelter or retaining them in a hospital where they may require expensive medical care. Many homeless people who have mental health problems can no longer find a place in a psychiatric hospital since the trend towards mental health deinstitutionalization from the 1960s onwards.Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study: The Stateville Penitentiary malaria study was a controlled study of the effects of malaria on the prisoners of Stateville Penitentiary near Joliet, Illinois in the 1940s. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department.List of California state prisonsMethadone clinic: A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids. The focus of these clinics is the elimination or reduction of opioid usage by putting the patient on methadone.Biologically based mental illness: One of three major definitions used in state parity laws.An Analysis of the Definitions of Mental Illness Used in State Parity LawsEric J. Nestler: Eric J. Nestler, M.Palladia (social services organization): Palladia, Inc. is a social services organization in New York City, working with individuals and families challenged by addiction, homelessness, AIDS, domestic violence, poverty and trauma.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Sharp McDonald CenterUniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Salvador Minuchin: Salvador Minuchin (born 1921) is a family therapist born and raised in San Salvador, Entre Ríos, Argentina. He developed structural family therapy, which addresses problems within a family by charting the relationships between family members, or between subsets of family (Minuchin, 1974).Sober Living by the SeaPrenatal methamphetamine exposure: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a prenatal fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.List of largest employers: ==Largest public and private and Government employers in the world==Gun laws in Arkansas: Gun laws in Arkansas regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Arkansas in the United States.Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Therapy cap: In 1997 the Balanced Budget Act established annual per-beneficiary Medicare spending limits, or therapy cap, for outpatient therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Medicare Provisions in Balanced Budget Act of 1997.Agonist–antagonistSchizophreniaOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Beta-Phenylmethamphetamine: β-Phenylmethamphetamine (N,α-dimethyl-β-phenyl-phenethylamine) is a potent and long lasting stimulant drug.Pharmazie 1973;28(10):677.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Outline of domestic violence: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence:Urban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.BBC television dramaWoodhull Medical and Mental Health CenterInternational Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Cocaine intoxicationHistory of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.Lawrence Ting Charity Walk: Lawrence S. Ting Charity Walk is a charity walk event to raise fund for the poor and needy people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.Robert Randall (advocate): Robert Randall}}Emergency psychiatrySan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Business Model of Intercultural Analysis: The Business Model of Intercultural Analysis (BMIA) is a tool developed to address cross-cultural problems. The BMIA framework uses six comprehension lenses to analyze cross-cultural interaction in the business environment.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Comfort Food (novel): Comfort Food: A Novel by Noah Ashenhurst contains a cast of characters: a romantic academic, a self-assured young writer, an enigmatic musician, a slacker, a wealthy mountaineer, and a former heroin addict—characters whose lives intersect in the unique, award-winning debut novel.Reproductive coercion: Reproductive coercion (also called coerced reproduction) are threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive health or reproductive decision-making and is a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into becoming a parent or ending a pregnancy. Reproductive coercion is a form of domestic violence, also known as intimate partner violence, where behavior concerning reproductive health is used to maintain power, control, and domination within a relationship and over a partner through an unwanted pregnancy.

(1/2136) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(2/2136) Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the 1990s in Sydney, Australia.

Surveillance of hepatitis A in residents of Eastern Sydney Health Area identified substantial epidemics in homosexual males in 1991-2 with a peak rate of 520 per 100,000 recorded in males aged 25-29 years, and again in 1995-6, with a peak rate of 405 per 100,000 per year in males aged 30-34 years. During 1994-5 an epidemic was detected among disadvantaged youth associated with injecting drug use; peak rates of 200 per 100,000 per year were reported in males aged 25-29 years and of 64 per 100,000 per year among females aged 20-24 years. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in these inner suburbs of Sydney is characterized by very few childhood cases and recurrent epidemics among homosexual men. Identified risk groups need to be targeted with appropriate messages regarding the importance of hygiene and vaccination in preventing hepatitis A. However, poor access to health services among disadvantaged youth and a constant influx of young homosexual males into these inner suburbs present major challenges to hepatitis A control.  (+info)

(3/2136) No evidence for an effect of the CCR5 delta32/+ and CCR2b 64I/+ mutations on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users.

The relationship between CCR5 and CCR2b genotypes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression was studied among the 108 seroconverters of the Amsterdam cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). In contrast to earlier studies among homosexual men, no effect on disease progression of the CCR5 Delta32/+ and the CCR2b 64I/+ genotypes was found, when progression to AIDS, death, or a CD4 cell count <200/microL was compared by a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, CD4 cell decline (by a regression model for repeated measurements) and virus load in the first 3 years after seroconversion did not differ between the CCR5 and CCR2b wild type and heterozygous genotypes. A nested matched case-control study also revealed no significant effect of the CCR5 and CCR2b mutations. Immunologic differences between IDUs and homosexual men may account for the observed lack of effect. Alternatively, difference in transmission route or characteristics of the HIV-1 variants that circulate in IDUs could also explain this phenomenon.  (+info)

(4/2136) HIV-1 incidence among opiate users in northern Thailand.

The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among opiate users was determined in a retrospective cohort of 436 patients with multiple admissions to the only inpatient drug treatment program in northern Thailand between October 1993 and September 1995. During 323.4 person-years of follow-up, 60 patients presenting for detoxification acquired HIV-1 infection, for a crude incidence rate of 18.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval 14.4-23.9). All seroconverters were male. HIV-1 incidence varied by the current route of drug administration: 31.3 per 100 person-years for injectors and 2.8 per 100 person-years for noninjectors (smoking and ingestion). Significant differences were found by ethnicity: HIV-1 incidence was 29.3 per 100 person-years for Thai lowlanders and 8.5 per 100 person-years for hill tribes. Multivariate relative risk estimates showed that injecting opiates (vs. use by other routes), being unmarried, being under age 40 years, being a Thai lowlander, having a primary and secondary education, and being employed in the business sector were each independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion. This HIV-1 incidence rate is double that reported for Bangkok and suggests that prevention and control programs for drug users need to be expanded throughout Thailand. Improved availability of more-effective treatment regimens and increased access to sterile injection equipment are needed to confront the HIV-1 epidemic among opiate users in northern Thailand.  (+info)

(5/2136) Acute hepatitis B infection in England and Wales: 1985-96.

Confirmed acute hepatitis B infections are reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre by laboratories in England and Wales. These reports have been used to monitor trends in the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection over time, and between exposure categories and age groups. Between 1985 and 1996 a total of 9252 cases of acute HBV infection were reported; the number of reports fell from 1761 in 1985 to 581 in 1996. Most infections were reported in adults aged 15-44 years [n = 7365 (80%)], and infections were more commonly reported in males [n = 6490 (70%)] than females [n = 2658 (29%)]. The probable means of acquisition was known for just over half of all adult cases [4827/8956 (54%)]. Injecting drug use was the most common exposure [n = 1901 (21%)], followed by sex between men and women [n = 1140 (13%)] and sex between men [n = 1025 (11%)]. The number of infections in injecting drug users fell in the late 1980s, but increased again from 1991 onwards. In children aged under 15 years, infections acquired by mother to baby transmission accounted for 35/170 (21%) of the total. Surveillance indicates that the incidence of acute hepatitis B infection fell in the late 1980s, probably reflecting changed behaviour in injecting drug users. An increase in the number of infections in injecting drug users since 1993 may indicate ongoing transmission that has not been contained by the introduction of needle exchange schemes or by selective vaccination.  (+info)

(6/2136) Harm reduction in Bern: from outreach to heroin maintenance.

In Switzerland, harm-reduction programs have the support of the national government and many localities, in congruence with much of the rest of Europe and in contrast with the United States, and take place in public settings. The threat of AIDS is recognized as the greater harm. This paper describes the overall national program and highlights the experience from one city; the program is noteworthy because it is aimed at gathering comparative data from controlled trials.  (+info)

(7/2136) Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use.  (+info)

(8/2136) Outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment in the tertiary care setting--Toronto 1992/93. Tuberculosis Treatment Completion Study Group.

BACKGROUND: Completion of treatment of active cases of tuberculosis (TB) is the most important priority of TB control programs. This study was carried out to assess treatment completion for active cases of pulmonary TB in Toronto. METHODS: Consecutive cases of culture-proven pulmonary TB were obtained from the microbiology laboratories of 5 university-affiliated tertiary care centres in Toronto in 1992/93. A standard data-collection tool was used to abstract information from inpatient and outpatient charts. For patients who were transferred to other treatment centres or lost to follow-up, the local health unit was contacted for information about treatment completion. If incomplete information was obtained from these sources, data from the provincial Reportable Disease Information System were also reviewed. The main outcome analysed was treatment outcome, with cases classified as completed (record of treatment completion noted), transferred (patient transferred to another centre but no treatment results available), defaulted (record of defaulting in patient chart but no record of treatment completion elsewhere, or patient still receiving treatment more than 15 months after diagnosis) or dead (patient died before treatment completion). RESULTS: Of the 145 patients 84 (58%) completed treatment, 25 (17%) died, 22 (15%) defaulted and 14 (10%) were transferred. The corresponding values for the 22 patients with HIV coinfection were 6 (27%), 5 (23%), 8 (36%) and 3 (14%). Independent predictors of failure to complete treatment were injection drug use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 22.0), HIV infection (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.7) and adverse drug reaction (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.9). Independent predictors of death included age more than 50 years (adjusted OR 16.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 105.1), HIV infection (adjusted OR 16.1, 95% CI 3.9 to 66.4), immunosuppressive therapy (adjusted OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.9 to 34.4) and infection with a multidrug-resistant organism (adjusted OR 30.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 623.0). INTERPRETATION: Treatment completion rates in tertiary care hospitals in Toronto in 1992/93 were below the rate recommended by the World Health Organization. Careful surveillance of treatment completion is necessary for the management of TB in metropolitan centres in Canada.  (+info)



catheter


  • There remains, however, a small subgroup of patients with venous thrombosis from a previous catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse for whom a number of ingenious methods have been devised. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Participants will get a history and physical (H&P) and have an intravenous catheter (IV) placed, for blood draws, at the screening and years 1-3 visits. (clinicaltrials.gov)

drug


  • Intravenous drug users receive treatment priority. (pwcgov.org)

Humans


  • Furthermore, these studies provide strong evidence for the potential usefulness of a suitable, stable, and long-acting form of CocE as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse in humans. (nih.gov)

Incarceration


  • His medical history was significant for schizophrenia, substance abuse, and a 5-month incarceration approximately 10 years before his death. (cdc.gov)

therapy


effects


  • DM CocE) of CocE to protect against the lethal effects of cocaine, and alter ongoing intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats. (nih.gov)