Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.TriglyceridesFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Lipodystrophy, Familial Partial: Inherited conditions characterized by the partial loss of ADIPOSE TISSUE, either confined to the extremities with normal or increased fat deposits on the face, neck and trunk (type 1), or confined to the loss of SUBCUTANEOUS FAT from the limbs and trunk (type 2). Type 3 is associated with mutation in the gene encoding PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Embolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.Acanthosis Nigricans: A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.JapanGlucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Skin DiseasesFasting: Abstaining from all food.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Mice, Inbred C57BLLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Subcutaneous fat necrosisAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Animal fatSubcutaneous tissueDietmar Wittmann: Dietmar H. Wittmann, M.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.LipodystrophySubcutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma (also known as a "Panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma") is a cutaneous condition that most commonly presents in young adults, and is characterized by subcutaneous nodules.Bloody Buttocks: Bloody Buttocks was a British Thoroughbred sire who was the leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland in 1739. He was owned by Mr.HIV-associated lipodystrophy: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a condition characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat associated with infection with HIV.LeptinBert WheelerLiposuctionHeptadecanoic acidOmental cake: In radiology, omental cake is sign indicative of an abnormally thickened greater omentum. It refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. The following hormones induce lipolysis: epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Abdominal obesityDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Adipokine: The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994.TriglycerideMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Plant breedingManagement of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Adiponectin: Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Thumbprint sign: In radiology, the thumbprint sign, or thumbprinting, is a radiologic sign found on a lateral C-spine radiograph that suggests the diagnosis of epiglottitis. The sign is caused by a thickened free edge of the epiglottis, which causes it to appear more radiopaque than normal, resembling the distal thumb.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Familial partial lipodystrophy: Familial partial lipodystrophy (also known as "Köbberling–Dunnigan syndrome") is an autosomal dominant skin condition characterized by the loss of subcutaneous fat.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Thigh: In humans, the thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the lower limb.Adipogenesis: Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the most intensively studied models of cellular differentiation.Embolus: An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "clot, lit. ram") is any detached, traveling intravascular mass (solid, liquid, or gaseous) carried by circulation, which is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.Acanthosis nigricansSubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.AmyloidosisRegression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Niigata UniversityBrain biopsyUnsaturated fat: An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Glycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolHyperintensityWaist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIJakob SegalOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.CholesterolFamilial hypocalciuric hypercalcemiaGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Glucose clamp technique: Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. It is used to measure either how well an individual metabolizes glucose or how sensitive an individual is to insulin.
(1/609) Genetic and phenotypic relationships between individual subcutaneous backfat layers and percentage of longissimus intramuscular fat in Duroc swine.
Progeny (n = 589) of randomly mated Duroc pigs were used to determine the genetic and phenotypic relationships between individual s.c. backfat layers and i.m. fat percent (IMF) of the longissimus. Five days before slaughter, cross-sectional ultrasound images were collected at the 10th rib by a National Swine Improvement Federation-certified ultrasound technician using an ultrasound machine (Aloka 500 SSD) fitted with a 12-cm linear array transducer. Off-midline backfat (SBF) and loin muscle area (SLMA) were measured. Individual s.c. backfat layers were measured at the same location: outer (OBF), middle (MBF), and inner (IBF). Off-midline backfat (CBF) and loin muscle area (CLMA) were measured on the carcass 24 h postmortem. A slice from the 10th rib of the loin muscle was obtained for determination of IMF. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated fitting all possible two-trait animal models in MATVEC (Wang et al., 2003). The heritabilities for OBF, MBF, IBF, CBF, SBF, and IMF were 0.63, 0.45, 0.53, 0.48, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively. The genetic correlations of OBF, MBF, and IBF with IMF were 0.36, 0.16, and 0.28, respectively, and the genetic correlations of CBF and SBF with IMF were 0.25 and 0.27, respectively. Genetic correlations between OBF and MBF, OBF and IBF, and MBF and IBF were 0.43, 0.45, and 0.67, respectively. Results demonstrate that individual backfat layers are highly heritable, of similar magnitude to total backfat, and have similar genetic correlations with IMF. Individual backfat layers could become candidate traits for implementation into a multiple-trait genetic evaluation to improve IMF, while minimizing the detrimental effect on total backfat depth. (+info)
(2/609) Extragonadal aromatization increases with time after ovariectomy in rats.
BACKGROUND: The circulating estrogen concentration elevated gradually along with time after ovariectomy in rats. To explore the source of the increased circulation estrogen, the extragonadal aromatization as well as the synthesis of androgen in the adrenal cortex of the ovariectomized rats was evaluated. METHODS: Female rats were divided into twelve groups: 1 month after ovariectomy (OVX1M), OVX2M, OVX3M, OVX4M, OVX5M, OVX6M; intact 1 month (INT1M), INT2M, INT3M, INT4M, INT5M, INT6M. The blood concentration of testosterone (T) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The mRNA expressions of P450 aromatase in the liver and subcutaneous abdominal (SA) adipose as well as the adrenal cytochrome P450 17 alpha hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17) were semiquantified by RT-PCR. The P450 aromatase protein expressions in the liver and SA adipose were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The blood E2 concentrations increased gradually along with time after ovariectomy in the rats. The 58-kDa aromatase protein and mRNA expressions normalized to beta-actin in the OVX6M rats' SA adipose tissues showed higher levels than those from corresponding tissues in the INT6M (p < 0.05). And the ratios of aromatase mRNA and protein to beta-actin in the OVX6M rats' liver tissues increased significantly compared with those in the OVX1M rats (p < 0.05). The ratio of adrenal P450c17 to beta-actin in the OVX6M increased markedly, and was higher than OVX1M (p < 0.05), though the blood concentration of T decreased significantly in all the ovariectomized rats (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues and the liver tissues contributed to the extragonadal aromatisation to promote the circulating E2 levels in the rats along with time after ovariectomy; the adrenal compensation might also be activated naturally. (+info)
(3/609) Fatty acid indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase do not reflect actual stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme activities in adipose tissues of beef steers finished with corn-, flaxseed-, or sorghum-based diets.
We hypothesized that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzyme activity would not correlate with fatty acid indices of SCD activity in steers fed different grains. Forty-five Angus steers (358 +/- 26 kg BW) were individually fed for 107 d diets differing in whole cottonseed (WCS) supplementation (0, 5, or 15% of DM) and grain source (rolled corn, flaxseed plus rolled corn, or ground sorghum grain) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. Flaxseed- and corn-fed steers had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.119 and 0.108, respectively) than sorghum-fed steers (0.093). Marbling score was decreased by WCS (P = 0.04), and LM area was decreased (P < 0.01) by sorghum. Plasma 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:2n-6 were greatest in corn-fed steers, whereas plasma 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 were greatest in the flax-seed-fed steers (P < 0.01). Plasma 18:1trans-11 was least in sorghum-fed steers, and plasma cis-9,trans-11 CLA was barely detectable, in spite of high intestinal mucosal SCD enzyme activity (118 to 141 nmol*g tissue(-1).7 min(-1)). Interfascicular (i.f.) and s.c. cis-9,trans-11 CLA remained unchanged (P > or = 0.25) by treatment, although 18:1trans-11 was increased (P < or = 0.02) in steers fed corn or flaxseed. Steers fed flaxseed also had greater (P < 0.01) i.f. and s.c. concentrations of 18:3n-3 than steers fed the other grain sources. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) was least and total SFA were greatest (P < 0.01) in i.f. adipose tissue of steers fed 15% WCS. Lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue was greater (P < 0.01) in flaxseed-fed steers than in the corn- or sorghum-fed steers. Steers fed flaxseed or corn had larger i.f. mean adipocyte volumes (P < 0.01) than those fed sorghum and tended (P = 0.07) to have larger s.c. adipocyte volumes. Several fatty acid indices of SCD enzyme activity were decreased (P < or = 0.03) by WCS in i.f. adipose tissue, including the 18:2cis-9,trans-11/ 18:1trans-11 ratio. The 18:2cis-9,trans-11/18:1trans-11 ratio also tended to be decreased (P = 0.09) in s.c. adipose tissue by flaxseed; however, SCD enzyme activities in i.f. and s.c. adipose tissue were not affected by dietary WCS (P > or = 0.47) or grain source (P > or = 0.37). Differences in SFA seemed to be independent of SCD enzyme activity in both adipose tissues, suggesting that duodenal concentrations of fatty acids were more important in determining tissue fatty acid concentrations than endogenous desaturation by SCD. (+info)
(4/609) The fatty acid composition of muscle fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture-fed beef heifers: influence of the duration of grazing.
Our objective was to determine the effect of the duration of grazing before slaughter on the fatty acid composition of muscle fat and s.c. adipose tissue (SAT) of beef heifers. Sixty crossbred Charolais heifers (n = 15 per treatment) were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments: 45 animals (Treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed at the beginning of the experiment, and 15 (Treatment 4) were fed at pasture. Two groups of 15 heifers were moved to pasture 40 d (Treatment 2) and 99 d (Treatment 3) before slaughter, respectively, resulting in preslaughter grazing periods of 0, 40, 99, or 158 d for Treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Before grazing the predominantly perennial ryegrass pasture, animals were housed and offered grass silage ad libitum and 3 kg of concentrate diet (650 g of grass silage/kg of total DMI). After slaughter, the fatty acid profile of the neutral (NL) and polar lipid (PL) fractions of muscle fat from the LM and the total lipids from SAT were analyzed by gas chromatography. Duration of grazing showed a quadratic tendency on mean carcass weight (P = 0.08), but did not affect growth (P = 0.27) or the lipid content (P = 0.13) of the LM. Increasing the duration of grazing led to a linear increase (P < 0.001) in the concentration (on fresh-tissue basis) of CLA in muscle fat (from 11.80 to 17.75 mg/100 g of muscle in NL, and from 0.52 to 0.82 mg/100 of g muscle in PL) and in SAT (from 3.98 to 10.23 mg/g of SAT; P < 0.001), and increased the concentration of C18:1trans-11 in both muscle fat fractions (P < 0.001) and in SAT (P < 0.001). In the total muscle lipids, the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P:S) increased from 0.12 to 0.15 with increased duration of grazing following a linear (P < 0.05) and cubic pattern (P < 0.05). Increasing the duration of grazing led to a linear decrease in the n-6:n-3 ratio of muscle fat from 2.00 to 1.32 (P < 0.001), and from 2.64 to 1.65 in the SAT lipids (P < 0.001), mainly as a consequence of the increased concentration of C18:3n-3. It is concluded that muscle fat and SAT fatty acid profile was improved from a human health perspective by pasture feeding, and that this improvement depended on the duration of grazing. (+info)
(5/609) Increase of microcirculatory blood flow enhances penetration of ciprofloxacin into soft tissue.
The present study addressed the effect of microcirculatory blood flow on the ability of ciprofloxacin to penetrate soft tissues. Twelve healthy male volunteers were enrolled in an analyst-blinded, clinical pharmacokinetic study. A single intravenous dose of 200 mg of ciprofloxacin was administered over a period of approximately 20 min. The concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured in plasma and in the warmed and contralateral nonwarmed lower extremities. The microdialysis technique was used for the assessment of unbound ciprofloxacin concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Microcirculatory blood flow was measured by use of laser Doppler flowmetry. Warming of the extremity resulted in an increase of microcirculatory blood flow by approximately three- to fourfold compared to that at the baseline (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ratio of the maximum concentration (C(max)) of ciprofloxacin for the warmed thigh to the C(max) for the nonwarmed thigh was 2.10 +/- 0.90 (mean +/- standard deviation; P < 0.05). A combined in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK)-in vitro pharmacodynamic (PD) simulation based on tissue concentration data indicated that killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and two clinical isolates) was more effective by about 2 log(10) CFU/ml under the warmed conditions than under the nonwarmed conditions (P < 0.05). The improvement of microcirculatory blood flow due to the warming of the extremity was paralleled by an increased ability of ciprofloxacin to penetrate soft tissue. Subsequent PK-PD simulations based on tissue PK data indicated that this increase in tissue penetration was linked to an improved antimicrobial effect at the target site. (+info)
(6/609) Increased lipolysis of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and altered noradrenergic activity in patients with Cushing's syndrome: an in-vivo microdialysis study.
Cushing's syndrome is associated with typical central redistribution of adipose tissue. The aim of the study was to assess lipolysis and catecholamines and their metabolites in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue using an in-vivo microdialysis technique. Nine patients with Cushing's syndrome and nine age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were included in the study. Local glycerol concentrations were significantly increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with Cushing's syndrome (p<0.001). Plasma noradrenaline, dihydroxyphenylglycol and dihydroxyphenylalanine were decreased in patients with Cushing's syndrome (p<0.02, p<0.05, and p<0.02, respectively). Adrenaline, noradrenaline, dihydroxyphenylglycol and dihydroxyphenylalanine concentrations in subcutaneous abdominal adipose were non-significantly higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome. In conclusion, we showed that lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with Cushing's syndrome is significantly increased as compared to healthy subjects. This finding together with non-significantly increased local catecholamine concentrations in these patients suggests a possible link between increased lipolysis and catecholaminergic activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue. (+info)
(7/609) Differences in transport of fatty acids and expression of fatty acid transporting proteins in adipose tissue of obese black and white women.
We have reported that the rate of de novo triglyceride (TG) synthesis by omental, but not subcutaneous, adipose tissue was higher in African-American women (AAW) than in Caucasian women (CAW). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this increase. Toward that end, we determined the activities of key enzymes in the pathway of TG synthesis, the rates of uptake of fatty acids by adipocytes, mRNA and protein levels of the fatty acid-transporting proteins FAT/CD36 and FATP, and mRNA and protein levels of PPARgamma in omental fat of AAW and CAW. The results showed 1) no difference in the activity of phosphofructokinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or diacylglycerol acyltransferase; 2) a higher rate of fatty acid uptake by adipocytes of the AAW; 3) an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of CD36 and FATP4 in the fat of the AAW; and 4) an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of PPARgamma, which can stimulate the expression of CD36 and FATP. These results suggest that the increase in the transport of fatty acid, which is mediated by the overexpression of the transport proteins in the omental adipose tissue of the AAW, might contribute to the higher prevalence of obesity in AAW. (+info)
(8/609) Cytological diagnosis of subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn: a case report.
Cytological findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn, a rare and transient disorder of neonates, is described in a 20-day-old male baby, who presented with a 2-week history of firm, erythematous nodules and plaques on the back and upper arms. (+info)