Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Headache Disorders, Primary: Conditions in which the primary symptom is HEADACHE and the headache cannot be attributed to any known causes.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Putaminal Hemorrhage: Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HemosiderinAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE over the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Tranexamic Acid: Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Dioxanes: 1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Pneumocephalus: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Subarachnoid hemorrhageCerebral vasospasm: Cerebral vasospasm is the prolonged, intense vasoconstriction of the larger conducting arteries in the subarachnoid space which is initially surrounded by a clot.Infectious intracranial aneurysm: An infectious intracranial aneurysm (IIA, also called mycotic aneurysm) is a cerebral aneurysm that is caused by infection of the cerebral arterial wall.Cerebral hemorrhagePulmonary hemorrhageIntracranial hemorrhageDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Cerebral softeningHydrocephalusIntracranial pressure monitoringABCD² score: The ABCD2 score is a clinical prediction rule used to determine the risk for stroke in the days following a transient ischemic attack (TIA, a condition in which temporary brain dysfunction results from oxygen shortage in the brain). It usefulness was questioned in a 2015 review as it was not found to separate those who are low from those who are at high risk of future problems.Cerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Penumbra (medicine): In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such thrombotic or embolic stroke. Immediately following the event, blood flow and therefore oxygen transport is reduced locally, leading to hypoxia of the cells near the location of the original insult.Surgical scissors: Surgical scissors are surgical instruments usually used for cutting. They include bandage scissors, dissecting scissors, iris scissors, operating scissors, stitch scissors, tenotomy scissors, Metzenbaum scissors, plastic surgery scissors, and Mayo scissors.Retinal haemorrhageVentriculostomyNimodipineSubdural hematomaAltered level of consciousnessBakri balloon: The Bakri™ Balloon http://www.cookmedical.Bifrontal craniotomy: a bifrontal craniotomy is a surgical process which is used to target different tumors or malfunctioning areas of the brain.http://www.CortivazolArachnoid granulation: Arachnoid granulations (or arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura mater (the thick outer layer). They protrude into the venous sinuses of the brain, and allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to exit the sub-arachnoid space and enter the blood stream.Glasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingInternational Classification of Headache Disorders: The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society. It is considered the official classification of headaches by the World Health Organization, and, in 1992, was incorporated into the 10th edition of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).Silent strokePostoperative hematoma: Postoperative hematomas are a cutaneous condition characterized by a collection of blood below the skin, and result as a complication following surgery.Thunderclap headacheCerebral arteriovenous malformationNeurosurgery: Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.AANS – Patient InformationHyperintensityIntracranial hypertension syndrome: Intracranial hypertension syndrome is characterized by an elevated intracranial pressure, papilledema, and headache with occasional abducens nerve paresis, absence of a space-occupying lesion or ventricular enlargement, and normal cerebrospinal fluid chemical and hematological constituents.Striate arteries: Striate arteries or Ganglionic arteries arise from the middle cerebral artery and supply deep structures in the cerebrum including the internal capsule and reticular formation. Strokes in these vessels are common and can cause extensive damage.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Posterior cerebral artery: The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA).Gross examinationList of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Hemosiderin hyperpigmentation: Hemosiderin hyperpigmentation is pigmentation due to deposits of hemosiderin, and occurs in purpura, hemochromotosis, hemorrhagic diseases, and stasis dermatitis.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.Magnesium sulfiteVentricular system: The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF.Coma (optics)PapaverineIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Rasmussen's aneurysm: Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent or within a tuberculous cavity. It occurs in up to 5% of patients with such lesions.Rotational angiography: Rotational angiography is a medical imaging technique based on x-ray, that allows to acquire CT-like 3D volumes during hybrid surgery or during a catheter intervention using a fixed C-Arm. The fixed C-Arm thereby rotates around the patient and acquires a series of x-ray images that are then reconstructed through software algorithms into a 3D image.Falx cerebri: The falx cerebri is also known as the cerebral falx, named from its sickle-like form. It is a large, crescent-shaped fold of meningeal layer of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.Tranexamic acidRecurrent artery of Heubner: Heubner's artery (also known as the recurrent artery of Heubner or Medial Striate A.), named after the German paediatrician Otto Heubner is a branch from the anterior cerebral artery, typically from the proximal A2 segment or distal A1 segment, or at the level of the optic chiasm.ArachnoiditisKennel clubClosed head injury: Closed Head are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed-head injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people.
(1/11) Late detection of supraclinoid carotid artery aneurysm after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and occlusion of the ipsilateral cervical internal carotid artery.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report the first case of traumatic aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA), which we speculate may have developed or grown after traumatic occlusion of the ipsilateral cervical ICA. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old man presented with severe traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and occlusion of the right cervical ICA after a motor vehicle accident. Three-dimensional CT angiography on admission showed no aneurysm. However, cerebral angiography 3 weeks after the injury showed a large aneurysm of the right supraclinoid ICA. The aneurysm was trapped, and pathological examination showed that it was a traumatic aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: In this case we cannot be sure that the aneurysm was not present on admission. In view of the significant SAH, a lesson of this case may be to suspect such an aneurysm early on and perform early diagnostic cerebral angiography. (+info)
(2/11) Medico-legal aspects of traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery.
Based on our experiences with medico-legal autopsies, we analyzed traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) in traffic accident victims. VBA rupture occurred in six cases with traumatic medullary lesions, but in none with cervical cord injury. A relatively small external force applied to the head or neck can induce isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for approximately 11% of fatal head injuries. We examined the relationship between site of impact and site of vascular injury in 16 cases of isolated traumatic SAH. The results showed that the vertebral artery (VA) on the side of impact tended to be longitudinally injured in victims experiencing an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch to the head or face. There was no clear relationship between the site of impact and the site of vascular injury in victims who had sustained an external force greater than that of a fist punch. However, our results suggest that an external force causing rotation of the head was likely to cause tearing of the artery. In cases in which an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch was applied to the head, a raised blood alcohol level was a significant risk factor for artery rupture. Furthermore, a difference in the diameters of the left and right VAs was a risk factor for artery rupture. To determine why the VA, the most frequent site of arterial dissection, is also frequently the site of injury, we histologically examined normal and dissected VBAs. We also discuss medico-legal issues of the causal relationship between external force applied and rupture or dissection of the VA. (+info)
(3/11) Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele formation as a traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation complication: case report and review.
Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation is a rare complication, with only five cases described in the literature. It develops when a traumatic dural tear occurs allowing cerebrospinal fluid outflow, and it often appears associated with hydrocephalus. We present a case of a 29-year-old female who suffered a motor vehicle accident causing severe brain trauma and spinal cord injury. At hospital arrival the patient scored three points in the Glasgow Coma Scale. Admission computed tomography of the head and neck demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and atlanto-occipital dislocation. Three weeks later, when impossibility to disconnect her from mechanical ventilation was noticed, a magnetic resonance imaging of the neck showed a large retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. No radiological evidence of hydrocephalus was documented. Given the poor neurological status of the patient, with spastic quadriplegia and disability to breathe spontaneously due to bulbar-medullar injury, no invasive measure was performed to treat the pseudomeningocele. Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation should be managed by means of radiological brain study in order to assess for the presence of hydrocephalus, since these two pathologies often appear associated. If allowed by neurological condition of the patient, shunting procedures such as ventriculo-peritoneal or lumbo-peritoneal shunt placement may be helpful for the treatment of the pseudomeningocele, regardless of craniocervical junction management. (+info)
(4/11) Evaluation of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage using susceptibility-weighted imaging.
(5/11) Cardiac injury in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhagea: prospective study in 35 patients.
BACKGROUND: Various electrocardiographic abnormalities have been noted since 1954 in patients with head trauma complicated by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, very few studies have interested to these ECG modifications in the case of post traumatic SAH (t-SAH) AIM: To assess the incidence of ECG abnormalities during the first five days after admission and the predictive value of these cardiac complications on the mortality in t-SAH. METHODS: This prospective study included 35 patients out of 125 with traumatic SAH diagnosed in the emergency unit in Rabta's hospital (2001-2009). Patients with cardio vascular history, thoracic trauma, non neurological coma and vascular-related neurological coma were excluded. An electrocardiogram monitoring was performed. A brain CT scan was performed in admission, 48 h after and case of neurological aggravation. Serum cardiac troponin IC levels were determined on hospital admission and then on the third and fifth days of hospitalization. The statistical analysis was based on the non-parametric variance test of Kruskal-Wallis to compare the means; on the chi 2 and Fisher tests to compare percentage, with a significant result at 0.05 percentile and on the Odds ratio nonparametric factors for death. Association between 2 quantitative variables have been analyzed by Pearson coefficient of correlation. RESULTS: Mean age of the 35 patients was 39 +/- 17 years. Sex ratio was 4 in favor of men. The prevalence of electrocardiographic changes was of 57% (20 patients). Serum Troponin I level showed a peak on the 3rd day then it decreased. The majority of electrical abnormalities occurred during the third after admission and are associated to a markedly increased Troponin I plasma level and to the highest rate of mortality. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between T wave changes and the increase of serum Tn IC level (p= 0; 0002). The relative risk of mortality was higher than 7.2 times in cases with increase serum TnIc level. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that ECG changes were common in patients with t SAH and the major predictive factors of mortality were the increase of serum TnIC and T wave changes. (+info)
(6/11) Incidence, treatment, and case-fatality of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage in the Netherlands.
(7/11) Noncontrast and perfusion CT provides accurate assessment of head deceleration injury.
(8/11) Intracerebral haematoma without skull fracture by golf ball.
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