Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Schools: Educational institutions.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Premedical: Individuals enrolled in a preparatory course for medical school.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.United StatesAdolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.ManikinsHistology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Test Taking Skills: Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.TurkeyPharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.BrazilHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.IllinoisFocus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.KansasInterprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Underachievement: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.ReadingOnline Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.NebraskaMainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Semantic Differential: Analysis of word concepts by the association of polar adjectives, e.g., good-bad, with the concept, father. The adjectives are usually scaled in 7 steps. The subject's placement of the concept on the adjectival scale indicates the connotative meaning of the concept.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)HumanitiesSocial Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.TexasInternal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Patient Care: The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.
Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceAntenor Orrego Private UniversityProfessional student: The term Professional student has two uses in the university setting:Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Brooks College of Health: The Brooks College of Health is a college at the University of North Florida. About 1,900 students are enrolled in the school,http://www.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.List of medical schools in the United KingdomBecky JamesClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Kiten (program)St. Vrain Valley School DistrictKamaladalamDental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.ExploreLearning: Explore Learning is a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company which operates a large library of interactive online simulations for mathematics and science education in grades 3–12. These simulations are called Gizmos.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.General Educational Development: Ged}}Standard evaluation frameworkProsection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Nihon UniversityAtlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.VII Photo Agency: VII is an international photo agency wholly owned and governed by its membership.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.Utah College of Dental HygieneLife writing: Life writing is the recording of selves, memories, and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, biography, memoir, diaries, letters, testimonies, personal essays and, more recently, digital forms such as blogs and email.Mexican ironwood carvings: Mexican ironwood carvings is a handcraft that began with the Seri indigenous people of the state of Sonora. The wood comes from Olneya tesota, a Sonora Desert tree commonly called ironwood (palo fierro in Spanish).The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Upsilon Phi Delta: Upsilon Phi Delta (ΥΦΔ) is the national academic honor society for students in healthcare administration in the United States. The organization was formed in 1965 to further the profession of health administration and the professional competence and dedication of its members.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.ProsthodonticsHistory of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Immaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.International Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.Temporal feedbackPeer-led Team Learning: Peer-led Team Learning, (PLTL), is a model of teaching undergraduate science, math, and engineering courses that introduces peer-led workshops as an integral part of a course.Gosser,D.Murder of Robert Schwartz: The murder of Robert Schwartz occurred on December 8, 2001 in Leesburg, Virginia. The crime was orchestrated by his 20-year-old daughter, Clara Jane Schwartz, as part of a fantasy role-playing game.Pre-health sciences: Pre-health sciences refers to the undergraduate courses to prepare American college students for admission in medical, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary, and physical therapy schools, and for training as a physician assistant. In the United States, colleges have moved away from the impractical designation of students as "Pre-med" majors, as only a small percentage of applicants actually achieve admission into medical schools.Journal of Endodontics: The Journal of Endodontics is the official journal of the American Association of Endodontists and is published by Elsevier. It is a monthly journal that was established in 1975 and publishes scientific articles, case reports, and studies comparing different tools, materials, and methods used in endodontic treatment.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple DisabilitiesUniversity Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry: United StatesSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).LaerdalVirtual microscope: The Virtual Microscope project is an initiative to make micromorphology and behavior of some small organisms available online. Images are from Antarctica and the Baltic Sea and available at no cost.The Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).
(1/4235) Resource utilization and work or school loss reported by patients with diabetes: experience in diabetes training programs.
Diabetes exerts a major economic impact on healthcare in the United States both in terms of direct and indirect costs. Diabetes management and education programs designed to assist patients in achieving more optimal glycemic control represent a potential mechanism for reducing the morbidity and costs associated with diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c and patient hospitalizations and between HbA1c and days lost from work or school related to diabetes within the past year were evaluated. A cohort of 2359 patients with diabetes (188 type I, 2171 type II) referred to a comprehensive diabetes self-management training program was included in the analyses. Overall, 350 (14.8%) patients reported hospitalization, and 212 (9.0%) reported days lost from work or school. Patients with type I diabetes reported more hospitalizations (26.1% vs 13.9% and days lost (19.2% vs 8.1%) than type II patients. For the hospitalization outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that younger age, the number of co-morbidities, and the duration of diabetes exerted a greater influence on the reported numbers of hospitalization than glycemic control. For the days lost outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that there was a marginally significant association between patients with poor glycemic control and reported work or school loss related to diabetes (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2). These data suggest that interventions that improve glycemic control may decrease indirect costs related to diabetes. (+info)
(2/4235) Health promotion: perceptions of Project 2000 educated nurses.
The new approach to pre-registration nursing education in the UK (Project 2000) has an overt health focus as well as a specific remit to prepare nurses for a role as promoters of health. Data reported in this paper illuminate Project 2000 students' understanding of the concepts of health promotion and health education, and indicate the extent to which qualified nurses who have completed this new Project 2000 programme perceive themselves to be prepared for a health promotion role. Findings indicate that students are confused about the terms health education and health promotion, although most feel there is a distinction between the two. Students' descriptions emphasize individualistic approaches, and lifestyle and behaviour changes. Many recognize that health promotion should have a broader application and demonstrate a sophisticated grasp of the philosophy underpinning the promotion of health through their general perceptions of nursing. This understanding is not labelled health education or health promotion, but is embedded in their articulation of concepts such as holism, patient-centred care and enhancing independence. Paradoxically, both students and Project 2000 qualified nurses (diplomates) illustrate a clear grasp of the more complex issues surrounding the concept of health promotion while remaining confused by the terminology and its relationship to practice. (+info)
(3/4235) Further analysis of the separate and interactive effects of methylphenidate and common classroom contingencies.
We evaluated separate and interactive effects between common classroom contingencies and methylphenidate (MPH) on disruptive and off-task behaviors for 4 children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Analogue conditions consisting of contingent teacher reprimands, brief time-out, no interaction, and alone were conducted in a multielement design. Medication status (MPH or placebo) was alternated across days in a superordinate multielement design. Results indicate that (a) the behavioral effects of MPH were influenced by one or more of the analogue conditions for each participant, and (b) time-out was associated with zero or near-zero levels of both disruptive and off-task behavior for 3 of the 4 participants during MPH and placebo conditions. Implications for the clinical effectiveness of MPH and possible behavioral mechanisms of action of MPH in applied settings are discussed. (+info)
(4/4235) HIV stress in primary school teachers in Zambia.
A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training they had been given, many teachers felt that they could not adequately counsel their pupils on these matters. The teachers were in need of continuing support and training to enable them to cope with this aspect of their work. (+info)
(5/4235) Tobacco use among middle and high school students--Florida, 1998 and 1999.
Tobacco use is the single leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and an estimated $2 billion is spent annually in Florida to treat disease caused by smoking. Florida appropriated $23 million in fiscal year 1997 and $70 million in fiscal year 1998 to fund the Florida Pilot Program on Tobacco Control to prevent and reduce tobacco use among Florida youth. To determine the prevalence of cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco and snuff) use among Florida middle and high school students in public schools, the Florida Department of Health conducted the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (FYTS) in February 1998 and February 1999. The purpose of these surveys was to establish baseline parameters and monitor the progress of the pilot program, which began in April 1998. This report summarizes advance data from the surveys, which indicate that, from 1998 to 1999, the percentage of Florida public middle and high school students who smoked cigarettes decreased significantly and that the percentage of middle school students who smoked cigars and used smokeless tobacco products decreased significantly. (+info)
(6/4235) Drinking and driving among US high school seniors, 1984-1997.
OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of, and trends in, driving after drinking and riding in a car with a driver who has been drinking among American high school seniors, based on data from more than a decade (1984-1997) of annual national surveys. METHODS: Logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of demographic factors (gender, region of country, population density, parental education, and race/ethnicity) and selected "lifestyle" factors (religious commitment, high school grades, truancy, illicit drug use, evenings out per week, and miles driven per week). RESULTS: Rates of adolescent driving after drinking and riding with a driver who had been drinking declined significantly from the mid-1980s to the early or mid-1990s, but the declines have not continued in recent years. Rates of driving or riding after drinking were higher among high school seniors who are male. White, living in the western and northeastern regions of the United States, and living in rural areas. Truancy, number of evenings out, and illicit drug use all related significantly positively with the dependent variables, whereas grade point average and religious commitment had a negative relationship. Miles driven per week related positively to driving after drinking. (+info)
(7/4235) Changes at the high end of risk in cigarette smoking among US high school seniors, 1976-1995.
OBJECTIVES: This study identified high school seniors at low, moderate and high risk for cigarette use to examine changes in the prevalence of daily smoking within risk groups from 1976 to 1995. METHODS: Data were taken from the Monitoring the Future Projects national surveys of high school seniors. Risk classification was based on grade point average, truancy, nights out per week, and religious commitment. Logistic regression models were used to estimate trends for all seniors and separately for White (n = 244,221), African American (n = 41,005), and Hispanic (n = 18,457) made and female subgroups. RESULTS: Risk group distribution (low = 45%, moderate = 30%, high = 25%) changed little over time. Between 1976 and 1990, greater absolute declines in smoking occurred among high-risk students (17 percentage points) than among low-risk students (6 percentage points). Particularly large declines occurred among high-risk African Americans and Hispanics. Smoking increased in all risk groups in the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Among high school seniors, a large part of the overall change in smoking occurred among high-risk youth. Policies and programs to reduce smoking among youth must have broad appeal, especially to those at the higher end of the risk spectrum. (+info)
(8/4235) Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children.
OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence. (+info)