Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.HLA-B15 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*15 allele family.Conjunctival DiseasesCarbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Erythema Multiforme: A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.Chlormezanone: A non-benzodiazepine that is used in the management of anxiety. It has been suggested for use in the treatment of muscle spasm.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.ConjunctivitisAllopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Oral Ulcer: A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Stevens–Johnson syndromeConjunctivochalasisCarbamazepineErythema multiforme majorDrug eruptionLigneous conjunctivitis: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva). It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.AllopurinolNeuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Protective index: The protective index is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. Quantitatively, it is the ratio given by the toxic dose divided by the therapeutic dose.DysuriaBullous keratopathyMycoplasma pneumoniaSurface reconstruction: Surface reconstruction refers to the process by which atoms at the surface of a crystal assume a different structure than that of the bulk. Surface reconstructions are important in that they help in the understanding of surface chemistry for various materials, especially in the case where another material is adsorbed onto the surface.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Drug allergyIdiosyncratic drug reactionChemical eye injury: Chemical eye injury or chemical burns to the eye are due to either an acidic or alkali substance getting in the eye. Alkalis are typically worse than acidic burns.Conjunctiva: The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (white part of the eye). It is composed of non-keratinized, stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells, and also stratified columnar epithelium.PhenytoinLennox–Gastaut syndrome
(1/219) Epithelial hyperproliferation and transglutaminase 1 gene expression in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva.
In Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pathological keratinization of the ordinarily nonkeratinized corneal and conjunctival mucosal epithelia results in severe visual loss. We examined conjunctiva covering cornea in five eyes in the chronic cicatricial phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Normal conjunctiva from five age-matched individuals was studied also. The number of epithelial cells in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva that were immunoreactive with a monoclonal antibody, Ki-67, to a nuclear antigen found only in proliferating cells was greater than normal (93.8+/-19.8 cells above 100 basal cells versus 12.8+/-0.5 cells above 100 basal cells; P = 0.009). In addition, although clinical inflammation was mild, massive lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the substantia propria of conjunctiva covering cornea. In situ hybridization documented transglutaminase 1 (keratinocyte transglutaminase) mRNA in suprabasal cells of the abnormally thickened conjunctival epithelium in all Stevens-Johnson syndrome patients. In contrast, no message was detected in normal conjunctival or corneal epithelia. Transglutaminase 1 is expressed during the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes where it helps synthesize cornified cell envelopes. We speculate that in Stevens-Johnson syndrome, epithelial hyperproliferation, and transglutaminase 1 gene expression lead to the pathological keratinization of ocular surface mucosal epithelia. (+info)
(2/219) Blister fluid T lymphocytes during toxic epidermal necrolysis are functional cytotoxic cells which express human natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening adverse drug reaction characterized by a massive destruction of the epidermis. Immunohistological studies of skin biopsies of TEN showed infiltrates of predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes even though other authors reported a prominent involvement of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. The aim of this study was to characterize phenotypically and functionally the cells present in the cutaneous blister fluid of four patients with TEN. We first determined that lymphocytes were predominant in blister fluid obtained early, while monocytes/macrophages later became the most important population. We then showed that this lymphocyte population, mainly CD3+CD8+, corresponded to a peculiar cell subset as they expressed cutaneous leucocyte antigen, killer inhibitory receptors KIR/KAR and failed to express CD28 molecule. Functionally, we determined that blister T lymphocytes had a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and NK-like cytotoxicity. The role of this cytotoxic lymphocyte population present at the site of lesions during TEN remains to be understood. (+info)
(3/219) Nitric oxide synthase in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are severe cutaneous drug reactions of unknown mechanism. Nitric oxide can cause apoptosis and necrosis. The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase generates large amounts of nitric oxide and has been described in human skin. We propose that a large burst of nitric oxide in toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome may cause the epidermal apoptosis and necrosis. Skin biopsies were taken from seven patients with actively progressing Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by immunoperoxidase staining for inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. Messenger RNA for inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by the sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. Strong staining for inducible nitric oxide synthase was observed in inflammatory cells in the lower epidermis and upper dermis. Diffuse, weaker staining was observed in keratinocytes. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase is consistent with the hypothesis that nitric oxide mediates the epidermal necrosis in toxic epidermal necrolysis and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. (+info)
(4/219) SCORTEN: a severity-of-illness score for toxic epidermal necrolysis.
The mortality of toxic epidermal necrolysis is about 30%. Our purpose was to develop and validate a specific severity-of-illness score for cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis admitted to a specialized unit and to compare it with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score and a burn scoring system. A sample of 165 patients was used to develop the toxic epidermal necrolysis-specific severity-of-illness score and evaluate the other scores, a sample of 75 for validation. Model development used logistic regression equations that were translated into probability of hospital mortality; validation used measures of calibration and discrimination. We identified seven independent risk factors for death and constituted the toxic epidermal necrolysis-specific severity-of-illness score: age above 40 y, malignancy, tachycardia above 120 per min, initial percentage of epidermal detachment above 10%, serum urea above 10 mmol per liter, serum glucose above 14 mmol per liter, and bicarbonate below 20 mmol per liter. For each toxic epidermal necrolysis-specific severity-of-illness score point the odds ratio was 3.45 (confidence interval 2.26-5.25). Probability of death was: P(death) = elogit/1 + elogit with logit = -4.448 + 1.237 (toxic epidermal nec-rolysis-specific severity-of-illness score). Calibration demonstrated excellent agreement between expected (19. 6%) and actual (20%) mortality; discrimination was also excellent with a receiver operating characteristic area of 82%. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score and the burn score were also associated with mortality. The discriminatory powers were poorer (receiver operating characteristic area: 72 and 75%) and calibration of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score indicated a poor agreement between expected (9.1%) and actual (26.7%) mortality. This study demonstrates that the risk of death of toxic epidermal necrolysis patients can be accurately predicted by the toxic epidermal necrolysis-specific severity-of-illness score. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score and burn score appear to be less adequate. (+info)
(5/219) Diagnosis, classification, and management of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
BACKGROUND: In adults, erythema multiforme (EM) is thought to be mainly related to herpes infection and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) to drug reactions. AIMS: To investigate this hypothesis in children, and to review our experience in the management of these patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 77 paediatric cases of EM or SJS admitted to the Children's Hospital in Bordeaux between 1974 and 1998. RESULTS: Thirty five cases, inadequately documented or misdiagnosed mostly as urticarias or non-EM drug reactions were excluded. Among the remaining 42 patients (14 girls and 28 boys), 22 had EM (11 EM minor and 11 EM major), 17 had SJS, and three had isolated mucous membrane involvement and were classified separately. Childhood EM was mostly related to herpes infection and SJS to infectious agents, especially Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Only two cases were firmly attributed to drugs (antibiotics). No patient died. EM and SJS sequelae were minor and steroids were of no overall benefit. CONCLUSION: In paediatric practice EM is frequently misdiagnosed. The proposal that SJS is drug related in adults does not apply to children, and in our recruitment EM and SJS are mostly triggered by infectious agents. The course of both diseases, even though dramatic at onset, leads to low morbidity and mortality when appropriate symptomatic treatment is given. (+info)
(6/219) Conjunctival inflammation in the chronic phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
AIMS: To understand the immunopathogenesis of the corneal conjunctivalisation in Stevens-Johnson syndrome. METHODS: Conjunctivalised corneas from five patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome were studied immunohistochemically for several cell surface antigens and two cytokines. Chemical injury specimens were also studied. RESULTS: In all cases, immunohistochemistry revealed LFA-1, CD4, CD8, and CD68 on subepithelial infiltrating cells. Also, HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were found on the surfaces of epithelial cells, subepithelial infiltrating cells, subepithelial fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in blood vessels. IFN-gamma was found in basal epithelial cells; subepithelial cells and subepithelial extracellular matrix CD19 and IL4 were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The infiltrating cell population in the Stevens-Johnson syndrome samples includes macrophages, CD4 positive T cells, and CD8 positive T cells. The cytokine expression pattern suggests CD4 positive T cells are Th1 cells. The infiltrating cell population is similar in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and chemical injury conjunctivalised corneas. (+info)
(7/219) Toxic epidermal necrolysis in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
An adult male Macaca fascicularis monkey developed toxic epidermal necrolysis after ingestion of methylmercury. The clinical picture was characterized by the development of large cutaneous bullae with subsequent full-thickness epidermal exfoliation. Areas of sparse pelage were most affected, with the most severe exfoliation occurring on the palms, soles, face and ears. Erosions also developed within the oral mucosa and conjunctivae. (+info)
(8/219) Patients with acute skin loss: are they best managed on a burns unit?
Patients who are critically ill and have large areas of skin loss or breakdown present a difficult management problem. They require the combination of intensive therapy facilities to support failing organs and specialized skin care, sometimes including extensive debridement and reconstruction. The expertise required for both aspects of treatment are found uniquely on a burns unit. We present five patients with large areas of cutaneous loss or damage secondary to a variety of non-burn aetiologies who were managed on a burns unit. We suggest that a burns unit may be the most appropriate place for such patients to be treated during both the acute phase of their illness and the later stages of surgical reconstruction and physical rehabilitation. (+info)