Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.gamma-Butyrobetaine Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROXYLATION of gamma-butyrobetaine to L-CARNITINE. It is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-CARNITINE and is dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate; IRON; ASCORBIC ACID; and OXYGEN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Dopamine beta-HydroxylasePregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSteryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Fenclonine: A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Steroid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.Pregnanetriol: A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicAnti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Steroids, Brominated: Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Nandrolone: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Prolyl Hydroxylases: Enzymes that specifically hydroxylate PROLINE residues on proteins.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC AcidCorpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Hydroxysteroids: Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.Steroids, Chlorinated: Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Methandrostenolone: A synthetic steroid with anabolic properties that are more pronounced than its androgenic effects. It has little progestational activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.

*  KEGG T01031: 100025565 steroid 21-monooxygenase. 100025565. Cytochrome P450 [BR:mdo00199]. Cytochrome P450, animal type. CYP21 family. ... 00140 Steroid hormone biosynthesis. 100025565. Organismal Systems. Endocrine system. 04925 Aldosterone synthesis and secretion ...

*  KEGG T02913: 102346130 steroid 21-monooxygenase. 102346130. Cytochrome P450 [BR:lcm00199]. Cytochrome P450, animal type. CYP21 family. ... 00140 Steroid hormone biosynthesis. 102346130. Enzymes [BR:lcm01000]. 1. Oxidoreductases. 1.14 Acting on paired donors, with ...

*  adrenal rest tumor morphologic abnormality 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase ... Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. *[ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; EC / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase ... Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / genetics. Gonadotropins / blood. Humans. Infertility, Male / ... rest tumor morphologic abnormality 2005:2010[pubdate]&cxts=100&stmp=b0

*  Steroid Therapy in Autoimmune Premature Ovarian Failure - Full Text View -

MedlinePlus related topics: Premature Ovarian Failure Steroids Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Turner ... Steroid Therapy in Autoimmune Premature Ovarian Failure. This study has been completed. ... Some anecdotal reports have suggested that high dose, long term prednisone (steroid) therapy may be useful in treating ... as substrate or other laboratory evidence of steroidogenic cell autoimmunity such as the presence of antibodies against 21- ..."turner syndrome" NICHD&rank=10

*  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia | Patient Care Online

Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase accounts for 95% of all cases. ... There are two steroid 21-hydroxylase genes (CYP21A and CYP21B ... The 21-hydroxylase enzyme hydroxylates progesterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone to yield 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11- ... Most mutations that cause 21-hydroxylase deficiency are recombinations (deletions or gene conversions) between the active ... Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase accounts for 95% of all cases. ...

*  Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1971-1975 to 1992 | Cancer Epidemiology,...

... expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase activity and regulation of side-chain metabolism. J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. ... Because the gene encoding 1α-hydroxylase has recently been cloned (e.g., Ref. 63 ), the question of 1α-hydroxylase activity in ... Thus, 1,25(OH)2D is unique among steroid hormones in that the initial step in its synthesis is determined by environmental ... Tsai M. J., O'Malley B. W. Molecular mechanisms of action of steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily members. Ann. Rev. Biochem., ...

*  A Review of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

There is an argument for further trials of steroid treatment in patients selected on the basis of adrenal insufficiency, but ... Progesterone is converted to 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH progesterone) by 17-hydroxylase. The 17-OH progesterone is then ... W. B. Pratt and D. O. Toft, "Steroid receptor interactions with heat shock protein and immunophilin chaperones," Endocrine ... Finally, 11-deoxycortisol is converted into cortisol by 11-hydroxylase. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. ...

*  06/01/2011 - 07/01/2011 | Free Online Medical Powerpoint Presentations Collection eMedical PPT

11-b-Hydroxylase. 17-a-Hydroxylase. 3-b-Hsteroid hydrogenese. 20,22 Desmolase deficiency. The enzyme deficiency causes ... and sex steroids.. The urinary steroid metabolites (17-ketosteroids and pregnanetriol) are elevated above normal levels.. ... It is a familial disorder of adrenal steroid biosynthesis with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.. The defect is ... 21) PAEDIATRCS (50) PATHOLOGY (2) PHARMACOLOGY (4) PHYSIOLOGY (11) PSYCHIATRY (5) PULMONOLOGY (18) RADIOLOGY (4) RHEUMATOLOGY ( ...

*  Genetics of Human Sexual Development - ppt video online download

The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and secrete a variety of steroid hormones, including cortisone (stress response), ... all of those steroid molecules that were destined to become cortisol and aldosterone get diverted into male sex hormones ( ... aldosterone (salt balance) and androgens (male sex hormones). Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol through a series of ... 21 47,XYY About 1 in 1000 live male births. Most XYY's are never detected: a very mild condition. since 1960, newly discovered ...

*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia--pharmacologic interventions from the prenatal phase to adulthood

... caused by deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in steroid synthesis. The clinical picture of the most prevalent form, i.e ... 21-hydroxylase deficiency, is characterized by cortisol and mostly aldosterone deficiency and androgen excess (leading to ...

Steroid use in Bollywood: The use of steroids by Bollywood actors has become highlighted in a number of newspaper and web articles where actors and models with previously very thin physiques have in a short period of time developed muscular bodies.Geranylhydroquinone 3''-hydroxylase: Geranylhydroquinone 3-hydroxylase (, GHQ 3-hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name geranylhydroquinone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionOSM-9: OSM-9 also known as OSMotic avoidance abnormal family member 9 is a protein which in the nematode worm C. elegans is encoded by the osm-9 gene.Clavaminate synthase: Clavaminate synthase (, clavaminate synthase 2, clavaminic acid synthase) is an enzyme with system name deoxyamidinoproclavaminate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEnt-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase: Ent-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase (, ent-cassadiene C11alpha-hydroxylase, CYP76M7) is an enzyme with system name ent-cassa-12,15-diene,NADPH:oxygen 11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionCongenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyBenzopyreneHydroxylation: Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound. In biochemistry, hydroxylation reactions are often facilitated by enzymes called hydroxylases.Hyperphenylalaninemia: (also includes non-classic PKU)Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase: Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase (, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name hypoxia-inducible factor-L-proline, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEstradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.Ergogenic use of anabolic steroidsPrenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.Coles PhillipsBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Dopamine receptorPterinDopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency: Dopamine beta hydroxylase deficiency is a condition involving inadequate Dopamine beta hydroxylase. It is characterized by increased amounts of serum dopamine and the absence of nor-epinephrine and epinephrine.Pregnatriene: A pregnatriene is a triene derivative of a pregnane.Absent adrenal glandLinoleate 8R-lipoxygenase: Linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase (, linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase, 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme), 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), 7,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme), PpoA) is an enzyme with system name linoleate:oxygen (8R)-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPregnenolone sulfatePhenylalanine N-monooxygenase: Phenylalanine N-monooxygenase (, phenylalanine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A2) is an enzyme with system name L-phenylalanine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Constitutive enzyme: Constitutive enzymeshttp://goldbook.iupac.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIBiopterinMicrosome: In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.Alcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.AndrostenedionePhenolic acid: Phenolic acids or phenolcarboxylic acids are types of aromatic acid compound. Included in that class are substances containing a phenolic ring and an organic carboxylic acid function (C6-C1 skeleton).FenclonineCatecholaminergic cell groups: Catecholaminergic cell groups refers to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain one of the neurotransmitters dopamine or norepinephrine. Thus, it represents the combination of dopaminergic cell groups and noradrenergic cell groups.Acetonedicarboxylic acidSpecificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.PrednisolonePregnanetriolExcess ovarian androgen release syndrome: Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome (also known as "Ovarian SAHA syndrome")is a cutaneous condition usually seen in young women between the ages of 16 and 20.ButylparabenEtiocholanolonePhenol coefficient: The Phenol coefficient, is now largely of historical interest, although the principles upon which it is based are still used. It is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.AndrosteroneRolf Hassler: Rolf Hassler (1914-1984) was a German pathologist who made important discoveries on the pathophisiology and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).MethylprednisoloneCongenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.Octopine dehydrogenase family: In molecular biology, the octopine dehydrogenase family of enzymes act on the CH-NH substrate bond using NAD(+) or NADP(+) as an acceptor. The family includes octopine dehydrogenase , nopaline dehydrogenase , lysopine dehydrogenase and opine dehydrogenase .Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor: A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor or BSCI (also termed Chemotide or Somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Glucocorticoid receptor: The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.Neuroactive steroid: Neuroactive steroids, also known as neurosteroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors. The term neurosteroid was coined by the French physiologist Étienne-Émile Baulieu and refers to steroids synthesized in the brain.Oxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Locus coeruleus: The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus a bluish area of the brain stem with many norepinephrine-containing neurons|url = http://www.merriam-webster.FluorodopaBenz(a)anthraceneHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Sympathoadrenal: The term sympathoadrenal means "involving the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system". It normally relates to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which acts on the adrenal medulla of the kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

(1/305) Mutation screening in British 21-hydroxylase deficiency families and development of novel microsatellite based approaches to prenatal diagnosis.

21-hydroxylase deficiency is a recessively inherited disorder of steroidogenesis, resulting from mutations in the CYP21 gene. This 3.5 kb gene and a highly related CYP21P pseudogene reside on tandemly duplicated 30 kb segments of DNA in the class III HLA region, and the great majority of pathogenic mutations result from sequence exchanges involving the duplicated units. We now describe a comprehensive survey of CYP21 mutations in the British population, encompassing a screen for 17 different mutations in a total of 284 disease chromosomes. The most common mutations were as follows: large scale deletions/conversions (45% of the affected chromosomes), the intron 2 splice mutation (30.3%), R357W (9.8%), and I172N (7.0%). Mutations were detected in over 92% of the chromosomes examined, suggesting that accurate DNA based diagnosis is possible in most cases using the described strategy. In order to extend highly accurate prenatal diagnosis to all families where samples are available from a previously affected child, we have developed a linkage analysis approach using novel, highly informative microsatellite markers from the class III HLA region.  (+info)

(2/305) Characterization of the consequence of a novel Glu-380 to Asp mutation by expression of functional P450c21 in Escherichia coli.

P450c21 catalyzes an important step in steroid synthesis. Its deficiency leads to symptoms of steroid imbalance. To obtain enough P450c21 for structure and function studies, we developed a method to express P450c21 in Escherichia coli. The 5'-region of the human P450c21 cDNA was modified to ensure efficient translation and the C terminus of the protein was extended with four His residues for easy purification. Mutant proteins with substitutions at residues 172 and 281 exhibited decreased enzymatic activities similar to those found in mammalian cells. One new mutation changing Glu-380 to Asp (D380) caused 3-fold reduction in enzymatic activity. The amount of apoprotein production detected by immunoblotting and the affinity of the mutant protein towards substrate as measured by Km were normal. The defect lies in the decreased ability of the apoprotein to bind heme, which was measured by CO difference and substrate-binding spectra. The D380 mutant protein had 3-fold reduction in peak heights in both spectra. This reduced heme binding resulted in 3-fold lower enzymatic activity.  (+info)

(3/305) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: not really a zebra.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was once considered a rare inherited disorder with severe manifestations. Mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia, however, is common, affecting one in 100 to 1,000 persons in the United States and frequently eluding diagnosis. Both classic and nonclassic forms of the disease are caused by deficiencies in the adrenal enzymes that are used to synthesize glucocorticoids. The net result is increased production from the adrenal gland of cortisol precursors and androgens. Even mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia can result in life-threatening sinus or pulmonary infections, orthostatic syncope, shortened stature and severe acne. Women with mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia often present with hirsutism, oligomenorrhea or infertility. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is diagnosed by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in the serum during an adrenal corticotropic hormone challenge. Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyerplasia in fetuses that are at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be determined using human leukocyte antigen haplotype or by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in amniotic fluid. Treatment includes carefully monitored hormone replacement therapy. Recognition of the problem and timely replacement therapy can reduce morbidity and enhance quality of life in patients that are affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  (+info)

(4/305) Tracing past population migrations: genealogy of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) gene mutations in Finland.

The genealogic origin of steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21) mutations and associated haplotypes was determined in 74 unrelated Finnish families with CYP21 deficiency (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, CAH). These families account for two thirds (85/119) of all diagnosed patients of Finnish descent found in this country. We recently demonstrated that multiple founder mutations each associated with a particular haplotype can be found in Finland. Interestingly, some of the haplotypes were identical to those observed in various European populations, whereas others have not been described elsewhere, indicating a local and perhaps a more recent origin. In the present report we show that each of the major founder haplotypes originates from a particular geographic region of Finland. Thus many local genetic isolates are to be expected in Finland. Our finding is in a clear contrast to the genetic diseases known as the 'Finnish disease heritage', in which only one mutation usually predominates. Some of the CYP21 haplotypes proved very informative for analysis of the history of the Finnish population. For example, the origin of one frequent haplotype was shown to cluster in a region assumed by archaeological data to be a major site of immigration by settlers of either Scandinavian or Baltic origin during the first centuries AD. As this haplotype is frequent in many European patient populations, we provide independent genetic evidence of this Iron Age immigration. On the other hand, another frequent haplotype found solely in Finland reflects a more recent (post 15th century) settlement expansion. Consequently, well characterised and sufficiently frequent autosomal gene markers can provide useful information on migrations both between and within populations.  (+info)

(5/305) Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations.

The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome.  (+info)

(6/305) Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 2 of CYP21P: evidence for a higher rate of mutation at CpG dinucleotides in the functional steroid 21-hydroxylase gene and application to segregation analysis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

BACKGROUND: Intron 2 of CYP21, the functional steroid 21-hydroxylase gene contains several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We tested the hypothesis that intron 2 of the pseudogene, CYP21P, might also be polymorphic and provide markers for segregation analysis of this region of the genome, including observable markers for segregation analysis of CYP21 gene deletions. A comparison of SNPs in both genes might provide insights into the rates of mutation in these duplicated genes. METHODS: After amplification with PCR, we examined restriction site polymorphisms in intron 2 of CYP21P in 24 members of the parental generation of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families and selected offspring. RESULTS: Intron 2 of CYP21P contains frequent SNPs around nucleotide 398 and nucleotide 509, which can be typed by PCR/restriction enzyme digestion with HaeIII. Of the 48 CYP21P alleles examined, 44 could be characterized unambiguously. Of these 44 alleles, 4 were deleted, and the frequencies of restriction at the polymorphic HaeIII sites were 20 of 40 at nucleotide 398 and 30 of 40 at nucleotide 509. Both polymorphisms result from C-->T transitions that occur at CpG dinucleotides. The frequencies of C at these nucleotides in CYP21P are significantly higher than at the corresponding nucleotides in CYP21 of the same individuals (P <0.01). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that these CpG dinucleotides are more frequently mutated in CYP21 than in CYP21P, and that several mutations at CpG dinucleotides in the coding regions of CYP21 might result from CpG instability rather than the more usually proposed mechanism of gene conversion. These frequent SNPs provide useful markers for studying both allelic segregation of CYP21, particularly for chromosomes with known CYP21 deletions, and for investigating the origin of these polymorphisms.  (+info)

(7/305) Paracrine glucocorticoid activity produced by mouse thymic epithelial cells.

Previous data have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the mouse thymic epithelial cells (TEC) express the cytochrome P450 hydroxylases Cyp11A1, Cyp21, and Cyp11B1. These enzymes, in combination with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), convert cholesterol into corticosterone, the major GC in rodents. In addition, when TEC were cocultured with 'reporter cells' containing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a GR-dependent reporter gene, a specific induction of reporter gene activity was observed. Induction of reporter gene activity was blocked when the TEC and reporter cells were incubated in the presence of the Cyp11B1 inhibitor metyrapone or the 3betaHSD inhibitor trilostane, as well as by the GR antagonist RU486. Coculturing of TEC with thymocytes induced apoptosis in the latter, which was partially blocked by the enzyme inhibitors and RU486. We conclude that TEC secrete a GC hormone activity and suggest a paracrine role for this in thymocyte development.  (+info)

(8/305) Mutation analysis in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the Spanish population: identification of putative novel steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency alleles associated with the classic form of the disease.

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, due to the genetic impairment of the CYP21 gene, is a major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In about 80% of the cases, the defect is related with the transfer of deleterious point mutations from the CYP21P pseudogene to the active CYP21 gene. Sixteen different point mutations have been searched for in 60 Spanish patients with the classic form of CAH and 171 unaffected family members, using selective amplification of the CYP21 gene followed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization (PCR-ASOH) and sequencing analysis. While 31.9% of the disease alleles carry CYP21 deletions or large gene conversions, around 58% of the alleles carry single point mutations. Corresponding segregation of mutations was found in every case indicating that none of them has apparently appeared de novo. The most frequent mutations found in our sample are i2G, V281L, R356W, Q318X, P453S and F306+t, with rates of 30, 14.2, 10, 9.2, 9.2 and 7. 5%, respectively. We found similar frequencies for the A and C polymorphism at position 656 (40 and 31.5%, respectively) in wild-type alleles for the i2G mutation. Around 10% of the alleles, for which no mutations were identified by searching for the sixteen previously known mutations, are currently being sequenced and new possible mutations and polymorphisms have been identified.  (+info)


  • Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase accounts for 95% of all cases. (
  • Most mutations that cause 21-hydroxylase deficiency are recombinations (deletions or gene conversions) between the active CYP21B gene and the adjacent CYP21A pseudogene. (
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited autosomal recessive disorders, caused by deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in steroid synthesis. (
  • The clinical picture of the most prevalent form, i.e. 21-hydroxylase deficiency, is characterized by cortisol and mostly aldosterone deficiency and androgen excess (leading to congenital virilization in girls). (
  • Deficiency of 11beta-hydroxylase (11betaOH) is caused by mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, and accounts for 5% of all cases. (
  • Deficiency of 17alpha-hydroxylase (17OH) is caused by mutations in the CYP17 gene, producing a truncated or impaired protein. (
  • The "consensus" to which PZ refers is an agreement that the study of dexamethasone as a preventative for congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency should be conducted "via IRB-approved clinical trials through research centers large enough to obtain meaningful data" and with follow-up studies. (


  • The manifestations are caused both by the deficient synthesis of cortisol, and sometimes of aldosterone, and by accumulation of the precursor steroids. (
  • CAH gets press because one of its effects can be ambiguous genitalia, sometimes aka "intersex", but its effects on aldosterone (one of the steroids your body produces) can lead to dehydration, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis and death, in infancy. (


  • There are two steroid 21-hydroxylase genes (CYP21A and CYP21B). (
  • If there is sufficient reason to believe that prenatal dexamethasone can keep children whose genes prevent them from producing 21-hydroxylase alive, or make it possible for them to avoid difficult, expensive and painful surgery to restore urinary function, that is a valid avenue for research conducted under the auspices of an institutional review board. (


  • The 21-hydroxylase enzyme hydroxylates progesterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone to yield 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol. (
  • But unless you're on hormonal birth control, taking estrogen or testosterone replacements, taking progesterone as part of fertility treatment, or otherwise tweaking your own sex hormones, if your doctor prescribes you a "steroid" it is almost certainly going to be one of the corticosteroids . (


  • Cortisone acetate is a steroid hormone that has both glucocoriticoid and mineral corticoid activities. (


  • Thus, 1,25(OH) 2 D is unique among steroid hormones in that the initial step in its synthesis is determined by environmental exposures: UV radiation and, to a lesser extent, diet. (