Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Guanosine Tetraphosphate: Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Guanosine Pentaphosphate: Guanosine 5'-triphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing five phosphate groups. Three phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot II.ThymineTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.GTP Pyrophosphokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of a pyrophosphate group from ATP to the 3'-OH group of GDP or GTP with the formation of guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate or guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate and AMP. The enzyme, also called stringent factor, is located in the relA gene in stringent strains of bacteria. The above synthesis is induced by mRNA and uncharged tRNA which is bound to the aminoacyl-t-RNA binding site of the ribosome by a codon-specific association. EC 126.96.36.199.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.UracilTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.GlycogenOperon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Phosphites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)TritiumPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Keto AcidsMutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.PyruvatesOrganisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Guanine NucleotidesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bethanechol CompoundsPuromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 184.108.40.206.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Uracil NucleotidesCyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Thiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.CitratesArtificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Indian Famine Codes: The Indian Famine Codes, developed by the colonial British in the 1880s, were one of the earliest famine scales. The Famine Codes defined three levels of food insecurity: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.Nitrogen deficiencyAutophagy: Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Greek auto-, "self" and phagein, "to eat"), is the natural, destructive mechanism that disassembles, through a regulated process, unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.AlarmoneEagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Sodium hexametaphosphateProteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Glucose transporterSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.KetogenesisBanquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Coles PhillipsTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.ThymineEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Chloramphenicol acetyltransferaseMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Acetoacetic acidLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIPolyhydroxybutyrate: Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class that are of interest as bio-derived and biodegradable plastics.Frieder W.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.Uracil in DNA: DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Phagolysosome: A phagolysosome is a cytoplasmic body formed by the fusion of a phagosome, or ingested particle, with a lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes. After fusion, the food particles or pathogens contained within the phagosome are usually digested by the enzymes contained within the lysosome.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Sigma factor: A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis. It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase to gene promoters.Food vacuole: The food vacuole, or digestive vacuole, is an organelle found in parasites that cause malaria. During the stage of the parasites' lifecycle where it resides within a human (or other mammalian) red blood cell, it is the site of haemoglobin digestion and the formation of the large haemozoin crystals that can be seen under a light microscope.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIsoleucine N-monooxygenase: Isoleucine N-monooxygenase (, CYP79D3, CYP79D4) is an enzyme with system name L-isoleucine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionKinome: In molecular biology, the kinome of an organism is the set of protein kinases in its genome. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation reactions (of amino acids) and fall into several groups and families, e.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Wujing Zongyao: The Wujing Zongyao (), or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. It contains the earliest known written formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, along with many added ingredients.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.MethionineIron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. It is a unicellular eukaryote, whose cells are rod-shaped.Mediated transportAscospore: An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota).Dictyostelium class II RNA: __NOTOC__Nif regulonKetosisSerine/threonine-specific protein kinaseLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Deletion (genetics)Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Escherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis: Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is naturally found in soil and vegetation, and is known for its ability to form a small, tough, protective and metabolically dormant endospore. B.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Polyphosphate: Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures.Glycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.PhosphiteHeptadecanoic acidPyruvate dehydrogenase complex: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. Acetyl-CoA may then be used in the citric acid cycle to carry out cellular respiration, and this complex links the glycolysis metabolic pathway to the citric acid cycle.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Internal ribosome entry site: An internal ribosome entry site, abbreviated IRES, is a nucleotide sequence that allows for translation initiation in the middle of a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence as part of the greater process of protein synthesis. Usually, in eukaryotes, translation can be initiated only at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, since 5' cap recognition is required for the assembly of the initiation complex.
(1/1595) Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from liver of Sparus aurata: nutritional regulation of enzyme expression.
A cDNA clone encoding full-length 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase) was isolated and sequenced from a Sparus aurata liver cDNA library. The 2527 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contains a 73 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), an open reading frame that encodes a 469 amino acid protein and 1041 bp at the 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence is the first inferred 6PF-2-K/Fru-2, 6-P2ase in fish. The kinase and bisphosphatase domains, where the residues described as crucial for the mechanism of reaction of the bifunctional enzyme are located, present a high degree of homology with other liver isoenzymes. However, within the first 30 amino acids at the N-terminal regulatory domain of the fish enzyme a low homology is found. Nutritional regulation of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, together with immunodetectable protein and mRNA levels of 6PF-2-K/Fru-2,6-P2ase, was observed after starvation and refeeding. In contrast to results previously described for rat liver, the decrease in immunodetectable protein and kinase activity caused by starvation was associated in the teleostean fish to a decrease in mRNA levels. (+info)
(2/1595) Behavior of transaldolase (EC 220.127.116.11) and transketolase (EC 18.104.22.168) Activities in normal, neoplastic, differentiating, and regenerating liver.
The objective of this investigation was to throw light on the biological behavior and metabolic regulation of hepatic enzymes of the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. The activities of transaldolase (EC 22.214.171.124) and trasketolase (EC 126.96.36.199) Were compared in biological conditions that involve modulation of gene expression such as in starvation, in differentiation, after partial hepatectomy, and in a spectrum of hepatomas of different growth rates. The enzyme activities were determined under optimal kinetic conditions by spectrophotometric methods in the 100,000 X g supernatant fluids prepared from tissue homogenates. The kinetic properties of transaldolase and transketolase were similar in normal liver and in rapidly growing hepatoma 3924A. For transaldolase, apparent Km values of 0.13 mM (normal liver) and 0.17 mM (hepatoma) were observed for erythrose 4-phosphate and of 0.30 to 0.35 mM for fructose 6-phosphate. The pH optima in liver and hepatoma were at approximately 6.9 to 7.2. For the transketolase substrates, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate, the apparent Km values were 0.3 and 0.5 mM, respectively, in both liver and hepatoma. A broad pH optimum around 7.6 was observed in both tissues. In organ distribution studies, enzyme activities were measured in liver, intestinal mucosa, thymus, kidney, spleen, brain, adipose tissue, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle. Taking the specific activity of liver as 100%, transaldolase activity was the highest in intestinal mucosa (316%) and in thymus (219%); it was the lowest in heart (53%) and in skeletal muscle (21%). Transketolase activity was highest in kidney (155%) and lowest in heart (26%) and skeletal muscle (23%). Starvation decreased transaldolase and transketolase activities in 6 days to 69 and 74%, respectively, of those of the liver of the normal, fed rat. This was in the same range as the decrease in the protein concentration (66%y. In the liver tumors, transaldolase activity was increased 1.5- to 3.4-fold over the activities observed in normal control rat liver. Transketolase activity showed no relationship to tumor proliferation rate. In the regenerating liver at 24 hr after partial hepatectomy, the activity of both pentose phosphate pathway enzymes was in the same range as that of the sham-operated controls. In differentiation at the postnatal age of 5, 12, 23, and 32 days, hepatic transaldolase activities were 33, 44, 55, and 72%, respectively, of the activities observed in the 60-day-old, adult male rat. During the same period, transketolase activ-ties were 18, 21, 26, and 55% of the activities observed in liver of adult rat. The demonstration of increased transaldolase activity in hepatomas, irrespective of the degree of tumor malignancy, differentiation, or growth rate, suggests that the reprogramming of gene expression in malignant transformation is linked with an increase in the expression of this pentose phosphate pathway enzyme... (+info)
(3/1595) Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes.
1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline. (+info)
(4/1595) Carcass glycogen as a potential source of glucose during short-term starvation.
In small rats deprived of food for 19h (or 43h), 36% (or 39%) of the glycogen that disappeared was lost from the carcass and 64% (or 61%) from liver. Carcass glycogen is potentially a substantial source of glucose during short-term starvation via the Cori cycle. (+info)
(5/1595) Health policy development in wartime: establishing the Baito health system in Tigray, Ethiopia.
This paper documents health experiences and the public health activities of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). The paper provides background data about Tigray and the emergence of its struggle for a democratic Ethiopia. The origins of the armed struggle are described, as well as the impact of the conflict on local health systems and health status. The health-related activities and public health strategies of the TPLF are described and critiqued in some detail, particular attention is focused on the development of the baito system, the emergent local government structures kindled by the TPLF as a means of promoting local democracy, accountability, and social and economic development. Important issues arise from this brief case-study, such as how emerging health systems operating in wartime can ensure that not only are basic curative services maintained, but preventive and public health services are developed. Documenting the experiences of Tigray helps identify constraints and possibilities for assisting health systems to adapt and cope with ongoing conflict, and raises possibilities that in their aftermath they leave something which can be built upon and further developed. It appears that promoting effective local government may be an important means of promoting primary health care. (+info)
(6/1595) Effects of acute and chronic starvation on central and peripheral noradrenaline turnover, blood pressure and heart rate in the rat.
When faced with stress, an organism calls upon several mechanisms to maintain biological homeostasis. The cardiovascular system is the first to respond usually with an increase in arterial pressure and tachycardia. Therefore we investigated the central and peripheral sympathetic responses to acute and chronic starvation in Wistar rats. The noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate was determined in different catecholaminergic nuclei (A1, A2, A5, A6) as well as the arterial blood pressure and heart rate modifications. During acute starvation (3 days of starvation), the NA turnover was increased in the A1 and rostral A2 nuclei as well as in ventricles and kidneys and decreased in the A6 nucleus. During chronic starvation (4 consecutive cycles of 3 days of starvation plus 1 day of feeding), the NA turnover was increased in the A5 and caudal A2 nuclei as well as in ventricles and atria and decreased in the A1 nucleus and kidneys. The arterial blood pressure revealed a gradual decrease during the first 3 days of fasting but the heart rate was not modified. We conclude that starvation should be considered as an unusual state of stress because of the absence of locus coeruleus response (A6 nucleus) despite its well-defined role in stress reactions. One of the manifestations of these central and peripheral noradrenergic changes is the change in blood pressure during the starvation-feeding cycles. (+info)
(7/1595) Post-starvation gene expression of skeletal muscle uncoupling protein 2 and uncoupling protein 3 in response to dietary fat levels and fatty acid composition: a link with insulin resistance.
UCP2 and UCP3 are two recently cloned genes with high sequence homology to the gene for uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which regulates thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. In the context of the current debate about whether UCP2 and UCP3 in the skeletal muscle may also function as mediators of thermogenesis or as regulators of lipids as fuel substrate, we have examined their mRNA expressions in rat gastrocnemius muscle in response to dietary manipulations known to differentially affect thermogenesis during the phase of weight recovery after starvation. Compared with ad libitum-fed control rats, the refeeding of isocaloric amounts of a low-fat (high-carbohydrate) diet resulted in lower energy expenditure and lower mRNA levels of muscle UCP2 and UCP3. This downregulation of UCP homologs was abolished by the refeeding of a high-fat diet, even though energy expenditure was significantly lower during refeeding on the high-fat than on the low-fat diet. Furthermore, major alterations in the fatty acid composition of the refeeding diet in favor of n-6 polyunsaturated or medium-chain fatty acids resulted in significant increases in energy expenditure, but with no significant changes in the expression of skeletal muscle UCP homologs. Regression analysis of gastrocnemius UCP mRNA levels against parameters that included body composition, energy expenditure, and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, and glucose as well as the increase in plasma glucose after a glucose load, revealed that only the latter (an index of insulin resistance) could explain the variability in muscle UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expressions (r = 0.41, P < 0.02; r = 0.45, P < 0.01, respectively). Taken together, these data are at variance with a role for skeletal muscle UCP2 and UCP3 in dietary regulation (or modulation) of thermogenesis. However, they are consistent with the notion that these UCP homologs may function as regulators of lipids as fuel substrate and raise the possibility that high-fat induced upregulation of muscle UCP2 and UCP3 may be more closely linked to insulin resistance than to changes in circulating FFAs. (+info)
(8/1595) Modifications of citric acid cycle activity and gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and effects of metformin.
To better define the modifications of liver gluconeogenesis and citric acid cycle, or Krebs' cycle, activity induced by insulin deficiency and the effects of metformin on these abnormalities, we infused livers isolated from postabsorptive or starved normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with pyruvate and lactate (labeled with [3-13C]lactate) with or without the simultaneous infusion of metformin. Lactate and pyruvate uptake and glucose production were calculated. The 13C-labeling pattern of liver glutamate was used to calculate, according to Magnusson's model, the relative fluxes through Krebs' cycle and gluconeogenesis. These relative fluxes were converted into absolute values using substrate balances. In normal rats, starvation increased gluconeogenesis, the flux through pyruvate carboxylase-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PC-PEPCK), and the ratio of PC to pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux (P < 0.05); metformin induced only a moderate decrease in the PC:PDH ratio. Livers from postabsorptive diabetic rats had increased lactate and pyruvate uptakes (P < 0.05); their metabolic fluxes resembled those of starved control livers, with increased gluconeogenesis and flux through PC-PEPCK. Starvation induced no further modifications in the diabetic group. Metformin decreased glucose output from the liver of starved diabetic rats (P < 0.05). The flux through PC-PEPCK and also pyruvate kinase were decreased (P < 0.05) by metformin in both groups of diabetic rats. In conclusion, insulin deficiency increased in this model of diabetes gluconeogenesis through enhanced uptake of substrate and increased flux through PC-PEPCK; metformin decreased glucose production by reducing the flux through PC-PEPCK. (+info)
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