Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.

*  Bleeding through mouth, sputum had some pus symptoms - Online Doctor Chats
... sputum had some pus symptoms Online doctor patient chat conversation by Dr. Jyoti Patil ... it is not that the volume is more but it is been happening for quite some time... I did all the blood tests, Sputum test and ... he asked me to do all the test I mentioned and the result was few pus symptoms in the sputum Doctor : Ok. Doctor : Is it blood ... chest scan . The sputum had some pus symptoms. But I do know that the blood is coming from the mouth and not from the throat. ...
  http://www.healthcaremagic.com/doctorchatlogs/Bleeding-through-mouth-sputum-had-some-pus-symptoms/52275
*  Utility of Sputum Induction and Novel Technologies to Improve TB Diagnosis in a High HIV Prevalence Primary Care Setting - Full...
Side-effects of sputum induction procedures Number of induced sputum procedures terminated because of patient side-effects and ... Enrolled patients receive sputum induction (using ultrasonic nebulisation with hypertonic saline). Procedure: Sputum induction ... Patients in the control group are trained by the research staff to produce sputum but no device is utilized. Sputum is ... Feasibility and robustness of performing sputum induction in primary care clinics (measures include - sputum induction failure ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01545661?view=results
*  Sputum specimens can be obtained from patients with community-acquired pneumonia in primary care
... Lagerström, Folke Linköping ... Conclusion - Acceptable sputum specimens can be obtained with some effort from approximately half of the patients in primary ... Sputum culture might improve the knowledge of the bacterial aetiology of CAP in selected patients and in epidemiological ... Sputum specimens were obtained from 125 patients. Fifty-nine were expectorated spontaneously and 66 were induced. Ninety-one of ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:266519
*  Non-invasive Ways to Evaluate Lung Disease After Treatment With Xolair - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Traditional methods of sampling secretions from the lower respiratory tract include sputum collection, sputum induction, and ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00139152
*  Dealing With Bronchitis
A sputum culture may be ordered by the physician in case of suspicious color or some streaks of blood. This is done to identify ... Sputum collection is best done in the morning before breakfast or any food intake. The sample will then be sent to the ... Sputum is collected by instructing the patient to breathe deeply and cough out the phlegm then spit out into a container. ... But sputum collection in patients with chronic bronchitis is sometimes done through a method called bronchoscopy. The patient ...
  http://disease-informations.blogspot.com/2012/01/dealing-with-bronchitis.html
*  A Phase 2a, Open-Label, Randomized Study In Treatment-Naive, Sputum Smear Positive Subjects With Drug-Sensitive Pulmonary...
A Phase 2a, Open-Label, Randomized Study In Treatment-Naive, Sputum Smear Positive Subjects With Drug-Sensitive Pulmonary ... A Phase 2a, Open-Label, Randomized Study In Treatment-Naive, Sputum Smear Positive Subjects With Drug-Sensitive Pulmonary ...
  http://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700060631?error=cookies_not_supported&code=8867d853-71ad-467b-9594-43a0f3858c40
*  Hand Sputum Aspirator (EMJ-001)
Browse fuzing.com to find Hand Sputum Aspirator (EMJ-001) sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters ... Hand Sputum Aspirator (EMJ-001). You May Also Be Interested In: first aid aspirator hand aspirator hand sputum aspirator sputum ... EMSS Hand Sputum Aspirator The first aid aspirator is a medical instrument used for exsuction sputum, split and dirty blood. ... This sputum aipirator is small and light, and with the characteristics of the excellent low price in quality. This hand ...
  https://www.fuzing.com/Hand-Sputum-Aspirator-
*  Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia - Induced sputum lipid mediators in severe asthma
Methods: Induced sputum was obtained from 7 healthy volunteers and 44 patients with asthma (GINA steps 2-5), and processed ... Conclusion: LTE4 is increased in the sputum of patients with asthma compared to healthy controls, and in eosinophilic compared ... We have assessed concentrations in induced sputum in patients with asthma and tested the hypothesis that concentrations vary ... Patients with asthma were stratified by induced sputum eosinophil count, with counts , 3% classified as eosinophilic. ...
  http://klikpdpi.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=7998
*  Pneumonia
Criteria Study Likelihood Ratio+ Infiltrate + purulent sputum + fever or leukocytosis Fagon (1988) 1.03 Infiltrate + 2 of: ... Sputum cultures can be analyzed only after screening them for squamous cells (should be , 25/LPF) and lung macrophages (only ... or pleural effusion on CXR and do not include sputum gram stain or culture) are not ideal - CXR does not have a sensitivity of ...
  http://www.openanesthesia.org/pneumonia/
*  Sputum Processing, from viscous mucus to homogenous samples
... or sputum liquefaction, has one main purpose; to render the viscous, heterogeneous specimen to a homogenous state ... The sensitivity of sputum testing is largely dependent on the efficiency of the sputum processing protocol to create homogenous ... This can be accomplished through the process of sputum liquefaction.. Sputum is the thick mucus or phlegm that is expectorated ... Sputum Liquefaction: from viscous, heterogeneous mucus to equivalent, homogenous samples. Sputum processing has one main ...
  https://info.gbiosciences.com/blog/sputum-liquefaction
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Sputum cytology | Read by QxMD
Is the Morning Sputum Sample Superior to the Fresh Sputum Sample for the Detection of Malignant Cells? ... Induced sputum cytology has been the gold standard for determination of inflammatory phenotypes, but sputum induction is fairly ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535501/is-the-morning-sputum-sample-superior-to-the-fresh-sputum-sample-for-the-detection-of- ... The sputum positivity for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) and chest X-ray reports were suggestive of active pulmonary tuberculosis in ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/93476
*  Sputum | Starwination
Tag: sputum. Phlegm after Eating. September 16, 2014 , admin 0 There are people who will feel like clearing their throat or ... Phlegm, also known as sputum, is a thick, slippery, and sticky secretion that is produced by the throat and other respiratory ...
  http://starwination.com/tag/sputum/
*  Pulmonary tuberculosis,sputum examination negative, taking Fixcom 4, orange urine, itchy - Doctor's insight on HealthcareMagic
... sputum examination negative, taking Fixcom 4, orange urine, itchy. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of ... they found out in my x ray result that I had PTB but i my sputum examination result is negative. so doctor instruct me take the ...
  http://www.healthcaremagic.com/questions/Pulmonary-tuberculosissputum-examination-negative-taking-Fixcom-4-orange-urine-itchy/273695
*  Sputum
... sputum - 5 dictionary results. sputum ... or see sputum on Thesaurus .... Full article >>>. Sputum is not the ... Sputum is ... Sputum is not the same as saliva. Sputum is produced in the lungs and in ... Sputum cytology may be done to help detect certain ... A sputum sample may be collected: ... Sputum is not the same as saliva. Sputum is produced in the lungs and in the airways ... A sputum sample is needed. .... Full article >>>. It involves taking a sputum (what you cough up) sample, ... sputum sample ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/Medicine-Dictionary/Sputum/
*  sputum - Everything2.com
Spu"tum (?), n.; pl. Sputa (#). [L., from spuere, sputum, to spit.] That which is expectorated; a salival discharge; spittle; ... They are located at www.sputum.com.. SPUTUM(TM) has indicated to the Lumber Cartel that smacking spammers with clue-by-4's IS ... SPUTUM(TM) is the SubGenius Police, Usenet Tactial Unit (Mobile), an elite force of SubGenii dedicated to eraticating spam in ...
  https://www.everything2.com/?node=sputum
*  Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum
A sputum CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect, identify, and treat infection-causing bacteria or fungi. ... Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page ...
  http://kidshealth.org/PrimaryChildrens/en/parents/cf-screen.html?view=rr
*  Sputum Season - Cough, Splutter, Barf
A large proportion of the Country's population have taken on a key feature of the Victorian age since the Christmas period. Illness.The Pickwick Household has resembled a consumption ward over this ti...
  http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/mr-pickwick/flu-season-cough-splutter_b_2468110.html
*  Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum
A sputum CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect, identify, and treat infection-causing bacteria or fungi. ... The sputum sample is collected into a sterile container and sent to a laboratory. The sample is then placed on a special plate ... A sputum culture can help identify specific causes of infections in the lungs and airways. Such infections can lead to coughing ... A sputum (mucus) CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect and identify these bacteria or fungi so they can ...
  http://kidshealth.org/NemoursXML/en/parents/cf-screen.html
*  Definition: sputum cytology
sputum cytology. A diagnostic test in which a sample of sputum (mucus) is examined under a microscope to determine whether ...
  https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/glossary/glossary1.cfm?gid=1045
*  Sputum facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Sputum
Make research projects and school reports about Sputum easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... spu·tum / ˈspyoōtəm/ • n. a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract, typically as a result of ... sputum (spew-tŭm) n. material coughed up from the respiratory tract. Its colour, consistency, and other characteristics often ... sputum The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English © The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2009, originally ...
  http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/sputum
*  PatientsLikeMe | Sputum test report for patients like you
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Sputum test at PatientsLikeMe. 0 patients with fibromyalgia, ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently have Sputum test. ... What is Sputum test?. Category: Procedures false Sputum is the ... A sputum test examines a sample of this mixture under a microscope to identify any abnormalities. ...
  https://www.patientslikeme.com/treatments/show/27890-sputum-test-side-effects-and-efficacy
*  Sputum Test may Not be Vital to TB Eradication
A new study from southern Africa has said that an on-the-spot sputum test for tuberculosis works better than the commonly-used ... A new study from southern Africa has said that an on-the-spot sputum test for tuberculosis works better than the commonly-used ... However, when there is recurrent and /or huge amount of blood in the sputum it should raise an alarm for thorough evaluation of ...
  https://www.medindia.net/news/sputum-test-may-not-be-vital-to-tb-eradication-127009-1.htm
*  Association between Proximity to Major Roads and Sputum Cell Counts
... Julie Wallace,1 Liesel D'silva,2 John Brannan,2 Frederick ... OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or ... METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2011/920734/abs/

SputumTuberculosis radiology: Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.BronchiectasisCystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Eosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Eosinophil granulocyteHabit cough: A habit cough (also known as psychogenic cough and pseudoasthma) is a cough that may develop in children or adolescents after a cold or other airway irritant. It has also been reported in adults.ATC code R05: ==R05C Expectorants, excluding combinations with cough suppressants==Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Re-sublimityEffect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Endobronchial valve: An endobronchial valve is an implantable medical device—a small, one-way valve, which is implanted in an airway in the pulmonary system to treat one of several lung conditions. The one-way endobronchial valve is typically implanted such that when a patient exhales, air is able to flow through the valve and out of the lung compartment that is fed by that airway, but when the patient inhales, the valve closes and blocks air from entering that lung compartment.Tuberculosis managementAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Eosinophilic gastroenteritisGyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Pseudomonas infectionNeutrophil elastase: Neutrophil elastase (, leukocyte elastase, ELANE, ELA2, elastase 2, neutrophil, elaszym, serine elastase) is a serine proteinase in the same family as chymotrypsin and has broad substrate specificity. Secreted by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation, it destroys bacteria and host tissue.Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant] to treatment with at least two of the most powerful [[Therapy#Lines of therapy|first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).TSOM: Through-Focus Scanning Optical Microscopy (TSOM) is an imaging method that produces nanometer-scale three-dimensional measurement sensitivity using a conventional bright-field optical microscope. TSOM has been introduced and maintained by Ravikiran Attotahttp://www.EprozinolNeuromorphology: Neuromorphology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; μορφή, morphé, “form”; -λογία, -logia, “study of”[is the study of nervous system] form, shape, and structure. The study involves looking at a particular part of the nervous system from a [[Molecular biology|molecular and cellular level and connecting it to a physiological and anatomical point of view.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.

(1/3186) The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection.

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

(2/3186) Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

(3/3186) Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

(4/3186) A pilot study of low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis.

Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from sputum production, recurrent exacerbations, and progressive airway destruction. Erythromycin is effective in diffuse panbronchiolitis, another suppurative airway disorder, although its efficacy is unknown in idiopathic bronchiectasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of 8-week administration of low dose erythromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) in steady-state idiopathic bronchiectasis. Patients in the erythromycin group (n=11, 8 female, mean age 50+/-15 yrs), but not the placebo group (n=10, 8 female, mean age 59+/-16 yrs) had significantly improved forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and 24-h sputum volume after 8 weeks (p<0.05). There was no parallel improvement in sputum pathogens, leukocytes, interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B4. The results of this pilot study show that low-dose erythromycin improves lung function and sputum volume in bronchiectasis. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the efficacy of long-term erythromycin therapy in bronchiectasis.  (+info)

(5/3186) Cytokines and inflammatory mediators do not indicate acute infection in cystic fibrosis.

Various treatment regimens and difficulties with research design are encountered with cystic fibrosis (CF) because no standard diagnostic criteria exist for defining acute respiratory exacerbations. This study evaluated the role of serial monitoring of concentrations of selected cytokines and inflammatory mediators in serum and sputum as predictors of respiratory exacerbation, as useful outcome measures for CF, and to guide therapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-protease inhibitor complex (NE complex), protein, and alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) were measured in serum and sputum collected from CF patients during respiratory exacerbations and periods of well-being. Levels of NE complex, protein, and alpha-1-PI in sputum rose during respiratory exacerbations and fell after institution of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.078, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were extremely high in sputum (13,780 +/- 916 and 249.4 +/- 23.5 ng/liter, respectively) but did not change significantly with clinical deterioration of the patient (P > 0.23). IL-8 and TNF-alpha were generally undetectable in serum, and therefore these measures were unhelpful. Drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only clinical or laboratory parameter that was close to being a determinant of respiratory exacerbation (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of intense immunological activity occurring continually within the lungs of adult CF patients. Measurement of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in CF sputum is not helpful for identifying acute respiratory exacerbations.  (+info)

(6/3186) A rapid polymerase chain reaction technique for detecting M tuberculosis in a variety of clinical specimens.

A rapid in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical material. Its performance is compared with two kit based systems. The results of the in-house assay were comparable with the commercial assays, detecting M tuberculosis in 100% of smear positive, culture positive samples. The in-house assay proved to be rapid, easy, and inexpensive to perform, and the inclusion of an internal inhibitor control permitted validation of the PCR results.  (+info)

(7/3186) Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis.

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

(8/3186) Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)



  • phlegm
  • Phlegm, sputum after it is expelled by coughing it up Clinical Microbiology procedures handbook, American Society for Microbiology 2nd Ed. 2007 update Richard F.LeBlond. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophils
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that neutrophils predominate more frequently than eosinophils as the major inflammatory cell in sputum from patients with asthma in acute exacerbation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Whitish gray sputum color against a white color background (such as a white sink surface) tends to indicate either a specimen from someone who is dehydrated, and/or from an older person, and/or a specimen with a mixed, modest number of eosinophils and maybe some acute inflammatory neutrophil cells (this last choice tends to suggest a chronic allergic bronchitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • neutrophil
  • Analysis of fluid phase chemicals in asthmatic and CF sputum samples showed that despite overall lower mean values of neutrophil elastase (27 +/- 11 micrograms/ml vs 466 +/- 121 micrograms/ml, p = 0.0001) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (55 +/- 15 ng/ml vs 186 +/- 24 ng/ml, p = 0.0001), some of the asthmatic samples had values for these variables that overlapped those in the CF samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, the high IL-8 levels and free neutrophil elastase activity observed in asthmatic sputum suggests that IL-8 may mediate airway neutrophilia in acute asthma and that neutrophil elastase may mediate mucin glycoprotein hypersecretion in acute asthma, as has been proposed for the mucin hypersecretion in CF. (biomedsearch.com)
  • specimen
  • Coughing to produce the sputum specimen may be mildly uncomfortable, but there are no risks associated with this procedure. (kidshealth.org)
  • citation needed] When a sputum specimen is plated out in microbiology, it is best to get the portion of the sample that most looks like yellow pus onto the swab. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophilia
  • In assessing asthma control, the British Thoracic Society recommends using sputum eosinophilia determinations to guide therapy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 57 ] A controlled prospective study has shown that adjusting inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment to control sputum eosinophilia-as opposed to controlling symptoms, short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) use, nocturnal awakenings, and pulmonary function-significantly reduced both the rate of asthma exacerbations and the cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • Sputum eosinophilia responds to treatment with corticosteroid, while there is increasing evidence that an isolated neutrophilia does not. (hindawi.com)
  • asthma
  • An improvement in asthma control, a decrease in hospitalizations, and a decrease in exacerbations were noted in those patients in whom sputum-guided therapy was used. (medscape.com)
  • Accordingly, sputum cell counts are extensively used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. (dovepress.com)
  • Nevertheless, the clinical application of sputum cell counts in patients with asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) remains elusive. (dovepress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate sputum cell counts in patients with ACO which are different from those in patients with asthma and COPD and also to examine the relationship between sputum cell counts in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). (dovepress.com)
  • there was no difference in sputum eosinophil% counts between patients with ACO and asthma ( p =0.668) and there was no difference in the percentage of induced sputum cells between the stage of airway obstruction and the stage of BHR. (dovepress.com)
  • The clinical relevance of this study provides evidence that sputum cell counts as an inflammatory biomarker could carry some information to distinguish ACO, asthma and COPD, and these biomarkers need more studies to provide diagnostic value in the differentiation between ACO, asthma and COPD. (dovepress.com)
  • tuberculosis
  • Sputum stain for mycobacteria - Overview, Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other kinds of infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A new study from southern Africa has said that an on-the-spot sputum test for tuberculosis works better than the commonly-used, 125-year-old microscope method, but did not reduce illness. (medindia.net)
  • citation needed] Microbiological sputum samples are used to look for infections, such as Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopy
  • The program initially adopted the WHO-DOTS strategy which consisted of the five components of strong political will and administrative commitment, diagnosis by quality assured sputum smear microscopy, uninterrupted supply of quality assured Short Course chemotherapy drugs, Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) and systematic monitoring and Accountability. (wikipedia.org)
  • chest
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that sputum cultures be done in pneumonia requiring hospitalization, while the American College of Chest Physicians does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • bronchi
  • If your child is scheduled for a bronchoscopy (a test done with a small telescope to evaluate the upper airway and bronchi), a sputum screen is likely to be done at this time. (kidshealth.org)
  • Pink sputum - sputum evenly mixed with blood from alveoli and/or small peripheral bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • One factor responsible for these differences is the reliance on sputum samples and the strictness of the criteria to discriminate between colonising or disease-causing bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • done
  • Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). (wikipedia.org)