Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Spinal NeoplasmsOligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Spinal DiseasesAstrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Rehabilitation Centers: Facilities which provide programs for rehabilitating the mentally or physically disabled individuals.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate: A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Neural Prostheses: Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.DislocationsAccidentsHyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.

*  Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury I and II - Spinal Cord Injury Research Evidence

Overview of Secondary Injuries. *Pharmaceutical Agents for Neuroprotection during Acute SCI *Steroids ... Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury I and II. Q1. What does the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury I and II test? ... Describe the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury I and II.. 1. Existing measures of function (e.g., FIM, Barthel Index, ... Summary - Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury I and II. Interpretability - No normative data or cut scores are available but ...

*  Intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride improves epicenter blood flow during the acute stage of contusive spinal cord injury...

... and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary ... Spinal Cord / drug effects*, physiopathology. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy*, physiopathology. Thoracic Vertebrae. ... Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central ... Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction ...

*  Prevention of Imminent Paralysis Following Spinal Cord Trauma or Ischemia by Minocycline: A Multi-center Study in Israel With...

... injuries in soldiers and during spine surgery, and are signific ... Spinal cord trauma and the consequent paraplegia are possibly ... blunt trauma (central cord syndrome).. 1. Inclusion Criteria:. 2. Patients with incomplete spinal cord syndromes related to ... Efficacy of administrating minocycline in minimizing the neurological damage among acute spinal cord injury patients and spinal ... 1. Complete cord transection, severe head injury, coma, or other disease of the CNS, and. spinal injury diagnosed later than 24 ...

*  The Spinal Cord Injury Project | Jason LeVelle's Fundraiser

... is to conduct cutting-edge research and to build collaborations to focus resources on finding a cure for spinal cord injuries. ... The Spinal Cord Injury Project provides many programs and services for this community to keep them informed on issues of health ... A critical force in accelerating the pace of research is the involvement of those who are spinal cord injured and their ... The Spinal Cord Injury Project works to bring together research facilities, educational institutions, training programs, ...

*  Spinal Cord Injury Archives - Frekhtman & Associates

... or disc tissue entering the spinal cord. Whereas most spinal cord injuries do not involve complete severing of the cord itself ... NYC Spinal Cord Injury Lawyers Discuss Treatment Options For Spinal Cord Injuries. July 14, 2016 Frekhtman & Associates ... Continue reading "NYC Spinal Cord Injury Lawyers Discuss Treatment Options For Spinal Cord Injuries" ... New York Spinal Cord Injury Lawyer Discusses Percutaneous Discectomy and Other Types of Spinal Injuries. February 2, 2017 ...

*  Factsheet #1: Common Questions about Spinal Cord Injury

The sacral vertebra run from the pelvis to the end of the spinal column. Injuries to the five Lumbar vertebra (L-1 thru L-5) ... about Spinal Cord Injury. 1. What is Spinal Cord Injury?. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in ... not sustain a spinal cord injury if only the bones around the spinal cord (the vertebrae) are damaged, but the spinal cord is ... 2. What is the spinal cord and the vertebra?. The spinal cord is the major bundle of nerves that carry nerve impulses to and ...

*  Spinal Cord Injury Information Pages News Blog: Crucial Finding Advances Spinal Cord Injury Research

Spinal Cord Injury News. Information and resources for those with spinal cord injuries. ... Crucial Finding Advances Spinal Cord Injury Research. Scientists guide axons to re-form nerve connections in rats. In a finding ... "The ability to guide regenerating axons to a correct target after spinal cord injury has always been a point of crucial ... 2006-08 Spinal Cord Injury Information Pages , Website Design: MCG Web Development, Inc. ...

*  Experimental treatments for spinal cord injury: What you should know (Version 2) - PDF

A guide for people living with spinal cord injury, their family, friends and health care professionals 2 Authors John D ... Experimental treatments for spinal cord injury: What you should know (Version 2) ... Many of them are staffed by people who themselves have spinal cord injuries. You can study the available published scientific ... Causes of Spinal Cord Injury CHAPTER 2 Spinal Cord Injury Causes of Spinal Cord Injury Spinal cord injury (SCI) happens for a ...

*  Geron Collaborators Publish Data on hESC-Derived Glial Progenitor Cell Therapy in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury - Drugs.com...

Data Provide Preclinical Proof-of-Concept to Support Clinical Development of GRNOPC1 in Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord ... in patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. Over half of the 11,000 human spinal cord injuries that are sustained in the U. ... Provide Preclinical Proof-of-Concept to Support Clinical Development of GRNOPC1 in Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries ... In spinal cord injury oligodendrocytes are lost, resulting in the loss of myelin and death of nerve cells that can cause ...

*  Behavioral recovery from spinal cord injury following delayed application of polyethylene glycol | Journal of Experimental...

Although these injuries to the spinal cord also produce locomotor deficits in the animals, we have ignored these deficits and ... Pharmacological therapy of spinal cord injury during the acute phase. Spinal Cord 38, 71-76. ... Applied voltages in spinal cord reconstruction: History, strategies and behavioral models. In Spinal Cord Dysfunction, vol. 3 ( ... The spinal injury. The means of injury we chose was a constant-displacement injury in which each spinal cord received a severe ...

*  The Spinal Cord Injury Project | Carol Miu's Fundraiser

... developing new approaches to curing spinal cord injuries. We also work closely with people who are injured and their families ... DID YOU KNOW? Every 41 minutes someone sustains a spinal cord injury. DID YOU KNOW? Spinal cord injury research helps stroke, ... The Spinal Cord Injury Project provides many programs and services for this community to keep them informed on issues of health ... is to conduct cutting-edge research and to build collaborations to focus resources on finding a cure for spinal cord injuries. ...

*  Ask an Expert: Spinal Cord Injuries

Spinal Cord Injuries. 06/12/2003 Question:. Could you tell me if there have been any recent breakthroughs in the treatment of ... spinal cord injuries? Thanks. Answer:. There are several new, promising therapies, but no breakthroughs, per se. One therapy, ... This is currently being investigated with incomplete spinal cord injured patients at The University of Cincinnati. Another ... Preliminary studies suggest that this intervention is especially effective with incomplete spinal cord injured individuals. ...

*  Intercourse & Pleasure With a Spinal Cord Injury | Scarleteen

Second of all, they are trained to isolate injuries and impairments, and as a result, instead of interacting with you as a ... I injured myself and got a spinal cord injury about a year and a half ago. I can move my legs, but not all of my muscles work. ... It already sounds like you have a good sense of what's happening with your body since the spinal cord injury and one of the ... The story we get told about sex and spinal cord injury (from doctors, from the media, even from well meaning, but not so well ...

*  Skin Care for Spinal Cord Injury Patients | UPMC Rehab Institute

Learn how a spinal cord injury will impact your skin's health and discover skin care options for patients with spinal cord ... injuries. ... Spinal Cord Injury*. Education After Spinal Cord Injury*. Skin ... Sun: You will still be at risk for sunburn, like any person with or without a spinal cord injury. ... Skin Care for Spinal Cord Injury Patients. Skin is your body's largest organ. ...

*  Minocycline and Perfusion Pressure Augmentation in Acute Spinal Cord Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Wounds and Injuries. Spinal Cord Injuries. Spinal Cord Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... complete spinal cord injury. incomplete spinal cord injury. central cord spinal cord injury. traumatic. ... Spinal Cord Injuries Drug: Minocycline Drug: placebo Procedure: SCPP augmentation Procedure: SCPP control Phase 1 Phase 2 ... Motor complete or motor incomplete acute spinal cord injury involving bony spinal levels between C0 and T11 ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00559494?recr=Open&cond="Spinal Cord Injuries"&rank=2

*  Ten frequently asked questions concerning cure of spinal cord injury

If a cure means eradication of spinal cord injury, I think that it is unlikely in my lifetime. If a cure means complete ... Please ask and comment... 1. Will there be a cure for spinal cord injury? • The answer to this question of course depend on ... People with injuries below T10 may have damage to the spinal cord centers responsible for erection and ejaculation. Many ... In acute spinal cord injury, bone begins to decalcify within days after spinal cord injury, with significant increases in ...

*  Most recent papers with the keyword 'Drivers spinal cord injuries' | Read by QxMD

In the United States, there are over 200,000 men with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) who are at risk for lower limb fractures. The ... OBJECTIVES: To increase current understanding of how persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) define resilience and what factors ... Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries. ... of-adult-romantic-attachment-and-social-support-on-resilience-and-depression-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injuries ...


ON SPINAL-CORD INJURIES.. Kahn, Edgar A.. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume: January 1959 - Volume 41 - Issue 1 ... Home , January 1959 - Volume 41 - Issue 1 , ON SPINAL-CORD INJURIES. Log in to view full text. If you're not a subscriber, you ...

*  Facts on spinal-cord injuries in Canada

Spinal-cord injuries in Canada. • Approximately 86,000 Canadians are living with a spinal cord injury, with 4,300 new cases ... which offer vital assistance to those living with spinal cord injuries and to their families. ... Canadians with a spinal cord injury are re-hospitalized 2.6 times more often than the average Canadian. They also require three ... People with a spinal cord injury have a life expectancy of 15 to 30 fewer years than the average Canadian. ...
vancouversun.com/business/commercial-real-estate/Facts spinal cord injuries Canada/6607169/story.html

*  How Could Stem Cells Help in Spinal Cord Injuries

The spinal cord is an important part of the body and when there is an injury to it, the body and the brain gets severely ... Spinal cord forms the central nervous system along with the brain. Damaged or injured spinal cord injuries can be devastating ... Treating spinal cord injuries is possible with stem cells. The transplantation and research studies have shown that stem cells ... Spinal cord transmits messages from the brain to several parts of the body through a network of nerves. Injury to the cord can ...

*  Scientists Discover New Method for Nerve Repair in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

A possible new method of enhancing nerve repair in the treatment of spinal cord injuries has been uncovered by scientists at ... Scientists Discover New Method for Nerve Repair in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries. ... come up with a new method of enhancing nerve repair that can benefit patients undergoing treatment for spinal cord injuries. ... It is known that scar tissue, which forms following spinal cord injury, creates an impenetrable barrier to nerve regeneration, ...

*  Learn: Spinal Cord Injuries (by olanjones) - Memorize.com - Remember and Understand

Learn Spinal Cord Injuries facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format ... Four types of spinal cord injuries. concussion w/o direct trauma; penetrating wound or fracture dislocation; hemorrhage; ... Penetrating injuries etiologies. stretched, torn, crushed or lacerated spinal cord; gunshot wounds; stab wounds. ... to prevent secondary spinal cord damage. Surgical Therapy criteria. evidence of cord compression; progressive neuro deficit; ...

*  Spinal Cord Injury Levels - BrainAndSpinalCord.org - Brain & Spine Injuries

Spinal Cord Injury Levels , BrainAndSpinalCord.org - Legal help resource for patients with traumatic brain & spinal cord ... Scar Formation and Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury & Sports Spinal Cord Role Causes of Paralysis Botulism Post-Polio Polio ... Spinal Cord Injury Spina Bifida Diagnosis & Prognosis Spinal Cord Injury Stats Early Treatment Penetrating Injury Spinal Cord ... Case Value of Spinal Cord Injuries Case Value of Traumatic Brain Injuries Changing Lawyers Choosing an Attorney for your Spinal ...

*  Psychiatric Medication News: FDA Eases Rules on Access to Investigational Psychotropic Drugs

spinal cord injuries (1) * SRI (1) * SSRIs (56) * ssris. snris (1) * St. John's wort (1) ...

*  NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Glossary - Women's Center

spinal anesthesia - injection of an anesthetic into the area around the spinal cord to block pain sensation during surgery. ... This is not a condition but rather a symptom that results from a host of diseases, infections, injuries, allergies, and other ... neural tube defect - type of birth defect, such as spina bifida, that results from failure of the spinal cord or brain to ... Folic acid can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. ...

Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.List of people with paraplegia: This is a list of people who have or had paraplegia.Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia: Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia includes a number of surgical interventions that can help improve the quality of life of a patient with tetraplegia.Canine degenerative myelopathy: Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.Cervical fractureNeuroregeneration: Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.HyperreflexiaSpinal tumorUpper motor neuron lesion: An upper motor neuron lesion (also known as pyramidal insufficiency) is a lesion of the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. This is in contrast to a lower motor neuron lesion, which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord or the cranial motor nuclei to the relevant muscle(s).Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Flaccid paralysisMotorized wheelchair: A motorized wheelchair, powerchair, electric wheelchair or electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) is a wheelchair that is propelled by means of an electric motor rather than manual power. Motorized wheelchairs are useful for those unable to propel a manual wheelchair or who may need to use a wheelchair for distances or over terrain which would be fatiguing in a manual wheelchair.Walker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Cerebral contusionPeripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Sensory stimulation therapy: Sensory stimulation therapy (SST) is an experimental therapy that aims to utilize neural plasticity mechanisms to aid in the recovery of somatosensory function after stroke or cognitive ageing. Stroke and cognitive ageing are well known sources of cognitive loss, the former by neuronal death, the later by weakening of neural connections.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Brain injury: A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk: The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk, is a tool that was developed in 1987 by Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom.LaminectomySacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNeuropathic painAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.CordotomyCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.SpasmWithdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Urinary catheterizationHopkins syndrome: Hopkins syndrome is a neurological disorder. Its cause has not been established, but its association with asthma exacerbations (usually with a respiratory infection as a trigger) has led to suspicion that the initial viral insult that causes the respiratory infection is also implicated in the subsequent paralysis.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Remyelination: Remyelination is the process of propagating oligodendrocyte precursor cells to form oligodendrocytes to create new myelin sheaths on demyelinated axons in the CNS. This is a process naturally regulated in the body and tends to be very efficient in a healthy CNS.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Spinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).Neuroprotection: Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an ongoing insult (a neurodegenerative insult) the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Brain healing: Brain healing is the process that occurs after the brain has been damaged. If an individual survives brain damage, the brain has a remarkable ability to adapt.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans.Bladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.Umbilical cord compressionWalking on a Dream (song)Interbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital: The Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital is a bilingual hospital center offering general and specialized services dedicated to rehabilitation. Located in Laval, Canada, the Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital is the regional center in physical rehabilitation for adult and pediatric clients in the region.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Spinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.Progressive osseous heteroplasia: Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a cutaneous condition characterized by cutaneous or subcutaneous ossification.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Bergmann gliosis: Bergmann gliosis is hyperplasia of Bergmann glia (in the cerebellum) due to Purkinje cell death, as may occur in a hypoxic-ischemic insult or peritumoral compression.Urodynamic testingPrimitive reflexes: Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development.FormicationHyperintensityEpidural space: In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the spinal cord).Philip Hoffman (surfing): Philip Rube "Flippy" Hoffman (January 24, 1930 – November 10, 2010) was a legendary big wave surfing pioneer and businessman.

(1/4276) Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade.

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

(2/4276) Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat.

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

(3/4276) Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes.

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

(4/4276) Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.  (+info)

(5/4276) Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

(6/4276) Heart rate during exercise with leg vascular occlusion in spinal cord-injured humans.

Feed-forward and feedback mechanisms are both important for control of the heart rate response to muscular exercise, but their origin and relative importance remain inadequately understood. To evaluate whether humoral mechanisms are of importance, the heart rate response to electrically induced cycling was studied in participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) and compared with that elicited during volitional cycling in able-bodied persons (C). During voluntary exercise at an oxygen uptake of approximately 1 l/min, heart rate increased from 66 +/- 4 to 86 +/- 4 (SE) beats/min in seven C, and during electrically induced exercise at a similar oxygen uptake in SCI it increased from 73 +/- 3 to 110 +/- 8 beats/min. In contrast, blood pressure increased only in C (from 88 +/- 3 to 99 +/- 4 mmHg), confirming that, during exercise, blood pressure control is dominated by peripheral neural feedback mechanisms. With vascular occlusion of the legs, the exercise-induced increase in heart rate was reduced or even eliminated in the electrically stimulated SCI. For C, heart rate tended to be lower than during exercise with free circulation to the legs. Release of the cuff elevated heart rate only in SCI. These data suggest that humoral feedback is of importance for the heart rate response to exercise and especially so when influence from the central nervous system and peripheral neural feedback from the working muscles are impaired or eliminated during electrically induced exercise in individuals with SCI.  (+info)

(7/4276) M2 receptors in genito-urinary smooth muscle pathology.

In vitro bladder contractions in response to cumulative carbachol doses were measured in the presence of selective muscarinic antagonists from rats which had their major pelvic ganglion bilaterally removed (denervation, DEN) or from rats in which the spinal cord was injured (SCI) via compression. DEN induced both hypertrophy (505+/-51 mg bladder weight) and a supersensitivity of the bladders to carbachol (EC50=0.7+/-0.1 uM). Some of the SCI rats regained the ability to void spontaneously (SPV). The bladders of these animals weighed 184+/-17 mg, significantly less than the bladders of non voiding rats (NV, 644+/-92 mg). The potency of carbachol was greater in bladder strips from NV SCI animals (EC50=0.54+/-0.1 uM) than either bladder strips from SPV SCI (EC50=0.93+/-0.3 microM), DEN or control (EC50=1.2+/-0.1 microM) animals. Antagonist affinities in control bladders for antagonism of carbachol induced contractions were consistent with M3 mediated contractions. Antagonist affinities in DEN bladders for 4-diphenlacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 8.5) and para fluoro hexahydrosilodifenidol (p-F-HHSiD, 6.6); were consistent with M2 mediated contractions, although the methoctramine affinity (6.5) was consistent with M3 mediated contractions. p-F-HHSiD inhibited carbachol induced contraction with an affinity consistent with M2 receptors in bladders from NV SCI (pKb=6.4) animals and M3 receptors in bladders from SPV SCI animals (pKb=7.9). Subtype selective immunoprecipitation of muscarinic receptors revealed an increase in total and an increase in M2 receptor density with no change in M3 receptor density in bladders from DEN and NV SCI animals compared to normal or sham operated controls. M3 receptor density was lower in bladders from SPV SCI animals while the M2 receptor density was not different from control. This increase in M2 receptor density is consistent with the change in affinity of the antagonists for inhibition of carbachol induced contractions and may indicate that M2 receptors or a combination of M2 and M3 receptors directly mediate smooth muscle contraction in bladders from DEN and NV SCI rats.  (+info)

(8/4276) Primary afferent fibers that contribute to increased substance P receptor internalization in the spinal cord after injury.

Upon noxious stimulation, substance P (SP) is released from primary afferent fibers into the spinal cord where it interacts with the SP receptor (SPR). The SPR is located throughout the dorsal horn and undergoes endocytosis after agonist binding, which provides a spatial image of SPR-containing neurons that undergo agonist interaction. Under normal conditions, SPR internalization occurs only in SPR+ cell bodies and dendrites in the superficial dorsal horn after noxious stimulation. After nerve transection and inflammation, SPR immunoreactivity increases, and both noxious as well as nonnoxious stimulation produces SPR internalization in the superficial and deep dorsal horn. We investigated the primary afferent fibers that contribute to enhanced SPR internalization in the spinal cord after nerve transection and inflammation. Internalization evoked by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve was examined in untreated animals, at 14 days after sciatic nerve transection or sham surgery and at 3 days after hindpaw inflammation. Electrical stimulation was delivered at intensities to excite Abeta fibers only, Abeta and Adelta fibers or A and C fibers as determined by the compound action potential recorded from the tibial nerve. Electrical stimuli were delivered at a constant rate of 10 Hz for a duration of 5 min. Transection of the sciatic nerve and inflammation produced a 33.7 and 32.5% increase in SPR and immunoreactivity in lamina I, respectively. Under normal conditions, stimulation of Adelta or C fibers evoked internalization that was confined to the superficial dorsal horn. After transection or inflammation, there was a 20-24% increase in the proportion of SPR+ lamina I neurons that exhibited internalization evoked by stimulation of Adelta fibers. The proportion of lamina I SPR+ neurons that exhibited internalization after stimulation of C-fibers was not altered by transection or inflammation because this was nearly maximal under normal conditions. Moreover, electrical stimulation sufficient to excite C fibers evoked SPR internalization in 22% of SPR+ lamina III neurons after nerve transection and in 32-36% of SPR+ neurons in lamina III and IV after inflammation. Stimulation of Abeta fibers alone never evoked internalization in the superficial or deep dorsal horn. These results indicate that activation of small-caliber afferent fibers contributes to the enhanced SPR internalization in the spinal cord after nerve transection and inflammation and suggest that recruitment of neurons that possess the SPR contributes to hyperalgesia.  (+info)


  • The Spinal Cord Injury Project is the first focus of the W. M. Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience. (crowdrise.com)
  • The Spinal Cord Injury Project works to bring together research facilities, educational institutions, training programs, government officials, and corporate entities to work together to develop new therapies and to move the most effective treatments quickly to clinical trial. (crowdrise.com)
  • The Spinal Cord Injury Project provides many programs and services for this community to keep them informed on issues of health, the latest in spinal cord injury research, and in ways that they can work to move the field forward. (crowdrise.com)
  • Please join us in raising funds for The Spinal Cord Injury Project at Rutgers! (crowdrise.com)
  • The Spinal Cord Injury Project collaborates with research facilities, corporations, veterans organizations, and governments throughout the world with one focus: developing new approaches to curing spinal cord injuries. (crowdrise.com)
  • Every 41 minutes someone sustains a spinal cord injury. (crowdrise.com)
  • Spinal cord injury research helps stroke, Alzheimer's Disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, post-polio syndrome, transverse myelitis, traumatic brain injury, and many other conditions and traumas of the central nervous system. (crowdrise.com)
  • While research in animal models of spinal cord injury have provided many promising insights, human studies have failed to produce effective therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We propose to investigate the drug Minocycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) for the treatment of spinal cord injured patients aiming to limit neurological injury and improve neurological outcome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This drug influences several secondary injury mechanisms implicated in spinal cord injury and has been effective in improving outcome after spinal cord injury in animal models. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this pilot study is 1) to evaluate the feasibility of a clinical trial protocol for Minocycline in patients with acute spinal cord injury, and 2) to ensure adequate drug dosing and metabolic effect. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • Its mission is to conduct cutting-edge research and to build collaborations to focus resources on finding a cure for spinal cord injuries. (crowdrise.com)
  • A critical force in accelerating the pace of research is the involvement of those who are spinal cord injured and their families. (crowdrise.com)