Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).G(M3) Ganglioside: A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

*  Species variation in Rubisco specificity factor - Lancaster EPrints

The specificity factor for Rubisco from each species was determined and compared with that of wheat. The specificity factors ... Delgado, E. and Medrano, H. and Keys, A. J. and Parry, M. A. (1995) Species variation in Rubisco specificity factor. Journal of ... conditions of the Balearic Island Mallorca has slightly increased the specificity factor of Rubisco in some species. ... Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase(Rubisco) was highly purified from nine species native to the Balearic Islands ...
eprints.lancs.ac.uk/76044/

*  "Bacterial Competition in Activated Sludge: Theoretical Analysis of Varying Solids Retention Times on Diversity" by Pascal E....

The model was used to investigate the effect of varying solids retention times on the diversity of species using the ... The explanation for this is that for certain species combinations, the dynamics of the competition process generate ... oscillations in the abundances of species, and these oscillations allow the coexistence of greater number of species than the ... the competition of six species for three essential resources produces oscillations within the structure of the bacterial ...
https://works.bepress.com/daniel_oerther/29/

*  John Kendrew - Wikipedia

doi:10.1038/175206b0 Kendrew, JC; Parrish, RG; Marrack, JR; Orlans, ES (novembro de 1954). «The species specificity of ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Kendrew

*  Gentaur Molecular :AbD \ NATIVE RAT HISTAMINE N METHYLTRANSFERASE, Product Type Purified Protein, Specificity HISTAMINE N...

Specificity HISTAMINE N_METHYLTRANSFERASE, Target Species Rat, Host N_A, Format Semi Pure, Isotypes , Applications E, Cl \ 4970 ... Specificity HISTAMINE N_METHYLTRANSFERASE, Target Species Rat, Host N_A, Format Semi Pure, Isotypes , Applications E, Cl. ... Product name : NATIVE RAT HISTAMINE N_METHYLTRANSFERASE, Product Type Purified Protein, Specificity HISTAMINE N_ ... Index / AbD / NATIVE RAT HISTAMINE N_METHYLTRANSFERASE, Product Type Purified Protein, Specificity HISTAMINE N_ ...
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*  Gentaur Molecular :AbD \ GOAT ANTI RABBIT IgG IgM, Product Type Polyclonal Antibody, Specificity IgG IgM, Target Species ...

Specificity IgG IgM, Target Species Rabbit, Host Goat, Format Purified, Isotypes Polyclonal IgG, Applications E, IB, Clone \ ... GOAT ANTI RABBIT IgG_IgM, Product Type Polyclonal Antibody, Specificity IgG IgM, Target Species Rabbit, Host Goat, Format ... GOAT ANTI RABBIT IgG_IgM, Product Type Polyclonal Antibody, Specificity IgG IgM, Target Species Rabbit, Host Goat, Format ... GOAT ANTI RABBIT IgG_IgM, Product Type Polyclonal Antibody, Specificity IgG IgM, Target Species Rabbit, Host Goat, Format ...
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*  CST - SOD2 (D9V9C) Rabbit mAb

MnSOD/SOD2 and other enzymes involved in antioxidant defense protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) (2). Calorie ... Specificity / Sensitivity. SOD2 (D9V9C) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total SOD2 protein. ...
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*  CST - Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, Mink, S. cerevisiae. Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of ... add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to ...
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*  CST - Akt (5G3) Mouse mAb

... add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425) to 9 ml 1X PBS) and ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Akt (5G3) Mouse mAb detects endogenous levels of Akt1 and Akt3. This antibody does not cross-react ...
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*  Histological study of the cranial neural folds of mice genetically liable to exencephaly.

Species Specificity. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Histological-study-cranial-neural-folds/8303615.html

*  CST - SIK2 (D28G3) Rabbit mAb

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse. Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Rat. ... Specificity / Sensitivity. SIK2 (D28G3) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total SIK2 protein. ...
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*  CST - RKIP (V177) Antibody

Specificity / Sensitivity. RKIP (V177) Antibody detects endogenous levels of total RKIP protein. ...
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*  CST - c-Raf Antibody

Specificity / Sensitivity. c-Raf Antibody detects endogenous levels of total c-Raf protein. ...
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*  CST - Human IL-17A Neutralizing (D13C2) Rabbit mAb

Specificity / Sensitivity. Human IL-17A Neutralizing (D13C2) Rabbit mAb binds to human IL-17A (hIL-17A) and neutralizes its ...
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*  CST - PAK2 Antibody

Specificity / Sensitivity. PAK2 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total PAK2 protein. This antibody does not cross-react ...
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*  CST - LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate)

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Monkey, Xenopus, Bovine, Dog ... Specificity / Sensitivity. LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total ... The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated LC3A/B (D3U4C) XP® Rabbit mAb #12741. ...
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*  CST - Phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) Antibody

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, D. melanogaster, Pig, S. cerevisiae. Species predicted to react based on 100% ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) Antibody detects endogenous levels of p38 MAPK only when activated ... add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to ...
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*  CST - Phospho-Akt (Thr308) (D25E6) XP® Rabbit mAb

... add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-Akt (Thr308) (D25E6) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of Akt1 protein only when ...
https://cellsignal.com/products/primary-antibodies/phospho-akt-thr308-d25e6-xp-rabbit-mab/13038?N=4294959767&Nrpp=30&fromPage=plp

*  CST - PP2A A Subunit (81G5) Rabbit mAb

... add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to ... Specificity / Sensitivity. PP2A A Subunit (81G5) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of PP2A A subunit, both α and β isoforms ...
https://cellsignal.com/products/primary-antibodies/pp2a-a-subunit-81g5-rabbit-mab/2041

*  CST - Ret Antibody

Specificity / Sensitivity. Ret Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Ret protein.. Species Reactivity: Human. ...
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*  CST - Phospho-IκBα (Ser32) (14D4) Rabbit mAb

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey. Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Chicken, Bovine, Dog ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-IκBα (Ser32) (14D4) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of IκBα only when phosphorylated at ...
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*  CST - Zap-70 (136F12) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate)

Specificity / Sensitivity. Zap-70 (136F12) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) detects endogenous levels of total Zap-70 ...
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*  CST - WIF1 (D50F9) Rabbit mAb

Specificity / Sensitivity. WIF1 (D50F9) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total WIF1 protein. ...
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*  CST - Malic Enzyme (Mitochondrial) Antibody

Specificity / Sensitivity. Malic Enzyme (Mitochondrial) Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total malic enzyme ( ...
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*  CST - Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (D9E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Magnetic Bead Conjugate)

Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster, Monkey, D. melanogaster, Zebrafish, Bovine. Species predicted to react based on ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (D9E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Magnetic Bead Conjugate) detects endogenous levels of Akt ... This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (D9E) XP® ...
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*  CST - Phospho-SGTA (Ser305) (D23E10) Rabbit mAb

Specificity / Sensitivity. Phospho-SGTA (Ser305) (D23E10) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of SGTA protein only when ...
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*  CST - Cleaved PARP (Asp214) (D64E10) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate)

The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cleaved PARP (Asp214) (D64E10) XP® ... Specificity / Sensitivity. Cleaved PARP (Asp214) (D64E10) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) detects endogenous levels ...
https://cellsignal.com/products/antibody-conjugates/cleaved-parp-asp214-d64e10-xp-rabbit-mab-alexa-fluor-647-conjugate/6987

Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.Coles PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Lactosylceramide: Lactosylceramide is a type of ceramide incorporating lactose.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.New Zealand rabbitMeta-Hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acidReaction coordinateMonoclonal antibody therapyBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.CS-BLASTCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Ethyl groupPostcoital test: The postcoital test (PCT) (also known as Sims test, Huhner test or Sims-Huhner test) is a test in the evaluation of infertility. The test examines interaction between sperm and mucus of the cervix.Interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR1) family: In molecular biology, the interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR1) family is a family of proteins which includes several eukaryotic and viral interferon gamma receptor proteins.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Interferon: :24-187 :24-185 :24-186Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.WIN 56,098: WIN 56,098 is a chemical that is considered to be an aminoalkylindole derivative. It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score: The Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score is one of several categories presented by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), an organization of journalists who cover the United States film industry, but are affiliated with publications outside North America, since its institution in 1947. Since the 5th Golden Globe Awards (1947), the award is presented annually, except from 1953 to 1958.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Thermal cyclerSEA Native Peptide LigationKennel clubMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIMT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.Prevalence: Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.Bioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Acid catalysis: In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor.

(1/42092) Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

(2/42092) Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells.

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

(3/42092) Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat.

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

(4/42092) Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

(5/42092) Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis.

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

(6/42092) Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control.

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

(7/42092) Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques.

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

(8/42092) Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)