Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Tarsiidae: The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Specialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.HydrazinesFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Lorisidae: A family of Primates of the suborder Strepsirhini containing six genera. The family is distributed in parts of Africa, India, Asia, and the Philippines. The six genera are: Arctocebus (golden potto), GALAGO (bush babies), Loris (slender loris), Nycticebus (slow loris), and Perodicticus (potto). Lorises and pottos are relatively common except for Arctocebus, the golden potto. All are arboreal and nocturnal.Papio ursinus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.IndazolesSeed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Osmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain osmium as an integral part of the molecule.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Larrea: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. It is sometimes called chaparral but that is a generic word which is used with a number of other plants. Members contain NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.PrimatesAir Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.LizardsNeural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Pandanaceae: A plant family of the order Pandanales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Adiantum: A plant genus of the family Pteridaceae. Members contain TRITERPENES. Some species in this genus are called maidenhair fern which is also a common name occasionally used for Lygodium (FERNS) and POLYPODIUM.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesAphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSpeech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Nissl Bodies: Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.ReadingParietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Ectothiorhodospira: A genus of vibrioid or rod-shaped cells which are motile by polar flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellar stacks and contain bacteriochlorophyll a or b and carotenoids. Growth occurs photoautotrophically under anaerobic conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

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*  GridLayout.Spec | Android Developers

A Spec defines the horizontal or vertical characteristics of a group of cells. Each spec. defines the grid indices and ... properties of this Spec and the supplied parameter are pairwise equal, false. otherwise. ... properties of this Spec and the supplied parameter are pairwise equal, false. otherwise. ...

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*  Woodruff plans Iraq spec - Variety

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*  Re: [fedora-virt] Spec weirdness

Thus, the RPM spec just configures libguestfs to use a local YUM repo, and populates this using the RPMs that mock has already ... There is a lot of crazyness going on in this spec, chroots within , chroots, making a repo of yum cache packages and using it ... Re: [fedora-virt] Spec weirdness. *From: 'Daniel P. Berrange' ,berrange redhat com, ... On Mon, Aug 10, 2009 at 10:40:16AM -0700, Jesse Keating wrote: , I'm looking at the spec file for libguestfs, and all I can say ...

*  Dual-spec disclosure distant? Denied!

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Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Sertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.EcosystemCerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.F1 hybrid: An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed.List of Falkland Islands-related topicsSpermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Tarsius fuscus: Tarsius fuscus is a species of tarsier. Its range is in Indonesia in the southwestern peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, near Makassar.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Pink skunk clownfish: Amphiprion perideraion also known as the pink skunk clownfish or pink anemonefish, is a species of anemonefish from the skunk complex that is widespread from northern Australia through the Malay Archipelago and Melanesia. Like all anemonefishes it forms a symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones and is unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Hydrazine sulfateLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Loris AzzaroSexual swelling: Sexual swellings are enlarged areas of the perineal skin occurring in some female primates that vary in size over the course of the menstrual cycle. In ovariectomized chimpanzees, estrogen stimulation can induce such tumescence and progesterone can inhibit it.Coles PhillipsIntraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Motu MatakoheIndazoleBiological dispersalCypripedium irapeanum: The Irapeao's Cypripedium or Pelican Orchid (Cypripedium irapeanum) is a species of orchid. It has a widespread distribution from the central Mexico states of Sinaloa and Durango south to Guatemala and Honduras.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.List of Acacia species used for tannin production: This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are used for the production of tannins.Beak (band): Beak (stylized as BEAK>) is a UK based band, consisting of Geoff Barrow (of Portishead) with Billy Fuller (Robert Plant) and Matt Williams (MXLX, Fairhorns).Thief of ThievesEvolution in Variable EnvironmentEnd-plate potential: End plate potentials (EPPs) are the depolarizations of skeletal muscle fibers caused by neurotransmitters binding to the postsynaptic membrane in the neuromuscular junction. They are called "end plates" because the postsynaptic terminals of muscle fibers have a large, saucer-like appearance.HyperintensityList of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Aeolothripidae: The Aeolothripidae are a family of thrips. They are particularly common in the holarctic region, although several occur in the drier parts of the subtropics, including dozens in Australia.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Horseshoe bat: Horseshoe bats make up the bat family Rhinolophidae. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris, has been recognized.Index of information theory articles: This is a list of information theory topics, by Wikipedia page.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Kamenny Island Palace: Kamenny Island Palace (Каменноостровский дворец) is a former imperial palace on the south-western promontory of Kamenny Island in St. Petersburg.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).Caninia (genus)Triosmium dodecacarbonylAuditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital: The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (informally the RNOH) is a specialist orthopaedic hospital located in Greater London, United Kingdom and a part of Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust. It provides the most comprehensive range of neuro-musculoskeletal health care in the UK, including acute spinal injury, complex bone tumour treatment, orthopaedic medicine and specialist rehabilitation for chronic back pain.Face.com: Face.com was a Tel Aviv-based technology company that developed a platform for efficient and accurate facial recognition in photos uploaded via web and mobile applications.Gene duplication: Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.AmbulocetidaePodiceps: Podiceps is a genus of birds in the grebe family.Larrea tridentataEpiboly: Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. It is one of many movements in the early embryo that allow for dramatic physical restructuring (see morphogenesis).Swim bladder: The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming. Also, the dorsal position of the swim bladder means the center of mass is below the center of volume, allowing it to act as a stabilizing agent.Tokay gecko: The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) is a nocturnal arboreal gecko, ranging from northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia, Philippines to Indonesia and western New Guinea. Its native habitat is rainforest trees and cliffs, and it also frequently adapts to rural human habitations, roaming walls and ceilings at night in search of insect prey.Oblique dendrite: An oblique dendrite is a dendrite that branches from an apical dendrite which emerge from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Oblique dendrites typically branch one to two times before terminating.WormsgrabenBlood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Isotopic signature: An isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes', stable radiogenic isotopes, or unstable radioactive isotopes of particular elements in an investigated material. The ratios of isotopes in a sample material are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.Equivalent rectangular bandwidth: The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.

(1/1237) The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

(2/1237) Problems with implementing guidelines: a randomised controlled trial of consensus management of dyspepsia.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and benefit of developing guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists and to evaluate their introduction on GPs' prescribing, use of investigations, and referrals. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of effect of consensus guidelines agreed between GPs and specialists on GPs' behaviour. SETTING: Southampton and South West Hampshire Health District, United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 179 GPs working in 45 practices in Southampton district out of 254 eligible GPs, 107 in the control group and 78 in the study group. MAIN MEASURES: Rates of referral and investigation and costs of prescribing for dyspepsia in the six months before and after introduction of the guidelines. RESULTS: Consensus guidelines were produced relatively easily. After their introduction referral rates for upper gastrointestinal symptoms fell significantly in both study and control groups, but no significant change occurred in either group in the use of endoscopy or radiology, either in terms of referral rates, patient selection, or findings on investigation. No difference was observed between the control and study group in the number of items prescribed, but prescribing costs rose by 25% (from 2634 pounds to 3215 pounds per GP) in the study group, almost entirely due to an increased rate of prescription of ulcer-healing agents. CONCLUSION: Developing district guidelines for managing dyspepsia by consensus between GPs and specialists was feasible. However, their acceptance and adoption was variable and their measured effects on some aspects of clinical behaviour were relatively weak and not necessarily associated with either decreased costs or improved quality of care.  (+info)

(3/1237) Registrars' and senior registrars' perceptions of their audit activities.

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the level and quality of audit activity among junior doctors, their attitudes to audit, and their views on its educational value. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey in April 1991. SETTING: Yorkshire region. SUBJECTS: All 610 registrars and senior registrars recorded as employed in the region. MAIN MEASURES: Grade, current specialty, details of last audit participated in and its educational usefulness, and attitude to audit. RESULTS: 255 (41.8%) completed questionnaires were returned, 148 from registrars and 101 from senior registrars; grade was not indicated in six. 27 respondents were in general medicine, 26 in general surgery, 30 in anaesthetics, and 36 in psychiatry; other specialties had fewer than 20 respondents. About a fifth (54) of respondents, most in psychiatry (19/36, 53%), had not participated in audit. Among the 201 who had participated, the audit topics covered most components of care (access to services (47, 23%), communication (51, 25%), and appropriateness (158, 79%) and effectiveness (157, 78%) of treatment); only 84 (41%) audits set standards, and in only half of them had the doctors been involved in doing so. Doctors responsible for gathering data and those responsible for collating and reporting data found their experience significantly less useful than those who were not. 172 (86%) respondents considered that audit had helped patient care. Suggested improvements to the educational value of audit were mostly for better methods but included requests for less "witch hunting," better feedback, more training, more time, and more participation by consultants. CONCLUSIONS: The educational value of audit to junior doctors could be improved by better audit methods, guidance, and feedback.  (+info)

(4/1237) Diabetes care: who are the experts?

OBJECTIVES: To identify issues that patients and professionals consider important in diabetes care and differences in their priorities for care and to determine patients' and professionals' judgements of the relative importance of their chosen priorities. DESIGN: Structured group interviews using the nominal group technique. SETTING: Five district health authorities on Tyneside. SUBJECTS: Five nominal groups: expert (seven), non-expert (seven) health care professionals; insulin dependent (four), non-insulin dependent patients (eight); and carers of diabetic patients (eight). MAIN MEASURES: Items important in diabetes care to each nominal group (themes of care), ranked into a series of "top 10" items for each group, and allocated a score according to relative importance to individual members; scores were standardised by individual weighting and group weighting for comparison within and between groups. RESULTS: Patients and professionals agreed that information given to patients, interaction between professionals and patients, patient autonomy, and access were important for good diabetes care, but the importance assigned to each differed. Thus the professionals emphasised empathy and aspects of good communication and patients the desire to know enough to live a "normal" life. Differences were also found within the patient groups; these related to changes in patients' needs at specific points in the development of their illness and in their orientations to care. CONCLUSION: Patients differ from professionals in their orientation to diabetes care, and they can, and should, be involved in setting priorities for care. Since these priorities are dynamic further work is needed to explore the nature of patient satisfaction with diabetes care.  (+info)

(5/1237) The relationship and tensions between vertical integrated delivery systems and horizontal specialty networks.

This activity is designated for physicians, medical directors, and healthcare policy makers. GOAL: To clarify the issues involved with the integration of single-specialty networks into vertical integrated healthcare delivery systems. OBJECTIVES: 1. Recognize the advantages that single-specialty networks offer under capitated medical care. 2. Understand the self-interests and tensions involved in integrating these networks into vertical networks of primary care physicians, hospitals, and associated specialists. 3. Understand the rationale of "stacking" horizontal networks within a vertical system.  (+info)

(6/1237) Patterns of anti-inflammatory therapy in the post-guidelines era: a retrospective claims analysis of managed care members.

Published and widely disseminated guidelines for the care and management of asthma characterize asthma as a chronic, inflammatory disease and propose specific recommendations for therapy with inhaled anti-inflammatory medications. In a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data of approximately 28,000 asthmatic members from five managed care settings, the dominant pattern of pharmacologic therapy that emerged was the use of bronchodilators without inhaled anti-inflammatory drug therapy. In addition, a significant proportion of asthmatic patients received no prescription drug therapy for asthma. Less than one third of asthmatic patients received any anti-inflammatory therapy and the majority of these received one or two prescriptions per year. Specialist physicians were two to three times more likely than non-specialists during a study period of 1 year to prescribe an anti-inflammatory medication, and were half as likely to have their asthmatic patients experience an emergency department or hospital event. This database analysis suggests that greater conformity with guidelines and/or access to specialist physician care for asthmatic members will lead to improved patient outcomes.  (+info)

(7/1237) Referrals by general internists and internal medicine trainees in an academic medicine practice.

Patient referral from generalists to specialists is a critical clinic care process that has received relatively little scrutiny, especially in academic settings. This study describes the frequency with which patients enrolled in a prepaid health plan were referred to specialists by general internal medicine faculty members, general internal medicine track residents, and other internal medicine residents; the types of clinicians they were referred to; and the types of diagnoses with which they presented to their primary care physicians. Requested referrals for all 2,113 enrolled prepaid health plan patients during a 1-year period (1992-1993) were identified by computer search of the practice's administrative database. The plan was a full-risk contract without carve-out benefits. We assessed the referral request rate for the practice and the mean referral rate per physician. We also determined the percentage of patients with diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, who were referred to specialists. The practice's referral request rate per 100 patient office visits for all referral types was 19.8. Primary care track residents referred at a higher rate than did nonprimary care track residents (mean 23.7 vs. 12.1; P < .001). The highest referral rate (2.0/100 visits) was to dermatology. Almost as many (1.7/100 visits) referrals were to other "expert" generalists within the practice. The condition most frequently associated with referral to a specialist was depression (42%). Most referrals were associated with common ambulatory care diagnoses that are often considered to be within the scope of generalist practice. To improve medical education about referrals, a better understanding of when and why faculty and trainees refer and don't refer is needed, so that better models for appropriate referral can be developed.  (+info)

(8/1237) Physicians' attitudes toward managed care: assessment and potential effects on practice behaviors.

This study was designed to identify the key components of physicians' attitudes toward managed care and develop a tool to assess these components. We developed a questionnaire based on physicians' reactions to managed care, as reflected in the published literature. We mailed this questionnaire to a sample of 753 community physicians in the greater Sacramento area. A factor analysis of these data (n = 315) identified five unifactorial scales, which we labeled managed care quality, need to adapt to managed care, cost-containment effectiveness of managed care, personal knowledge of managed care, and inevitability of managed care. Physicians were most negative about the quality of managed care and most in agreement about the need to adapt to it. Correlations among these five scales, while statistically significant, were modest in size, suggesting that these physicians were quite discriminating in their evaluations. In comparison with medical/surgical specialists, primary care physicians rated the quality of managed care, their knowledge of it, and the inevitability of a national transition to managed care more positively. These measures predicted the physicians' intentions to alter their medical behaviors to comply with managed care practices.  (+info)


  • A Spec defines the horizontal or vertical characteristics of a group of cells. (android.com)


  • Complete and submit the Specialization Application . (cisco.com)
  • Submit your application using the Certification and Specialization Application online web tool. (cisco.com)
  • The spawning of QEMU is just what libguestfs as an application is all about & you shouldn't need to document the application itself in the spec file. (redhat.com)


  • The one area where I see it could be useful to have explicit mock or koji suport, would be if they explicitly made the yum repo available, so the spec didn't rely on the directory of RPMs that mock leaves visible. (redhat.com)