Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Epidemiologic Measurements: Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Animal DiseasesLivestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.New MexicoModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).England

*  Backreaction: 2013
I find this very intriguing because it means that, if space-time's quantum properties are captured by CDT, then space-time has ... We can throw the numbers into the biggest computing clusters the world has ever seen and let statistical algorithms find ... Normally, discretization is used for a system within space and time. Now it is space and time themselves that are being ... CDT phase diagram of space-time. After Fig 5 in 1302.2173. The parameter κ is proportional to the inverse of Newton's constant ...
*  space time clustering
of EGS does not invalidate the Monte Carlo test for space-time interaction, and find strong evidence for space time clustering ... To analyze time and geographical trends of breast cancer mortality.... *. Space-time clustering of childhood lymphatic ... STATISTICAL DETECTION OF CANCER CLUSTERS. Geoffrey Jacquez; Fiscal Year: 1990. *Space-Time Clustering of Testicular Cancer ... reproduced the observed space-time clustering.... *. Clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the United Kingdom: a study ...
*  Space-time clustering of necrotizing enterocolitis supports the existence of transmissible causes.
... there was no indication of space-time interaction. When comparing two time periods, significant clustering on hospital level ... Space-time clustering of necrotizing enterocolitis supports the existence of transmissible causes.. Ahle, Margareta Linköping ... Conclusion: Space-time clustering was found on hospital level, but not on community level, suggesting a contagious ... The Knox test and Kulldorff's scan method were used to analyze signs of space-time clusters at two geographical levels; the ...
*  Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in the Isle of Man--2: Evidence for space-time clustering. | Thorax
The case-control test for space-time clustering developed by Pike and Smith was applied to 96 cases of sarcoidosis diagnosed in ... Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in the Isle of Man--2: Evidence for space-time clustering. ... Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in the Isle of Man--2: Evidence for space-time clustering. ... Analysis of the type of links indicated that clusters consisted of pairs whose contact was by place of residence or work. More ...
*  Time-Space Clustering of Date at Birth in Childhood-Onset Diabetes | Diabetes Care
Time-Space Clustering of Date at Birth in Childhood-Onset Diabetes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
*  Leukaemia clusters in Great Britain. 1. Space-time interactions. | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
DESIGN--The study was a space-time cluster analysis. SETTING--England, Wales and Scotland. PATIENTS--All registrations for ... aim was to test a large set of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma registrations for the presence of clusters in space and in time ... CONCLUSIONS--There was strong evidence of joint spatial-temporal clustering, with an excess of pairs separated by very short ... Several potential artefacts were considered and excluded, but the possibility remained that clustered detections might be ...
*  Periodicity and space-time clustering of severe childhood malaria on the coast of Kenya. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Space-time clustering of severe malaria was evident in this community. Seasonal peaks in incidence of severe malaria may ... The presentation of severe malaria showed marked seasonality, but the timing and magnitude of these fluctuations varied ... Periodicity and space-time clustering of severe childhood malaria on the coast of Kenya. ... Space-time clustering of severe malaria was evident in this community. Seasonal peaks in incidence of severe malaria may ...
*  Space-time clustering and seasonality in diagnosing skin cancers in Wallonia (south-east Belgium). - Quatresooz Pascale
Reference : Space-time clustering and seasonality in diagnosing skin cancers in Wallonia (south-e.... ... Space-time clustering and seasonality in diagnosing skin cancers in Wallonia (south-east Belgium).. ... Space-Time Clustering. Abstract :. [en] BACKGROUND: In Westernized populations, the number of diagnosed cases of primary ... aspects of the skin according to seasons probably represents the major influence of the described space-time clustering of skin ...
*  Dzwinel W., Yuen D.A., Boryczko K. Cluster Analysis, Data-Mining, Multi-dimensional Visualization of Earthquakes over Space,...
Cluster Analysis, Data-Mining, Multi-dimensional Visualization of Earthquakes over Space, Time and Feature Space. ??????: ... Seismic events, quantized in space and time, generate the multi-dimensional feature space of the earthquake parameters. Using a ... Multi-dimensional Visualization of Earthquakes over Space, Time and Feature Space. ... At the highest resolution, we analyze the local cluster structure in the data space of seismic events for the two types of ...
*  ESE 502 Home Page
5.8.3 Local Cluster Analysis of Larynx Cases. 6. Space-Time Point Processes 6.1 Space-Time Clustering. 6.2 Space-Time K- ... 1.1 Clustering versus Uniformity. 1.2 Comparisons between Point Patterns. 2. Complete Spatial Randomness. 2.1 Spatial Laplace. ...
*  Staff Profile - Institute of Health and Society - Newcastle University
Space-time clustering of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in parts of the U.K. (1984-1993). European Journal of Cancer 1999, 35(1 ... Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 29-year-olds in Yorkshire, UK. Diabetologia 2006, 49(5), 900-904. ... Little or no space-time clustering found amongst cases of childhood lymphoma in North West England. European Journal of Cancer ... Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes in children from north-east England: support for an infectious aetiology?. In ...
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A range of techniques were used, including simple dot maps, cluster analyses and modelling approaches. Spatial tools were ... time and place. Although geographic information systems have increased the range of tools available, spatial analyses are used ... A space-time cluster investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Norwegian cattle herds. Prev Vet Med. 1999;47 ... Disease cluster statistics for space-time interaction. Stat Med. 1996;15(7-9):873-85. ...
*  Bucket toilet - Wikipedia
p. 5. ISBN 978-91-976022-0-4. B, Frank; A, Alfred; Stei, Alfred (2012). "Evaluating Spatial and Space-Time Clustering of ... In those settings, bucket toilets are more likely to be used without a plastic bag, or the bag is not removed each time the ... By the time the waste collectors come, the bucket toilets are often already overflowing. These unhygienic circumstances can ... The content is then poured onto a disused green space after diluting the urine with water. The bottom of the "feces bucket" ...
*  Using Gini coefficient to determining optimal cluster reporting sizes for spatial scan statistics | Springer for Research &...
Background Spatial and space-time scan statistics are widely used in disease surveillance to identify geographical areas of ... Are transient environmental agents involved in the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis? Evidence from space-time clustering ... Simulated cluster configurations with one large cluster and three smaller clusters. a Urban center with small rural clusters. b ... of the time in the rural center. When 3 small clusters exist, SaTScan correctly detects 3 small clusters 46 % of the time in ...
*  Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011 - Volume 20, Number 9-September 2014 - Emerging...
... subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and ... Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major ... Space-time clusters of cholera in 4 communities in Haiti, 2011. A) Grand Goave, winter; B) Grand Goave, summer; C) Leogane, ... Space-time clusters of cholera in 4 communities in Haiti, 2011. A) Grand Goave, winter; B) Grand Goave, summer; C) Leogane, ...
*  An Introduction to Hybrid Automata, Numerical Simulation and Reachability Analysis | Springer for Research & Development
Flowpipe approximation and clustering in space-time. In Hybrid systems: computation and control (HSCC'13), pages 203212. ACM, ... Efficient computation of reachable sets of linear time-invariant systems with inputs. In J. P. Hespanha and A. Tiwari, editors ... Numerical simulation approximates the evolution of the variables with a sequence of points in discretized time. This highly ... In Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, pages 171-186. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar ...
*  Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study | The BMJ
Space-time clustering of childhood leukemia in Greece: Evidence supporting a viral etiology.Br J Cancer 1996;73: 1278-83. ... Clustering of childhood leukaemia in Hong Kong: association with the childhood peak and common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ... We are grateful for the time and effort that the participating organisations devoted to the collection of these data; ... 10 11 the 3 month preconception period was also considered because it corresponds with the time needed for all the stages of ...
*  SaTScan - Bibliography
Nakaya T, Yano K. Visualising crime clusters in a space-time cube: An exploratory data-analysis approach using space-time ... Retrospective Space-Time Scan Statistic. Kulldorff M, Athas W, Feuer E, Miller B, Key C. Evaluating cluster alarms: A space- ... Space-Time Permutation Model. Kulldorff M, Heffernan R, Hartman J, Assunção RM, Mostashari F. A space-time permutation scan ... Space-time clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village. BMC Public Health, 6:286 ...
*  URISA's GIS in Public Health Conference
Space-Time Cluster Analysis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Venezuela Eva-Mary Rodriguez, University of Central ... 1. Space-Time Analysis of Health Data Instructed by: Marilyn O. Ruiz, University of Illinois, Urbana , IL and Geoffrey M. ... Geographic Cluster Evaluation of Female Breast Cancer: Does Scale Matter? Nancy Tian, Texas State University - San Marcos, San ...§ion=CorpNews
*  Publication List for for John Carstensen
Space-time clustering at birth and at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in relation to early clinical manifestation. ... Evidence of space-time clustering of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Sweden. British Journal of Cancer, 1999, 79(3/4 ... Space-time clustering of childhood lymphatic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology ... Time dependent effects of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy on cerebrovascular disease: results from a randomised trial. British ...
Considerable space-time clustering, based on the place and time of diagnosis, was verified for the children aged 10 to 14. The ... For the study, the researchers took data from a population-based register in Yorkshire to find support of space-time clustering ... second group also found space-time clustering for participants aged 15 to 19. (The findings were reported in Diabetologia, July ... About Pharmacy Times. Pharmacy Times® is the #1 full-service pharmacy media resource in the industry. Founded in 1897, Pharmacy ...
*  Spatial and temporal distribution of incidence of acquired equine polyneuropathy in Norway and Sweden, 1995-2012 | BMC...
... but no space-time clustering, i.e. the cases occurred independently in time and space. The space-time K-function (K(s, t)) is ... nearest neighbours in both space and time. Jk increases when there is space-time clustering. If there is no space-time ... Space-time interaction clustering of case farms was investigated with a retrospective space-time scan statistic with a space- ... clusters included only one herd.. Table 1 Clusters from a space-time scan statistic (space-time permutation model) of acquired ...
*  The AMEDEO Literature Guide
Space-Time Clustering of Childhood Leukemia: Evidence of an Association with ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) Fusion.. PLoS One. 2017;12: ... Time and spatial trends in lymphoid leukemia and lymphoma incidence and survival among children and adolescents in Manitoba, ...
*  Dislocation avalanches - Wikipedia
"Three-dimensional mapping of dislocation avalanches: clustering and space/time coupling." Science 299.5603 (2003): 89-92. ... this nanomechanical testing method can give us rich detail in nanoscale plasticity instabilities in real time. One potential ...
*  astronomy Archives - TFOT
Black Holes in Star Clusters Stir Time and Space. Astronomers at the University of Bonn's Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie ... NASA's Hubble Space Telescope snapped this picture of Mars within a day of its closest approach to Earth. A large regional dust ... The first callibrated images from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Satellite are available ... Researchers at Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and other institutions have used data from the Herschel Space ...

Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.WormsgrabenList of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Pouillet effect: In physics, the term Pouillet effect refers to an exothermic reaction that takes place when a liquid is added to a powder. It was first observed by Leslie in 1802 when dry sand was immersed in water.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Caffeic acid phenethyl esterEssence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMonte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Jet aeratorsAlbuquerque IsotopesVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Dengue fever outbreaksIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).

(1/276) Evidence of space-time clustering of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Sweden.

We have examined 645 recorded cases of childhood acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) in Sweden during 1973-89 to identify space-time clustering by using the close-pair method of Knox. The records included date of birth and of diagnosis as well as addresses at birth and at diagnosis. There was a significant excess of case pairs close in date of birth and place of birth in the 5- to 15-year age group.  (+info)

(2/276) Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

(3/276) An assessment of spatial clustering of leukaemias and lymphomas among young people in New Zealand.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess spatial clustering of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in New Zealand, using a national dataset from a country with no nuclear installations. DESIGN: New Zealand Map Grid coordinates, derived from the birth addresses of cases and controls were used in clustering analyses that applied Cuzick and Edwards' method. SETTING: The whole of New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: The cases were ascertained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. They were diagnosed with leukaemia or lymphoma at ages 0-14 years during the period 1976 to 1987. For Hodgkin's disease, the age range was extended to include those aged from 0-24 years. The cancer registrations were linked with national birth records, to obtain the birth addresses of the cases. The controls were selected at random from birth records, with matching to cases (1:1) on age and sex. The analyses included 600 cases and 600 controls. MAIN RESULTS: There was no statistically significant spatial clustering for any tumour group overall, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute nonlymphoblastic leukaemia, other leukaemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and all these combined. Significant clustering was found in a sub-analysis for one of three age specific subgroups of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ages 10-14 years, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The subgroup finding may have been real or a chance association, as several comparisons were made. This study found little evidence for spatial clustering of leukaemias or lymphomas in a population with no nuclear installations.  (+info)

(4/276) Suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three workers with long-term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour.

Sulphuric acid vapour has been suspected of being an industrial carcinogen. In this study, a cluster is presented of three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who worked in the same building of a telecommunications conveyance station in southern Taiwan with long term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour concentrations as high as 0.18 mg/m3. All three workers were diagnosed with NPC within a 5 month period between September 1992, and March 1993. Compared with 19 other healthy workers from the same building, these three workers with NPC had worked significantly longer in this building than had the others (mean (SD) (years): 12.7 (0.6) v 7.4 (4.4); p = 0.01). With an in situ nucleic acid hybridisation and immunostaining method for colocalised Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and secretory component (SC) protein among biopsy specimens of these three patients with NPCs, it was found that some tumour cells did not contain EBV and SC protein staining signals. These results indicate that EBV infection is not the only risk factor for NPC and long term exposure to relatively low concentrations of sulphuric acid vapour may be associated with the development of NPC.  (+info)

(5/276) American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southeast Brazil: space-time clustering.

BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in many rural areas of Brazil where different transmission patterns of the disease have been described. This ecological study was carried out in a municipality located in Southeast Brazil and aimed to investigate the space-temporal patterns of the disease and environmental risk factors from 1966 to 1996. METHODS: Incident ACL cases were defined by clinical diagnosis, confirmed by a positive skin test and/or parasitological examination. Age-adjusted morbidity rate of ACL was calculated by year for this municipality and their different census enumeration districts. The homogeneity chi2 test, Moran and empirical Bayes index and Knox procedure were employed for testing the significance of clusters in time, space and in time-space, respectively. A Poisson regression model was used to identify environmental factors related to rate variability. RESULTS: A total of 1712 new ACL cases were reported with a yearly incidence rate of 48/100000 inhabitants. Higher incidence rates were detected in 1968, 1974, and 1988 (100, 160, and 190 cases/100000, respectively) with evidence of spatial clustering from 1986 to 1993. Significant space-time clustering with epidemic peaks followed by low incidence in subsequent periods was observed. The incidence rates of ACL were independently associated with rural areas; areas lacking sanitary installations and with higher proportion of exposed garbage (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that ACL rates vary across space and time. Rural areas and some environmental factors could explain part of this variation. Environmental modifications in the vicinity of households over time and accumulation of susceptible individuals are discussed as possible factors responsible for variability.  (+info)

(6/276) The existence of geographical clusters of cases of inflammatory polyarthritis in a primary care based register.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is any evidence that there are spatial clusters of rheumatoid arthritis in particular, and inflammatory arthritis in general. METHODS: Setting was a population based incidence register of inflammatory arthritis: the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR). All cases identified between 1990-1995 were mapped to place of residence. Statistical evidence of clustering was determined by calculating Poisson probabilities in putative areas. RESULTS: Three clusters were identified including one small area (population 85) where five unrelated cases developed during this time period. There was no obvious greater disease homogeneity within clusters and no common environmental factors were identified. CONCLUSION: Rare clusters of inflammatory polyarthritis do occur. Their significance and cause remain to be elucidated.  (+info)

(7/276) Soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma clusters around a municipal solid waste incinerator with high dioxin emission levels.

Overall evidence from epidemiologic studies in the workplace suggests that dioxin is a human carcinogen, but whether low doses affect the general population remains to be determined. The authors examined the spatial distribution of soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas around a French municipal solid waste incinerator with high emission levels of dioxin (16.3 ng international toxic equivalency factor/m3). Not consistently associated with dioxin exposure,-Hodgkin's disease served as the control cancer category. Clusters were identified from 1980 to 1995 in the area ("departement') of Doubs by applying a spatial scan statistic to 26 electoral wards. The most likely and highly significant clusters found were identical for soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and included the area around the municipal solid waste incinerator; standardized incidence ratios were 1.44 (observed number of cases = 45, focused test p value = 0.004) and 1.27 (observed number of cases = 286, focused test p value = 0.00003), respectively. Conversely, Hodgkin's disease exhibited no specific spatial distribution. Confounding by socioeconomic status, urbanization, or patterns of medical referral seemed unlikely to explain the clusters. Although consistent, these findings should be confirmed by further investigation (e.g., a case-control study in which dioxins are measured in biologic tissues) before clusters of soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are ascribed to dioxin released by the municipal solid waste incinerator.  (+info)

(8/276) Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. METHODS: Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. RESULTS: Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry and Mourne District. CONCLUSION: A striking, highly localised, excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers who had attended a girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-57 has been confirmed. However, not all of the mothers of the affected children attended the school concurrently and the origin of non-disjunction in one child was an error occurring after conception. Some exposure essentially confined to girls attending the school at this time is a possible, although unlikely, explanation, but a review of potential risk factors does not suggest what this could be. Previous suggestions that an influenza epidemic or contamination from the Windscale nuclear reactor fire might be implicated, both of which occurred in October 1957, can be effectively dismissed because three of the women with affected offspring had left the school by then and had moved away from Dundalk, and Down's syndrome in the child of another mother originated in an error after fertilisation. Owing to the retrospective nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the cases, chance is the most likely explanation for the cluster.  (+info)

  • earthquakes
  • Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits, and particularly "the determination of parameters for the next strong earthquake to occur in a region. (
  • While such statistics are not satisfactory for purposes of prediction (giving ten to twenty false alarms for each successful prediction) they will skew the results of any analysis that assumes that earthquakes occur randomly in time, for example, as realized from a Poisson process. (
  • 99..729K, doi:10.1029/93JB01556 Santoyo, M. A (2005), "Space-Time Clustering of Large Thrust Earthquakes along the Mexican Subduction Zone: An Evidence of Source Stress Interaction" (PDF), Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Seismological Society of America, 95 (5): 1856, Bibcode:2005BuSSA. (
  • detection
  • Prediction can be further distinguished from earthquake warning systems, which upon detection of an earthquake, provide a real-time warning of seconds to neighboring regions that might be affected. (
  • evaluate
  • With a scan statistic, a scanning window of variable location and size moves across the map to evaluate thousands of overlapping windows as potential clusters, adjusting for the multiple testing. (
  • The Gini coefficient provides a quick and intuitive way to evaluate the degree of the heterogeneity of the collection of clusters, which is useful to explain how well the cluster collection reveal the underlying true cluster patterns. (
  • A likelihood-based approach allows the scan statistic to identify clusters and evaluate if they are statistically significant, adjusting for the multiple testing inherent in the many potential cluster locations and sizes. (
  • To evaluate cholera case clustering and provide a basis for modeling and intervention design, we conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of household-level data in the Ouest Department in Haiti during 2010-2011. (
  • intervals
  • There were significantly more links between cases separated by time intervals of less than 10 years and distances of less than 100 metres than between the others. (
  • From the locally recorded time intervals between the arrival of the S wave and the P wave (S−P times) and from the felt intensities, it is suggested that the rupture zone of this earthquake was larger than the 1973 earthquake and may have extended into the rupture zone of the 1985 Michoacán earthquake. (
  • Methods
  • Equipped with in-situ techniques in combination with Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-diffraction methods, this nanomechanical testing method can give us rich detail in nanoscale plasticity instabilities in real time. (
  • Different clustering methods perform this extension in different ways. (
  • earthquake
  • Seismic events, quantized in space and time, generate the multi-dimensional feature space of the earthquake parameters. (
  • At the resolutions characteristic of the earthquake parameters, all of the ongoing seismicity before and after largest events accumulate to a global structure consisting of a few separate clusters in the feature space. (
  • The 1941 Colima earthquake occurred on April 15 at 19:09 UTC (13:09 local time). (
  • galaxy
  • The Dark Energy Survey investigates the dynamics and large scale structure of the Universe using four probes: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), the number of galaxy clusters, and weak gravitational lensing. (
  • The other three techniques (BAO, galaxy clusters, and weak lensing) used by the Dark Energy Survey allow scientists to understand simultaneously the expansion of the universe and the evolution of the dark matter density field perturbations. (
  • These perturbations were intrinsically tied to the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. (
  • This is a very important property for the observation of very distant sources, like Type IA supernovae or galaxy cluster, because the expansion of the universe shifts the photons emitted from a given source towards redder wavelengths. (
  • Some of the primary working groups are: the weak lensing working group, the galaxy clusters working group, the large-scale structure working group, the supernova working group, the galaxy evolution working group, and the strong lensing working group. (
  • case
  • g., a case-control study in which dioxins are measured in biologic tissues) before clusters of soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are ascribed to dioxin released by the municipal solid waste incinerator. (
  • The case-control test for space-time clustering developed by Pike and Smith was applied to 96 cases of sarcoidosis diagnosed in the Isle of Man from 1962 to 1983. (
  • In the case of the Hox gene, a shared ancestral ProtoHox cluster was duplicated, resulting in genetic clusters in the Hox gene as well as the ParaHox gene, an evolutionary sister complex of the Hox gene. (
  • In the case where a gene cluster is duplicated, some genes may be lost. (
  • species
  • In this application, different living things are grouped into clusters at different scales or levels of similarity (species, genus, family, etc). (
  • Species who have gene clusters have a selective evolutionary advantage because natural selection must keep the genes together. (
  • Results
  • We show that by combining the clustering results from low and high resolution spaces, we can recognize precursory events more precisely and decode vital information that cannot be discerned at a single level of resolution. (
  • The results suggest an aetiology for AEP where the exposure is not consistent in time, but varies during and between years, assuming that the incubation period does not vary greatly. (
  • Stack analyzed the results from 42 studies and found that those measuring the effect of a celebrity suicide story were 14.3 times more likely to find a copycat effect than studies that did not. (
  • method
  • seven days (p=0.022) 14 days (p=0.011) and 21 days (p=0.006), and Kulldorff's scan method found seven significant clusters. (
  • Almost always, the method will find many very similar overlapping clusters, and it is not useful to report all of them. (
  • For instance, in the single-linkage clustering method, the distance between two clusters is defined to be the minimum distance between any two points from each cluster. (
  • quantum
  • The Cluster of Excellence QUEST - Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research has been funded since November 2007 in the framework of the German Universities Excellence Initiative of the federal and state governments of Germany. (
  • The key research areas of the cluster are the quantum engineering and the space-time research. (
  • The Cluster of Excellence is with scientists from the fields of quantum optics, laser physics, solid state physics, gravitational physics, theoretical physics and geodesy interdisciplinary orientated. (
  • In the cluster quantum effects for the production of new measurement technologies are being explored. (
  • galaxies
  • Gravitational collapse enhances these initial fluctuation as baryons fall into the gravitational potential field of more dense regions of space to form galaxies. (
  • Galaxies are organized into groups and clusters, often within larger superclusters, that are strung along great filaments between nearly empty voids, forming a web that spans the observable universe. (
  • data
  • The observed data represent seismic activities situated around the Japanese islands in the 1997-2003 time interval. (
  • Several
  • Several potential artefacts were considered and excluded, but the possibility remained that clustered detections might be triggered by haematological examinations undertaken for some communicable disease. (
  • Hox gene clusters, ranging in various sizes, are found among several phyla. (
  • different
  • these all work by repeatedly merging the closest two clusters but use different definitions of the distance between clusters. (
  • Genes found in a gene cluster may be observed near one another on the same chromosome or on different, but homologous chromosomes. (
  • however, over a long, evolutionary time period, the genetic information in the duplicated copy may undergo additional and drastic mutations in which the proteins of the duplicated gene served a different role than those of the original essential gene. (
  • found
  • When comparing two time periods, significant clustering on hospital level was found during 1987-1997, but not during 1998-2009. (
  • however, rather than the Hox cluster and the ParaHox cluster resulting from a cluster containing three genes, the Hox cluster and ParaHox cluster were as a result of single gene tandem duplication, identical genes found adjacent on the same chromosome. (
  • The expression "For His mercy endures forever" is found verbatim in English and the original Hebrew 26 times in Psalm 136. (
  • smaller
  • For example, it is able to determine when it makes more sense to report a collection of smaller non-overlapping clusters versus a single large cluster containing all of them. (
  • Research
  • V. Max-Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover) Gravitational wave detector GEO600 Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig/Germany Center for Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Bremen/Germany The Wissenschaftsrat had 2010 recommended to build a new research building at Leibniz Universität Hanover, the Hanover Institute of Technology, HiTec shortly. (
  • German Research Foundation: List of current Clusters of Excellence. (
  • Correspondingly, authorities which use Precobs, do not have to deploy staff for the time-consuming research for near repeat crimes or burglary series anymore. (
  • various
  • At this level, the resulting fundamental components are the stars, which are typically assembled in clusters from the various condensing nebulae. (
  • sequence
  • Numerical simulation approximates the evolution of the variables with a sequence of points in discretized time. (
  • The decrease in clustering over time suggests that improved routines in neonatal care have minimized the risk of NEC precipitating contagions spreading between patients in the neonatal intensive care unit. (
  • years
  • The survey will take five years to complete, and the survey footprint will nominally be covered ten times in five photometric bands (g, r, i, z, and Y). DES officially began in August 2013 and completed its second season in February 2015. (
  • models
  • Historically, four models have been proposed for the formation and persistence of gene clusters. (
  • however, models exist suggesting that the duplicated Protohox cluster originally contained four, three, or two genes. (
  • example
  • An example of a gene cluster is the Hox gene, which is made up of eight genes and is part of the Homeobox gene family. (
  • risk
  • Problem Statement: Despite great efforts to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) the incidence may in fact be increasing, and changes in the patient population over time seem to lead to changes in clinical presentation and risk factor spectrum as well. (