Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Epidemiologic Measurements: Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Animal DiseasesLivestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.New MexicoModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).England

*  logistic models

Space-Time Clustering of Testicular Cancer Using Residential Histories. Geoffrey Jacquez; Fiscal Year: 2008 ... non-compliance in psychiatric randomized trials to modeling clustered discrete responses with mixed effects logistic models. By ... MODEL FREE TIME CURVES FOR LONGITUDINAL DATA ANALYSIS. P Wilson; Fiscal Year: 1993 ... The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use. Emma Coombes. ...
https://labome.org/topics/diagnostic/investigative/epidemiologic/statistics/statistical/logistic-models-17652.html

*  Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990-2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy | Diabetes

Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 29-year-olds in Yorkshire, U.K. Diabetologia 2006;49:900-904. ... The best model (model 3) included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). Therefore, the variation over time has a linear ... Time trends in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: a cohort study. Lancet 2008;371(9626):1777-1782. ... Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire, U.K.: time trends in 0-14 and 15-29-year-olds, age at onset and age-period-cohort modelling. ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/9/2281.full?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes

*  Medical Imaging sub-cluster 80

Dynamic PET imaging with F-FCho (acquisition time of 28 min) was performed in 24 patients with space-occupying lesions in the ... Computed tomography (CT) substitute images can be generated from ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI sequences with radial k-space ... 3D-SPACE) sequence in assessment of pituitary micro-lesions. Coronal 3D-SPACE as well as routine T1- and dynamic contrast- ... To determine the optimal timing for imaging brain tumours and other brain lesions with F-labelled fluoromethylcholine (F-FCho) ...
biomedsearch.com/cluster/82/Medical-Imaging/sub-80.html

*  Similar - Books on Google Play

... influence organisms in the present through direct connections across time and space.Individual plants and animals both draw ... More times than not, it's just the horse expressing the way he feels at that particular moment in time. . . .How we perceive ... This book traces the evolution of the dog, from its origins about 15,000 years ago up to recent times. The timing of dog ... A New York Times Bestseller. 'The most scientifically important dog in over a century.' -Brian Hare. Chaser has fascinated dog ...
https://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_rt_142C7DAD_41DCB2A5_1C0AE51E

*  Leishmaniasis and Climate Change-Case Study: Argentina

... clustered in time and space (microfocal scale). So, for instance, high instability due to El Niño South Oscilation (macroscale ... To identify at each scale indicators and sources of data that allow adequate monitoring in time and space and with appropriate ... The design of the captures varies covering different extensions of space and periods of time according to the objectives of ... The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2012/601242/

*  Similar - Books on Google Play

... who broke down the two dominant issues performers deal with-space and time-into six categories. Since that time, directors Anne ... The Viewpoints are a set of names given to certain principles of movement through time and space-they constitute a language for ... Tina Landau, noted director and playwright, whose original work includes Space (Time magazine 10 Best), Dream True (with ... For the first time, Alan Ayckbourn shares all of his tricks of the playwright's trade. From helpful hints on writing to tips on ...
https://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_rt_B0C386D7_2AD5C6B5_F061A5F6

*  Data Models and Statistical Analysis sub-cluster 45

Dogs were trotted 5 times through the calibrated testing space and this was repeated on 4 different testing ... ... In this study we employ the gestural syllable model to examine cluster-vowel timing in Polish sibilant initial (SI = {/ʃm-, ʃp ... FTT-MA: A Flexible Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Time Sensitive, Resource-Aware AmI Systems. ... sp-, sk-/}) and sibilant final (SF = {/mʃ-, pʃ-, ps-, ks-/}) onset clusters. In this model, the timing of a complex onset is ...
biomedsearch.com/cluster/3/Data-Models-and-Statistical-Analysis/sub-45.html

*  Similar - Books on Google Play

Ellenberg chases mathematical threads through a vast range of time and space, from the everyday to the cosmic, encountering, ... THE #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER. A New York Times Notable Book. A Washington Post and Seattle Times Best Book of the Year. ... 1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER, FOOD AND FITNESSA NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER, SCIENCE. ONE OF THE 'BEST DIETS 2016' (NPR'S THE SALT ... The New York Times Book Review • People • NPR • The Washington Post • Slate • Harper's Bazaar • Esquire • Time Out New York • ...
https://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_rt_18EB0A81_4A566018_EF9A6950

*  Malaria Articles, Photos, and Videos - Los Angeles Times

JUBA, South Sudan - Toddlers tottering in the dust, elderly men sitting in the shade to escape the sapping heat, clustering ... the drifting smoke of cooking fires and the sour smell of too many people crowded into a small space. If things are bad now... ... JUBA, South Sudan -- Toddlers tottering in the dust, elderly men sitting in the shade to escape the sapping heat, clustering ... Published in Los Angeles Times on February 08, 2016 - Print headline: "Biological weapons target Zika" ...
latimes.com/topic/health/diseases-illnesses/malaria-HEDAI00000212-topic.html

*  Aether Displacement | Naked Science Forum

Einstein's spacetime replaces aether in Relativity: constant speed of light for any observer... Time is local and it is ... The galaxy clusters are moving through the aether. The galaxy clusters displace aether.. 'Hubble Finds Ghostly Ring of Dark ... So you have a space in where every point can be said to have a certain 'time dilation' in itself if you ignore gravity's ... So you have a space in where every point can be said to have a certain 'time dilation' in itself if you ignore gravity's ...
https://thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=38578.0

*  The Multiverse According to Ben: Paranormal Phenomena, Nonlocal Mind and Reincarnation Machines

I've read the hidden pattern quite a long time ago. I must admit I do not remember a lot. The pattern space idea is of course a remote derivative of the platonic realm of ideas and also reminiscent of the more contemporary ( and more to my liking for many reasons) concept of virtuality conceived by Deleuze. One interesting observation about the virtual aspect of reality is its causal sterility. From which I may derive a question about the causal efficacy of patterns that ARE NOT actualized i.e. not embodied in space-time or any other alternative configuration that facilitates causality. I think that before trying to figure out a natural explanation, one can frame a minimal set of necessary constraints that such explanation must be based upon. The example of the tuned crystal mention by LME is somewhat obscuring the fact that the pattern of music the crystal suddenly resonates with was caused by a physical transmitter and is not just floating ...
multiverseaccordingtoben.blogspot.com/2015/03/paranormal-phenomena-nonlocal-mind-and.html

*  Archive for June 2008

I've been deep in the Family Health Care Time-Space Continuum. Getting there and back is a hundred miles, round trip. My last fill-up: Tuesday, May 27. Price: $4.059/gallon. (For Regular) This'll get me nearly 270 miles, or around two-and-a-half round trips to and from the Health Care Time Space continuum. I go down Tuesday and […] ...
2020hindsight.org/2008/06/

Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.WormsgrabenList of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Pouillet effect: In physics, the term Pouillet effect refers to an exothermic reaction that takes place when a liquid is added to a powder. It was first observed by Leslie in 1802 when dry sand was immersed in water.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Caffeic acid phenethyl esterEssence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMonte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Jet aeratorsAlbuquerque IsotopesVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Dengue fever outbreaksIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).

(1/276) Evidence of space-time clustering of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Sweden.

We have examined 645 recorded cases of childhood acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) in Sweden during 1973-89 to identify space-time clustering by using the close-pair method of Knox. The records included date of birth and of diagnosis as well as addresses at birth and at diagnosis. There was a significant excess of case pairs close in date of birth and place of birth in the 5- to 15-year age group.  (+info)

(2/276) Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

(3/276) An assessment of spatial clustering of leukaemias and lymphomas among young people in New Zealand.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess spatial clustering of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in New Zealand, using a national dataset from a country with no nuclear installations. DESIGN: New Zealand Map Grid coordinates, derived from the birth addresses of cases and controls were used in clustering analyses that applied Cuzick and Edwards' method. SETTING: The whole of New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: The cases were ascertained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. They were diagnosed with leukaemia or lymphoma at ages 0-14 years during the period 1976 to 1987. For Hodgkin's disease, the age range was extended to include those aged from 0-24 years. The cancer registrations were linked with national birth records, to obtain the birth addresses of the cases. The controls were selected at random from birth records, with matching to cases (1:1) on age and sex. The analyses included 600 cases and 600 controls. MAIN RESULTS: There was no statistically significant spatial clustering for any tumour group overall, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute nonlymphoblastic leukaemia, other leukaemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and all these combined. Significant clustering was found in a sub-analysis for one of three age specific subgroups of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ages 10-14 years, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The subgroup finding may have been real or a chance association, as several comparisons were made. This study found little evidence for spatial clustering of leukaemias or lymphomas in a population with no nuclear installations.  (+info)

(4/276) Suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three workers with long-term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour.

Sulphuric acid vapour has been suspected of being an industrial carcinogen. In this study, a cluster is presented of three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who worked in the same building of a telecommunications conveyance station in southern Taiwan with long term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour concentrations as high as 0.18 mg/m3. All three workers were diagnosed with NPC within a 5 month period between September 1992, and March 1993. Compared with 19 other healthy workers from the same building, these three workers with NPC had worked significantly longer in this building than had the others (mean (SD) (years): 12.7 (0.6) v 7.4 (4.4); p = 0.01). With an in situ nucleic acid hybridisation and immunostaining method for colocalised Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and secretory component (SC) protein among biopsy specimens of these three patients with NPCs, it was found that some tumour cells did not contain EBV and SC protein staining signals. These results indicate that EBV infection is not the only risk factor for NPC and long term exposure to relatively low concentrations of sulphuric acid vapour may be associated with the development of NPC.  (+info)

(5/276) American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southeast Brazil: space-time clustering.

BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in many rural areas of Brazil where different transmission patterns of the disease have been described. This ecological study was carried out in a municipality located in Southeast Brazil and aimed to investigate the space-temporal patterns of the disease and environmental risk factors from 1966 to 1996. METHODS: Incident ACL cases were defined by clinical diagnosis, confirmed by a positive skin test and/or parasitological examination. Age-adjusted morbidity rate of ACL was calculated by year for this municipality and their different census enumeration districts. The homogeneity chi2 test, Moran and empirical Bayes index and Knox procedure were employed for testing the significance of clusters in time, space and in time-space, respectively. A Poisson regression model was used to identify environmental factors related to rate variability. RESULTS: A total of 1712 new ACL cases were reported with a yearly incidence rate of 48/100000 inhabitants. Higher incidence rates were detected in 1968, 1974, and 1988 (100, 160, and 190 cases/100000, respectively) with evidence of spatial clustering from 1986 to 1993. Significant space-time clustering with epidemic peaks followed by low incidence in subsequent periods was observed. The incidence rates of ACL were independently associated with rural areas; areas lacking sanitary installations and with higher proportion of exposed garbage (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that ACL rates vary across space and time. Rural areas and some environmental factors could explain part of this variation. Environmental modifications in the vicinity of households over time and accumulation of susceptible individuals are discussed as possible factors responsible for variability.  (+info)

(6/276) The existence of geographical clusters of cases of inflammatory polyarthritis in a primary care based register.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is any evidence that there are spatial clusters of rheumatoid arthritis in particular, and inflammatory arthritis in general. METHODS: Setting was a population based incidence register of inflammatory arthritis: the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR). All cases identified between 1990-1995 were mapped to place of residence. Statistical evidence of clustering was determined by calculating Poisson probabilities in putative areas. RESULTS: Three clusters were identified including one small area (population 85) where five unrelated cases developed during this time period. There was no obvious greater disease homogeneity within clusters and no common environmental factors were identified. CONCLUSION: Rare clusters of inflammatory polyarthritis do occur. Their significance and cause remain to be elucidated.  (+info)

(7/276) Soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma clusters around a municipal solid waste incinerator with high dioxin emission levels.

Overall evidence from epidemiologic studies in the workplace suggests that dioxin is a human carcinogen, but whether low doses affect the general population remains to be determined. The authors examined the spatial distribution of soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas around a French municipal solid waste incinerator with high emission levels of dioxin (16.3 ng international toxic equivalency factor/m3). Not consistently associated with dioxin exposure,-Hodgkin's disease served as the control cancer category. Clusters were identified from 1980 to 1995 in the area ("departement') of Doubs by applying a spatial scan statistic to 26 electoral wards. The most likely and highly significant clusters found were identical for soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and included the area around the municipal solid waste incinerator; standardized incidence ratios were 1.44 (observed number of cases = 45, focused test p value = 0.004) and 1.27 (observed number of cases = 286, focused test p value = 0.00003), respectively. Conversely, Hodgkin's disease exhibited no specific spatial distribution. Confounding by socioeconomic status, urbanization, or patterns of medical referral seemed unlikely to explain the clusters. Although consistent, these findings should be confirmed by further investigation (e.g., a case-control study in which dioxins are measured in biologic tissues) before clusters of soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are ascribed to dioxin released by the municipal solid waste incinerator.  (+info)

(8/276) Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. METHODS: Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. RESULTS: Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry and Mourne District. CONCLUSION: A striking, highly localised, excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers who had attended a girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-57 has been confirmed. However, not all of the mothers of the affected children attended the school concurrently and the origin of non-disjunction in one child was an error occurring after conception. Some exposure essentially confined to girls attending the school at this time is a possible, although unlikely, explanation, but a review of potential risk factors does not suggest what this could be. Previous suggestions that an influenza epidemic or contamination from the Windscale nuclear reactor fire might be implicated, both of which occurred in October 1957, can be effectively dismissed because three of the women with affected offspring had left the school by then and had moved away from Dundalk, and Down's syndrome in the child of another mother originated in an error after fertilisation. Owing to the retrospective nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the cases, chance is the most likely explanation for the cluster.  (+info)



2016


  • In this New York Times bestseller, updated for 2016, an award-winning journalist uses ten maps of crucial regions to explain the geo-political strategies of the world powers-"fans of geography, history, and politics (and maps) will be enthralled" (Fort Worth Star-Telegram). (google.com)

periods


  • Staff from the School of Biosciences as well as other Schools (Medicine, Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering) are seconded to the Centre for varying periods of time. (birmingham.ac.uk)

dominant


  • It was first articulated by choreographer Mary Overlie, who broke down the two dominant issues performers deal with-space and time-into six categories. (google.com)
  • We compile a sample of 38 galaxy clusters which have both X-ray and strong lensing observations, and study for each cluster the projected offset between the dominant component of baryonic matter centre (measured by X-rays) and the gravitational centre (measured by strong lensing). (thenakedscientists.com)

hosts


  • The problem became even further complex at the level of populations or communities, including parasites, vectors, reservoirs, and hosts (among them humans) distributed dynamically in space and time in a matrix of changing environment [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To use a globally unique address framework of 32 bits to address network hosts was, at the time, a major shift in thinking about computer networks from a collection of disparate private facilities into a truly public utility. (cisco.com)

humans


  • What's it like to be able to smell not just every bit of open food in the house but also to smell sadness in humans, or even the passage of time? (google.com)

happens


  • The Viewpoints are a set of names given to certain principles of movement through time and space-they constitute a language for talking about what happens on stage. (google.com)
  • Happens all the time. (slashdot.org)

computer


  • Address deployment architectures in other contemporary protocols did not have the address space to support such address distribution functions, nor did they even see a need for global uniqueness of computer network addresses. (cisco.com)
  • Houses a dedicated 128 processor computer cluster, office space and meeting facilities. (birmingham.ac.uk)

human


  • Quantum physics has found that there is no empty space in the human cell, but it is a teeming, electric-magnetic field of possibility or potential. (redicecreations.com)

different


  • The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite noted difficulties, discussion section deals with many attempts which were made for leishmaniases in different time and space scales. (hindawi.com)

tiny


  • Northwestern University physicists have for the first time shown that superfluid helium-3 -- the lighter isotope of helium, which is a liquid that has lost all internal friction, allowing it to flow without resistance and ooze through tiny spaces that normal liquids cannot penetrate -- actually behaves like a solid in its ability to conduct sound waves. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Thus, early eye development involves several simultaneous events that take place within a tiny space in the embryonic head. (wiley.com)

component


  • Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. (diabetesjournals.org)

changes


  • As healthcare often is studied in relation to operational rather than socio-technical aspects of Lean such as teamwork, the purpose of this paper is to explore how a Swedish hospital Lean intervention was related to changes in teamwork over time. (biomedsearch.com)

stories


  • One of those stories that keeps on appearing from time to time is the claim that somewhere in the world, or even all over the world, we are "running out of IP addresses," referring to the consumption of unallocated IPv4 addresses [1]. (cisco.com)