Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Epidemiologic Measurements: Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Animal DiseasesLivestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.New MexicoModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).England

*  Space-time cluster analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil

SOUZA, Vanessa Aparecida Feijó de et al. Space-time cluster analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bauru, São Paulo ... A space-time analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in humans in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil was ... Palavras-chave : Visceral Leishmaniasis; Cluster Analysis; Spatial Analysis. · resumo em Português · texto em Inglês · Inglês ... The present study allows us to conclude that the disease was clustered in the Southwest side of the city in 2006, suggesting ...

*  Simulating component-to-pattern dynamic effects with a computer model of middle temporal pattern neurons | JOV | ARVO Journals

These are nonoriented in space-time, and so a moving edge (white line) takes a relatively long time to activate the excitatory ... The net local output (cluster positive activity minus cluster negative activity) from all of the nine clusters in the receptive ... These are nonoriented in space-time, and so a moving edge (white line) takes a relatively long time to activate the excitatory ... These are nonoriented in space-time, and so a moving edge (white line) takes a relatively long time to activate the excitatory ...

*  Space-time clustering of cryptorchidism and hypospadias - ePrints - Newcastle University

Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...

*  Space-time clustering of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels - ePrints - Newcastle University

Space-time clustering of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels. *Lookup NU author(s) ...

*  Staff Profile - Institute of Health and Society - Newcastle University

Space-time clustering of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in parts of the U.K. (1984-1993). European Journal of Cancer 1999, 35(1 ... Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 29-year-olds in Yorkshire, UK. Diabetologia 2006, 49(5), 900-904. ... Little or no space-time clustering found amongst cases of childhood lymphoma in North West England. European Journal of Cancer ... Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes in children from north-east England: support for an infectious aetiology?. In ...

*  Recent dynamics and condition of coral reefs in the Colombian Caribbean.

Space-Time Clustering. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... A significant decrease (p = 0.042) in coral cover was only identified for some monitoring plots in Tayrona-time x plot (depth ... Significant increase (p = 0.005) in algal cover was observed over time for most plots in Rosario. Temporal trajectories in ... and time (repeated factor). We found high spatial variability in major benthic components. Overall means indicated that algae ...

*  logistic models

Space-Time Clustering of Testicular Cancer Using Residential Histories. Geoffrey Jacquez; Fiscal Year: 2008 ... non-compliance in psychiatric randomized trials to modeling clustered discrete responses with mixed effects logistic models. By ... MODEL FREE TIME CURVES FOR LONGITUDINAL DATA ANALYSIS. P Wilson; Fiscal Year: 1993 ... The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use. Emma Coombes. ...

*  The AMEDEO Literature Guide

Space-Time Clustering of Childhood Leukemia: Evidence of an Association with ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) Fusion.. PLoS One. 2017;12: ... Time and spatial trends in lymphoid leukemia and lymphoma incidence and survival among children and adolescents in Manitoba, ...

*  Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990-2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy | Diabetes

Space-time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 29-year-olds in Yorkshire, U.K. Diabetologia 2006;49:900-904. ... The best model (model 3) included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). Therefore, the variation over time has a linear ... Time trends in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children: a cohort study. Lancet 2008;371(9626):1777-1782. ... Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire, U.K.: time trends in 0-14 and 15-29-year-olds, age at onset and age-period-cohort modelling. ...

*  Ghent University Academic Bibliography

Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005 ... Investigating clustering in interval-censored udder quarter infection times in dairy cows using a gamma frailty model Bart Ampe ... Assessing antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli in young calves using cluster analysis techniques Anna Berge UGent, ... Evaluation of a hierarchical ascendant clustering process implemented in a veterinary syndromic surveillance system Isabelle ...

*  Items where Department is "Faculty of Science and Technology | Mathematics and Statistics" and Year is 1995 - Lancaster EPrints

Second-order analysis of space-time disease clustering. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 4 (2). pp. 124-136. ISSN 1477- ... Kingman, S. P. and Gatrell, A. C. and Rowlingson, B. (1995) Testing for clustering of health events within a geographical ...

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Application of a space-time statistic showed a significant clustering of P. malariae cases, and, to a lesser extent of P. vivax ... Two clusters of cases occurred: an introduced P. vivax outbreak associated with Anopheles aquasalis in 1990-1991, and an ... All North American isolates comprised a single, highly conserved lineage with strains grouped by the time of isolation and to ... The laboratory positivity rate for suspected dengue cases who submitted appropriately timed serum samples in those years ranged ...

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Among nestling House Sparrows, FM virus infections were clustered in time and space. Nestling House Sparrows with FM virus- ... Among nestling House Sparrows, FM virus infections were clustered in time and space. Nestling House Sparrows with FM virus- ...

*  Exercise sub-cluster 35

Strain and strain rate can be calculated from velocity gradients in time and space. This new technique has been developed to ... The present study characterize the early phase of the arterial (99m)Tc-sestamibi (MIBI) time-activity curve after venous bolus ... and whether it can shorten the total imaging time. Ten young, healthy volunteers (eight males, two females, mean age: 26.3 +/- ...

*  Spitzer nets thousands of galaxies in a giant cluster

... 30.05.2007. In just a short amount of time, NASA's Spitzer Space ... "Thanks to Spitzer, we can observe nearby clusters such as Coma very deeply in a short amount of time. The total observing time ... can save time, space and money by drying coatings with infrared heat ... in space can probe more deeply than ground-based near-infrared surveys because the sky background is up to 10,000 times darker. ...

*  Hwa-Lung's Homepage

Application of hierarchical clustering method to classify the space-time rainfall patterns in Lanyang catchment (Taiwan) , 10th ... Constructing space-time pdfs in geosciences. Bolet n Geol gico y Minero. Accepted.. ... Analysis of space-time patterns of rainfall events during 1989-2008 in I-lan county (Taiwan) , Journal of Hydrology. In review. ... Understanding the space-time patterns of a groundwater system: a case study in Choshui river aquifer (Taiwan) . Invited Seminar ...

*  XMM-Newton reveals the origin of elements in galaxy clusters

can save time, space and money by drying coatings with infrared heat ... Most of the chemical elements produced in the stars of galaxy clusters - expelled into the surrounding space by supernova ... The spatial distribution of elements across a cluster also holds information about the history of clusters themselves. The ... detected for the first time ever in a galaxy cluster - chromium. "Comparing the abundances of the detected elements to the ...

*  BU Astrophysicist Leads Team That Discovers "Sloshing" Gas in Galaxy Cluster

can save time, space and money by drying coatings with infrared heat ... After the smaller cluster passed the cluster core, the direction of motion of the cluster gas reversed and it traveled back ... cluster gas »cluster of galaxies »hot gas »massive black hole »smaller cluster »spiral structure »supermassive black hole » ... cluster gas , cluster of galaxies , hot gas , massive black hole , smaller cluster , spiral structure , supermassive black hole ...

*  Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 33

It is important to understand how remodeling is regulated in time and space. In fission yeast, the conserved microtubule ... Microtubules (MTs) are central to the organisation of the eukaryotic intracellular space and are involved in the control of ...

*  Seasonality and Temporal Clustering of Kawasaki Syndrome

The distribution of a syndrome in space and time may suggest clues to its etiology. The cause of Kawasaki syndrome, a systemic ... Temporal Clustering of Cases. We used the adjusted daily incidence and arbitrarily chose 4 days as the time interval for our ... A cluster was defined as ,35- 46 cases per 4-day period, depending on the time block and geographic region. Simulation of cases ... The number of clusters was compared with the mean number of simulated clusters in the Monte Carlo distribution. Confidence ...

*  ESA Television - Keywords - Description - Star cluster

Hubble Space Telescope: Index 2 with time code. * *Released: 24/02/2011 ...

*  Novel Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration Implementation of K-Means Clustering on FPGAs: Comparative Results with GPPs and GPUs

... of modern Xilinx FPGAs allows for better exploitation of FPGA resources over time and space. DPR allows for changing the ... The GPP time shown in Table 1 is the average time of 10,000 runs, with the initial clusters' centroids given as inputs to the ... which has number of stages dependent on the number of clusters (. ) as given by This block is pipelined to have throughput of ... and the process iterates for a fixed number of times, or until points in each cluster stop moving across to different clusters ...

*  WIT2010 Workshop on Intelligent Trackers (3-5 February 2010)

... implements a data compression algorithm based on the time&space sorting of the hits and it has been optimized for clustered ... Two examples of new primitives are near real-time charged particle direction or charge clusters without pixel boundary effects ... Time labeling is performed by the central logic that divides the incoming hits into precise time windows defined by a dedicated ... This limits the requirements concerning power, and physical space, needed for the preamp in the pixel. As a consequence, space ...

*  Plus it

... but the appearance of leukemia cases in time-space clusters keeps infection as a potential causal factor. Here, we present in ...

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...


Geographical cluster: A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be expected.WormsgrabenList of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Pouillet effect: In physics, the term Pouillet effect refers to an exothermic reaction that takes place when a liquid is added to a powder. It was first observed by Leslie in 1802 when dry sand was immersed in water.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Plum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.Caffeic acid phenethyl esterEssence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Shiva crater: The Shiva Crater is a geologic structure, which is hypothesized by Sankar ChatterjeeChatterjee, S. (1997) Multiple impacts at the KT boundary and the death of the dinosaurs.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMonte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Jet aeratorsAlbuquerque IsotopesVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Dengue fever outbreaksIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).

(1/276) Evidence of space-time clustering of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Sweden.

We have examined 645 recorded cases of childhood acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) in Sweden during 1973-89 to identify space-time clustering by using the close-pair method of Knox. The records included date of birth and of diagnosis as well as addresses at birth and at diagnosis. There was a significant excess of case pairs close in date of birth and place of birth in the 5- to 15-year age group.  (+info)

(2/276) Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

(3/276) An assessment of spatial clustering of leukaemias and lymphomas among young people in New Zealand.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess spatial clustering of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas in New Zealand, using a national dataset from a country with no nuclear installations. DESIGN: New Zealand Map Grid coordinates, derived from the birth addresses of cases and controls were used in clustering analyses that applied Cuzick and Edwards' method. SETTING: The whole of New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: The cases were ascertained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. They were diagnosed with leukaemia or lymphoma at ages 0-14 years during the period 1976 to 1987. For Hodgkin's disease, the age range was extended to include those aged from 0-24 years. The cancer registrations were linked with national birth records, to obtain the birth addresses of the cases. The controls were selected at random from birth records, with matching to cases (1:1) on age and sex. The analyses included 600 cases and 600 controls. MAIN RESULTS: There was no statistically significant spatial clustering for any tumour group overall, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute nonlymphoblastic leukaemia, other leukaemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and all these combined. Significant clustering was found in a sub-analysis for one of three age specific subgroups of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ages 10-14 years, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The subgroup finding may have been real or a chance association, as several comparisons were made. This study found little evidence for spatial clustering of leukaemias or lymphomas in a population with no nuclear installations.  (+info)

(4/276) Suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma in three workers with long-term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour.

Sulphuric acid vapour has been suspected of being an industrial carcinogen. In this study, a cluster is presented of three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who worked in the same building of a telecommunications conveyance station in southern Taiwan with long term exposure to sulphuric acid vapour concentrations as high as 0.18 mg/m3. All three workers were diagnosed with NPC within a 5 month period between September 1992, and March 1993. Compared with 19 other healthy workers from the same building, these three workers with NPC had worked significantly longer in this building than had the others (mean (SD) (years): 12.7 (0.6) v 7.4 (4.4); p = 0.01). With an in situ nucleic acid hybridisation and immunostaining method for colocalised Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and secretory component (SC) protein among biopsy specimens of these three patients with NPCs, it was found that some tumour cells did not contain EBV and SC protein staining signals. These results indicate that EBV infection is not the only risk factor for NPC and long term exposure to relatively low concentrations of sulphuric acid vapour may be associated with the development of NPC.  (+info)

(5/276) American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southeast Brazil: space-time clustering.

BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in many rural areas of Brazil where different transmission patterns of the disease have been described. This ecological study was carried out in a municipality located in Southeast Brazil and aimed to investigate the space-temporal patterns of the disease and environmental risk factors from 1966 to 1996. METHODS: Incident ACL cases were defined by clinical diagnosis, confirmed by a positive skin test and/or parasitological examination. Age-adjusted morbidity rate of ACL was calculated by year for this municipality and their different census enumeration districts. The homogeneity chi2 test, Moran and empirical Bayes index and Knox procedure were employed for testing the significance of clusters in time, space and in time-space, respectively. A Poisson regression model was used to identify environmental factors related to rate variability. RESULTS: A total of 1712 new ACL cases were reported with a yearly incidence rate of 48/100000 inhabitants. Higher incidence rates were detected in 1968, 1974, and 1988 (100, 160, and 190 cases/100000, respectively) with evidence of spatial clustering from 1986 to 1993. Significant space-time clustering with epidemic peaks followed by low incidence in subsequent periods was observed. The incidence rates of ACL were independently associated with rural areas; areas lacking sanitary installations and with higher proportion of exposed garbage (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that ACL rates vary across space and time. Rural areas and some environmental factors could explain part of this variation. Environmental modifications in the vicinity of households over time and accumulation of susceptible individuals are discussed as possible factors responsible for variability.  (+info)

(6/276) The existence of geographical clusters of cases of inflammatory polyarthritis in a primary care based register.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is any evidence that there are spatial clusters of rheumatoid arthritis in particular, and inflammatory arthritis in general. METHODS: Setting was a population based incidence register of inflammatory arthritis: the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR). All cases identified between 1990-1995 were mapped to place of residence. Statistical evidence of clustering was determined by calculating Poisson probabilities in putative areas. RESULTS: Three clusters were identified including one small area (population 85) where five unrelated cases developed during this time period. There was no obvious greater disease homogeneity within clusters and no common environmental factors were identified. CONCLUSION: Rare clusters of inflammatory polyarthritis do occur. Their significance and cause remain to be elucidated.  (+info)

(7/276) Soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma clusters around a municipal solid waste incinerator with high dioxin emission levels.

Overall evidence from epidemiologic studies in the workplace suggests that dioxin is a human carcinogen, but whether low doses affect the general population remains to be determined. The authors examined the spatial distribution of soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas around a French municipal solid waste incinerator with high emission levels of dioxin (16.3 ng international toxic equivalency factor/m3). Not consistently associated with dioxin exposure,-Hodgkin's disease served as the control cancer category. Clusters were identified from 1980 to 1995 in the area ("departement') of Doubs by applying a spatial scan statistic to 26 electoral wards. The most likely and highly significant clusters found were identical for soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and included the area around the municipal solid waste incinerator; standardized incidence ratios were 1.44 (observed number of cases = 45, focused test p value = 0.004) and 1.27 (observed number of cases = 286, focused test p value = 0.00003), respectively. Conversely, Hodgkin's disease exhibited no specific spatial distribution. Confounding by socioeconomic status, urbanization, or patterns of medical referral seemed unlikely to explain the clusters. Although consistent, these findings should be confirmed by further investigation (e.g., a case-control study in which dioxins are measured in biologic tissues) before clusters of soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are ascribed to dioxin released by the municipal solid waste incinerator.  (+info)

(8/276) Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. METHODS: Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. RESULTS: Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry and Mourne District. CONCLUSION: A striking, highly localised, excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers who had attended a girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-57 has been confirmed. However, not all of the mothers of the affected children attended the school concurrently and the origin of non-disjunction in one child was an error occurring after conception. Some exposure essentially confined to girls attending the school at this time is a possible, although unlikely, explanation, but a review of potential risk factors does not suggest what this could be. Previous suggestions that an influenza epidemic or contamination from the Windscale nuclear reactor fire might be implicated, both of which occurred in October 1957, can be effectively dismissed because three of the women with affected offspring had left the school by then and had moved away from Dundalk, and Down's syndrome in the child of another mother originated in an error after fertilisation. Owing to the retrospective nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the cases, chance is the most likely explanation for the cluster.  (+info)


  • Temporal trajectories in algal cover were influenced by depth-significant time x depth interaction-in San Andrés (increase, p = 0.004) and Urabá (decrease, p = 0.027). (
  • Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. (
  • Moreover, if associations between environmental factors and the disease exist, it is relevant to establish whether increasing temporal trends are occurring cross-sectionally, affecting all age-groups at the same point in time (period effects), or longitudinally, affecting all age-groups from the same birth cohort (cohort effects) ( 16 ). (
  • Temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases was detected with nationwide outbreaks. (
  • Temporal clustering of cases combined with marked seasonality suggests an environmental trigger for this clinical syndrome. (


  • The present study allows us to conclude that the disease was clustered in the Southwest side of the city in 2006, suggesting that this area may require special attention with regard to control and prevention measures. (

NASA Goddar

  • A team led by Leigh Jenkins and Ann Hornschemeier, both at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., used Spitzer to study the Coma cluster, an enormous congregation of galaxies 320 million light-years away in the constellation Coma. (


  • In just a short amount of time, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has bagged more than a thousand previously unknown dwarf galaxies in a giant cluster of galaxies. (
  • Computer simulations of cosmic evolution suggest that high-density regions of the Universe, such as giant clusters, should contain significantly more dwarf galaxies than astronomers have observed to date. (
  • The cluster contains hundreds of previously known galaxies that span a volume 20 million light-years across. (
  • Some of these are galaxies in the Coma cluster, but the team realized that a large fraction had to be background galaxies. (
  • Using data taken with the 4-meter (13 foot) William Herschel Telescope on the Canary island of La Palma, team member Bahram Mobasher of the Space Telescope Science Institute, in Baltimore, Md., measured distances to hundreds of galaxies in these fields to estimate what fraction are cluster members. (
  • Deep observations of two X-ray bright clusters of galaxies with ESA's XMM-Newton satellite allowed a group of international astronomers to measure their chemical composition with an unprecedented accuracy. (
  • Clusters, or conglomerates, of galaxies are the largest objects in the Universe. (
  • In fact most of the atoms in galaxy clusters are in the form of hot gas emitting X-ray radiation, with the mass of the hot gas five times larger than the mass in the cluster's galaxies themselves. (
  • Since clusters of galaxies are believed to be fair samples of the Universe, their X-ray spectroscopy can help to improve the supernova models. (
  • Composite X-ray (blue) / optical (orange) image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 2052. (
  • The majority of the mass that we can directly observe in a cluster of galaxies emits in the X-ray, rather than the visible light we can see with our eyes. (
  • This spiral was created when a small cluster of galaxies smashed into a larger one that surrounds the central elliptical galaxy. (
  • Blanton's primary field of research is clusters of galaxies, and she uses these objects to study galaxy formation and evolution as well as cosmology. (


  • I have a special interest in methods and analysis of clustering of chronic diseases. (


  • Knowing the chemical composition of galaxy clusters is of crucial importance to understanding the origin of chemical elements in the Universe. (

galaxy cluster

  • Boston-Boston University astrophysicist Elizabeth Blanton led a team of researchers in the discovery of vast clouds of hot gas "sloshing" in Abell 2052, a galaxy cluster located about 480 million light years from Earth. (
  • The hot gas in the galaxy cluster Abell 2052 is being sloshed back and forth like wine in a glass. (


  • Thanks to Spitzer, we can observe nearby clusters such as Coma very deeply in a short amount of time. (


  • A space-time analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in humans in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil was carried out based on 239 cases diagnosed between June 2003 and October 2008. (


  • Given that the observations only cover a portion of the cluster, the results imply a total dwarf galaxy population of at least 4,000. (
  • Even better, infrared observations in space can probe more deeply than ground-based near-infrared surveys because the sky background is up to 10,000 times darker. (


  • In addition to the large-scale spiral feature, the deep Chandra observation reveals exquisite detail in the cluster center related to outbursts from the central supermassive black hole. (


  • This finding was confirmed by the time series analysis, which also showed a positive tendency over the period analyzed. (
  • Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. (
  • To assess clustering, we compared the number of cases per day (daily incidence) with a simulated distribution (Monte Carlo analysis). (


  • The spatial distribution of elements across a cluster also holds information about the history of clusters themselves. (


  • The distribution of oxygen and iron across Sersic 159-03 indicates that while most of the enrichment by the core collapse supernovae happened long time ago, Type Ia supernovae still continue to enrich the hot gas by heavy elements especially in the core of the cluster. (
  • The distribution of a syndrome in space and time may suggest clues to its etiology. (


  • Two clusters of cases occurred: an introduced P. vivax outbreak associated with Anopheles aquasalis in 1990-1991, and an autochtonous focus of P. malariae associated with An. (
  • Application of a space-time statistic showed a significant clustering of P. malariae cases, and, to a lesser extent of P. vivax cases, but not of P. falciparum cases. (
  • Seasonality and clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases were studied in Japanese children with Kawasaki syndrome reported in nationwide surveys in Japan. (
  • Clear documentation of seasonality and clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases would lend further weight to the hypothesis that Kawasaki syndrome has an environmental trigger. (


  • Comparing the abundances of the detected elements to the yields of supernovae calculated theoretically, we found that about 30 percent of the supernovae in these clusters were exploding white dwarfs ('Type Ia') and the rest were collapsing stars at the end of their lives ('core collapse')," said Norbert Werner, from the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research (Utrecht, Netherlands) and one of the lead authors of these results. (


  • Hornschemeier and other astronomers are currently making deeper spectroscopic measurements with the 6.5-meter (21 foot) telescope of the MMT Observatory in Arizona, and the 10-meter (32 foot) Keck telescope in Hawaii, to find out how many of the faintest objects belong to the Coma cluster. (


  • After the smaller cluster passed the cluster core, the direction of motion of the cluster gas reversed and it traveled back towards the cluster center. (
  • First, it helps push some of the more dense, cooler gas located in the center of the cluster -- where temperatures are only about 10 million degrees -- farther away from the core. (


  • In this cluster, we have a spectacular combination of the large-scale "sloshing" spiral and central "bubbles" related to outbursts from a supermassive black hole," Blanton explained. (


  • The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. (


  • The sloshing was set in motion when a small cluster smashed into the larger central one. (


  • The astronomers also found that all supernova models predict much less calcium than what is observed in clusters and that the observed nickel abundance cannot be reproduced by these models. (


  • A significant decrease (p = 0.042) in coral cover was only identified for some monitoring plots in Tayrona-time x plot (depth level) interaction, and importantly, few coral species explained this trend. (
  • Significant increase (p = 0.005) in algal cover was observed over time for most plots in Rosario. (