South AmericaNorth AmericaCentral AmericaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.ArgentinaIndians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.ColombiaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)ChilePhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)ParaguayIndians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.PeruAfricaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)BrazilGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.VenezuelaCaribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.UruguayEcuadorSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.South CarolinaBoliviaFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.PanamaEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.BelizeYellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Drosera: A plant genus of the family Droseraceae, order Nepenthales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that contains naphthoquinone glucosides. The name sundew is rarely used for PYROLA.EuropeNew South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.MexicoXenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.South DakotaGene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mimosa: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GuatemalaWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Herpesvirus 5, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Europe, EasternHantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Trichechus inunguis: Member of the genus Trichechus found in the Amazon and Orinoco drainages of northeastern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Trichechus manatus: Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.United StatesCatfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

*  South America - SmarterTravel

South America. When To Go. The majority of South America falls below the equator, which means the seasons are the exact ... South America stretches from above the equator to just north of the Antarctic Circle, encompassing a wide cross-section of ...
https://smartertravel.com/destination/south-america/

*  Huascaran : South America

Regional discussion and conditions reports for South America. Please post partners requests and trip plans in the South ... I encountered powder above 6000m on relatively flat and undulating terrain, and on steep slopes facing south and southwest just ...
summitpost.org/phpBB3/post902076.html

*  AboveCapricorn: The International Year of the Pulse 2016

... of nearly 500 accessions of large-seeded dry beans of Andean descent obtained from more than a dozen countries in South America ... Africa, the Caribbean, and parts of North America. ADP database information includes analyses from genomic mapping and ...
abovecapricorn.blogspot.com/2016/02/the-year-of-pulse-2016.html

*  Westin Hotels in Central & South America, Detailed List | Explore Upscale Hotel Destinations

South America and book your upcoming stay at an award winning upscale hotel. ...
https://starwoodhotels.com/westin/directory/hotels/south-america/detail.html?display=hotels&sortType=&pageType=list®ionName=south-america&amenityFilter=BusinessServices

*  Mexico, Caribbean, South America - Budget Travel

... the Caribbean and South America. Looking for an endless summer. This region might be just what you are looking for. ... South America at Budget Travel : Travel to Mexico, ... South America. Travel to Mexico, the Caribbean and South ... Travelling South To Ecuador With the dollar down, consider travel spots where you can use your greenbacks to maximize their ... America. Looking for an endless summer. This region might be just what you are looking for. ...
bellaonline.com/subjects/12055.asp

*  Dynamics Days South America 2010

The aim of this meeting is to bring together for the first time in South America researchers from a wide range of backgrounds ... This conference will mark the start of the South America branch of the acclaimed Dynamics Days series of conferences, and will ... on problems that are specially relevant for the development of science and technology in the South America region.. ... will pave the way for the formation of a research network on nonlinear dynamics that will support and foster South America ...
lac.inpe.br/ddays/about.jsp

*  South American ATM Market Holds Great Potential

In South America, the branch and ATM are still the major banking channels. While in past five years, FIs across South America ... The Note also reviews common ATM functionality offered by the leading ATM networks in South America and use of the channel as a ... "With growth in the number of ATMs installed across South America likely to continue near double digits in the foreseeable ... Overview of the functionality offered by some of the leading ATM networks across South America ...
prweb.com/releases/2014/05/prweb11853109.htm

*  South America | Ethnologue

This web edition of the Ethnologue may be cited as: Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com.. ...
https://ethnologue.com/world-region/south-america-2

*  South America | Facts, Land, People, & Economy | Britannica.com

Geographical treatment of South America, the fourth largest continent in the world, the southern portion of the landmass ... South America - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). A continent that is home to nearly 400 million people, South America ... South America is the world's fourth largest continent. The countries of South America are also part of a larger cultural region ... Drake Passage, south of Cape Horn, separates South America from Antarctica.. Relatively few islands rim the continent, except ...
https://britannica.com/place/South-America

*  Indian Cultures by Hands Around the World | Native American Indian Cultures from Mexico and South America

In South America, not only are the cultures and traditions in danger of disappearing, but some of the Indians themselves are in ... Hands Around the World introduces unique Native American Indian cultures from Mexico and various parts of South America, ... Many of the Native American cultures, especially in North America, have been lost forever and are still honored only in myth ... into the society of the South American gold miner. The Yanomami are only the tip of the iceberg. There are hundreds of other ...
indian-cultures.com

*  SOUTH AMERICA&AFRICA

Central & South AMERICA Brazil/Mexico/Guatemala/Colombia/Bolivia/Argentina ?? ͒n ̗ B ԓ ȓ?? { Ƃ͋t G ߂œ { ̉Ă͓?? ̓~ B [ N X } X ͑ ... U.S.A&Canada-1 , U.S.A&Canada-2 , U.S.A&Canada-3 , C&S.America , Africa , i ^Rarity ...
ne.jp/asahi/com/koyama/coke/fo/f09.html

*  IPNI Plant Name Details

Venezuela (Northern South America, Southern America). Id: 287667-2 Version: 1.4 View Record history ...
ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=287667-2&back_page=/ipni/editAdvPlantNameSearch.do

*  South America | Flickr

Explore this photo album by Uli Hollmann on Flickr!
https://flickr.com/photos/52657049@N00/sets/72157628953269139/

*  South America : NPR

South America
npr.org/tags/126938788/south-america/archive?date=2-28-2013

*  South America : NPR

Legend has it that the moon gifted this infusion to the Guaraní people of South America. iStockphoto hide caption ... Study: The Chicken Didn't Cross The Pacific To South America. March 18, 2014 An analysis of DNA from ancient and modern chicken ... Legend has it the moon gifted this drink to the Guaraní people of South America. It was banned by the colonial government. The ... Che Guevara championed the proletariat against the forces of capitalism in South America. His son champions making $3,000 a ...
npr.org/tags/126938788/south-america/archive?date=5-31-2016

*  South America wars page

This area is becoming more peaceful than it was in the past, even during the 20th century. There are now no serious likely occasions of international wars. All the existing international disputes are likely to be resolved by peaceful means, even those that occasionally break out, such as disputes between Ecuador and Peru.. There are still guerrilla wars and areas of interior tension, mainly a result of the extreme difference between rich and poor, and therefore a lack of social solidarity (group feeling).. The Andean states of the continent are the major source of the drug cocaine, a product of the Coca tree which grows in Bolivia, Peru and Colombia. As the trade is illegal, this means that the main source of wealth in several countries is not in the hands of the state, or of legitimate business but goes to criminals, and cannot be taxed.. The election of a number of 'leftwing' presidents in Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil causes the United States to be anxious in case they threaten US economic ...
angelfire.com/mac/egmatthews/worldinfo/wars/sAmericaWars.html

*  Storybook South America - Telegraph

Storybook South America. As a child, Michelle Jana Chan heard bedtime tales from her father of the pumas and piranhas of Guyana ... "Africa - right?" It always puzzled me why the only former British colony in the continent of South America was so off the map ... Guyana is one of the least explored countries in South America. I met only a handful of non-natives: missionaries, journalists ... South America's bigger answer to the alligator; the svelte ocelot, which we found dead by the side of the road; and the ...
telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/southamerica/guyana/735913/Storybook-South-America.html

*  Thesaurus:South America - Wiktionary

Thesaurus:South America. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (Redirected from Thesaurus:country of South America) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Thesaurus:South_America&oldid=32225198" ...
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Thesaurus:country_of_South_America

*  South America | Greenpeace International

South America. The Temperate Jungle of South America, which covers regions of Southern Chile and Argentina, represents the ...
greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/forests/south-america/?page=44

*  South America 2009

10/05/2009 , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil , Our first view of Rio, a favela or slum aka a shantytown. ...
frontiernet.net/~jnc5/soamer3HR_14.html

*  BBC - Travel - South America

New fees for visiting South America. A new procedure for paying Argentinean entry fees - plus other visa changes around the ...
bbc.com/travel/south-america/17

*  BBC - Travel - South America

South America's most underrated city?. It has more restaurants listed in the San Pellegrino World 50 list than any city outside ...
bbc.com/travel/eco-tourism/in/south-america

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa, and Middle East (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-13 ... South Africa) II-26 Dassault Systèmes (France)..............II-26 Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks Corporation (US) II-26 ... Table 7: World Historic Review for 3D CAD by Geographic Region/Country - US, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and ... Table 22: Latin American Historic Review for 3D CAD by Geographic Region/Country - Brazil, and Rest of Latin America Markets ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

*  Newtown bypass row as revised plans go on display - BBC News

A caravan park owner claims plans for a Newtown bypass that will be on public display later will destroy his business.
bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-mid-wales-26922223

*  Patent US20040224089 - Silicon-containing layer deposition with silicon compounds - Google Patent

Asm America, Inc.. Thin films and methods of making them. US7897491. 16 dec 2009. 1 mar 2011. Asm America, Inc.. Separate ... University Of South Carolina. Method of growing high quality, thick sic epitaxial films by eliminating silicon gas phase ... Asm America, Inc.. Process for deposition of semiconductor films. US8367528. 17 nov 2009. 5 feb 2013. Asm America, Inc.. ... Asm America, Inc.. Selective deposition of silicon-containing films. WO2007140375A2 *. 29 maj 2007. 6 dec 2007. Asm America, ...
google.se/patents/US20040224089

Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.American Medical Student AssociationAthletics at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean GamesHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Liliana Rojas-Suarez: Liliana Rojas-Suarez is a Peruvian-born economist, specializing in financial regulatory policy and the impact of global capital flows on development, especially in Latin American countries. She is currently a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and serves as the chair of the Latin-American Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF).Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresLampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Rice production in Guyana: Rice production in Guyana reached a high of over 180,000 tons in 1984 but declined to a low of 130,000 tons in 1988. The fluctuating production levels were the result of disease and inconsistent weather.El Queremal, Valle del CaucaHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.List of tallest buildings in Chile: This is a list of the 10 tallest buildings in Chile including buildings that are under construction.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Villa Elisa, Paraguay: Villa Elisa is a city in the Central Department of Paraguay on the outskirts of Asuncion. It was the only colony that was inhabited by Swedish people in Paraguay and today is one of the most important and active cities that are part of the Metropolitan Area of the capital.Kuna people: The Guna, also known as Kuna or Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia. The current preferred and legally recognized spelling is Guna.Timeline of historic inventionsLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Miss Asia Pacific 2005University of CampinasGenetic variation: right|thumbIllegal drug trade in Venezuela: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela refers to the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela. Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983Midland Uruguay Railway: The Midland Uruguay Railway was the second most important of five rail lines in Uruguay's early rail history. The other four systems were the Central Uruguay Railway Co.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Florence Crittenton Home (Charleston, South Carolina)Illegal drug trade in Bolivia: The illegal drug trade in Bolivia is complicated by a longstanding indigenous tradition of using coca leaf for chewing and for coca tea. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw some cultivation move to Colombia.List of rivers of French Guiana: This is a list of rivers in French Guiana.January 2007 in Oceania: __NOTOC__RhodolithHaplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightCaninia (genus)Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Panama Creature: The "Panama Creature" (also variously referred to as the "Panama Monster", "Panama ET" "Cerro Azul Monster", "Blue Stream Monster" or "Blue Hill Horror") refers to a creature photographed near the town of Cerro Azul, Panama, in September 2009. After the creature was discovered and reputedly killed by a group of teenagers, photographs of the corpse were given to Telemetro, a Panamanian television station.Roberto Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Indigenous peoples of SiberiaColes PhillipsBacalar Chico National Park and Marine ReserveHaemagogus: Haemagogus, is a genus of mosquitoes belonging to the family Culicidae. They mainly occur in Central America and northern South America (including Trinidad), although some species inhabit forested areas of Brazil, and range as far as northern Argentina.Triatoma infestansWedge Island (South Australia): Wedge Island}}Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Chagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.EcosystemMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Drosera derbyensis: Drosera derbyensis is a perennial carnivorous plant in the genus Drosera and is endemic to Western Australia. Its erect or semi-erect leaves are arranged in a rosette with one or more rosettes emerging from the root stock.GA²LENCharles ConderMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Hadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Microhyla berdmoreiCestodaWeathering: Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters. Weathering occurs in situ, roughly translated to: "with no movement" , and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Kandel (mountain): The Kandel is a mountain, 1,241.4 metres high, in the Black Forest in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.MyiasisPrimary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides immitis. Once pulmonary symptoms subside, about 30% of women and 15% of men will have allergic skin manifestations in the form of erythema nodosum.South Dakota Department of Corrections: The South Dakota Department of Corrections is the agency that operates state prisons in South Dakota. It has its headquarters in Pierre.Gene pool: The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Arroyo (creek): An arroyo (; , "brook"), also called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain. Flash floods are common in arroyos following thunderstorms.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.List of Falkland Islands-related topicsList of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Mimosa pudicaPaleopathology: Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases. It is useful in understanding the history of diseases, and uses this understanding to predict its course in the future.Transport in Suriname: The Republic of Suriname () has a number of forms of transport.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.

(1/892) Distribution of keratins, vimentin, and actin in the testis of two South American camelids: vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama). An immunohistochemical study.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of distribution of cytokeratins, vimentin and muscular actin in the testis of vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama) two species of camelids native of the Andean high plateau of South America. Testicular biopsies of four vicunas and five llamas were used. Animals were healthy breeders. The tissues were processed by standard immunohistochemistry with antipancytokeratinAE1/AE3, antikeratin 18 (K 18), CAM 5.2 (antikeratin 5, 18, and 19), antivimentin, and smooth-muscle-specific antiactin antibodies to track the cytoskeletal pattern of testicular cells. Using AE1/AE3 antibody the immunostaining was found in the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. The reaction was relatively stronger in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The testicular cells of the two species showed no reaction to K 18 and CAM 5.2 antibodies. Antivimentin antibody stained the basal cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, the Leydig cells, and the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. In the last two structures the immunostain was relatively more intense in the basal cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Antiactin antibody stained the peritubular cells and the muscle cells of the lamina propria oftubuli recti and rete testis. The presence in these species of only some keratins found in man, its coexpression with vimentin in epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis and the peritubule organization, so different from other ungulates may reflect a differential adaptation of the cytoskeleton to particular reproductive strategies.  (+info)

(2/892) Health maintenance organizations in developing countries: what can we expect?

Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are a relatively new and alternative means of providing health care, combining a risk-sharing (insurance) function with health service provision. Their potential for lowering costs has attracted great interest in the USA and elsewhere, and has raised questions regarding their applicability to other settings. Little attention, however, has been given to critically reviewing the experience with HMOs in other countries, particularly concerning their introduction to settings other than the USA. This paper first reviews the current experience of HMOs in low- and middle-income countries, including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Chile and Indonesia. Secondly, the paper reviews the USA experience with HMOs: prerequisites for the establishment of HMOs in the USA are identified and discussed, followed by a review of the performance of HMOs in terms of cost containment, integration of care and quality of care for the elderly and poor. The analysis concludes that difficulties may arise when implementing HMOs in developing countries, and that potential adverse effects on the overall health care delivery system may occur. These should be avoided by careful analyses of a nation's health care system.  (+info)

(3/892) Containing health costs in the Americas.

In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost containment. In various countries, large-scale reorganization processes have been undertaken to eliminate costly duplications of resources, personnel, and services that resulted from the multiplicity of providers in the public subsector. Given the pluralistic character of the region's health systems, an important challenge for policy-makers is to find ways to redefine the role of state intervention in health from the simple provision of services to one that involves the 'management' of health care in the entire sector.  (+info)

(4/892) Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

(5/892) Detection of an archaic clone of Staphylococcus aureus with low-level resistance to methicillin in a pediatric hospital in Portugal and in international samples: relics of a formerly widely disseminated strain?

Close to half of the 878 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains recovered between 1992 and 1997 from the pediatric hospital in Lisbon were bacteria in which antibiotic resistance was limited to beta-lactam antibiotics. The other half were multidrug resistant. The coexistence of MRSA with such unequal antibiotic resistance profiles prompted us to use molecular typing techniques for the characterization of the MRSA strains. Fifty-three strains chosen randomly were typed by a combination of genotypic methods. Over 90% of the MRSA strains belonged to two clones: the most frequent one, designated the "pediatric clone," was reminiscent of historically "early" MRSA: most isolates of this clone were only resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials and remained susceptible to macrolides, quinolones, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and tetracycline. They showed heterogeneous and low-level resistance to methicillin (MIC, 1.5 to 6 microg/ml), carried the ClaI-mecA polymorph II, were free of the transposon Tn554, and showed macrorestriction pattern D (clonal type II::NH::D). The second major clone was the internationally spread and multiresistant "Iberian" MRSA with homogeneous and high-level resistance to methicillin (MIC, >200 microg/ml) and clonal type I::E::A. Surprisingly, the multidrug-resistant and highly epidemic Iberian MRSA did not replace the much less resistant pediatric clone during the 6 years of surveillance. The pediatric clone was also identified among contemporary MRSA isolates from Poland, Argentina, The United States, and Colombia, and the overwhelming majority of these were also associated with pediatric settings. We propose that the pediatric MRSA strain represents a formerly widely spread archaic clone which survived in some epidemiological settings with relatively limited antimicrobial pressure.  (+info)

(6/892) New World hantaviruses.

Since the initial description in 1993 of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and its novel aetiological agent, Sin Nombre virus, our knowledge of the epidemiology of New World hantaviruses has continued to evolve. After the identifying outbreak in the southwestern US, four hantaviruses have been identified in North America with specific rodent hosts and associated with a number of sporadic cases. This stability of case recognition in North America is in contrast to the multiple outbreaks and endemic cases in South America. Despite a plethora of New World hantaviruses and new evidence of person-to-person transmission, the ecological and personal determinants of this human infection remain a mystery.  (+info)

(7/892) Impact of maternal nativity on the prevalence of diabetes during pregnancy among U.S. ethnic groups.

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of maternal nativity (birthplace) on the overall prevalence of diabetes during pregnancy and among 15 racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Birth certificate data for all resident single live births in the U.S. from 1994 to 1996 were used to calculate reported diabetes prevalence during pregnancy and to assess the impact of maternal birthplace outside of the 50 states and Washington, DC, on the risk of diabetes before and after adjustment for differences in maternal age, other sociodemographic characteristics, and late or no initiation of prenatal care overall and for each racial and ethnic group. RESULTS: Mothers born outside of the U.S. are significantly more likely to have diabetes during pregnancy. The impact of maternal nativity on diabetes prevalence is largely explained by the older childbearing age of immigrant mothers. However, adjusted diabetes risk remains elevated for Asian-Indian, non-Hispanic black, Filipino, Puerto Rican, and Central and South American mothers who were born outside the U.S. Conversely, birthplace outside the U.S. significantly reduces diabetes risk for Japanese, Mexican, and Native American women. CONCLUSIONS: Identification, treatment, and follow-up of immigrant mothers with diabetes during pregnancy may require special attention to language and sociocultural barriers to effective care. Systematic surveillance of the prevalence and impact of diabetes during pregnancy for immigrant and nonimmigrant women, particularly in racial and ethnic minority groups, and more detailed studies on the impact of acculturation on diabetes may increase understanding of the epidemiology of diabetes during pregnancy in our increasingly diverse society.  (+info)

(8/892) Population structure of the primary malaria vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, using isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and morphologic markers.

A genetic and morphologic survey of Anopheles darlingi populations collected from seven countries in Central and South America was performed to clarify the taxonomic status of this major malaria vector species in the Americas. Population genetics was based on three techniques including isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) markers. The results of the isozyme analysis indicated moderate differences in the allele frequencies of three putative loci (glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1, and phosphoglucomutase) of the 31 analyzed. No fixed electromorphic differences separated the populations of An. darlingi, which showed little genetic divergence (Nei distances = 0.976-0.995). Fragments produced by RAPD-PCR demonstrated evidence of geographic partitioning and showed that all populations were separated by small genetic distances as measured with the 1 - S distance matrix. The ITS2 sequences for all samples were identical except for four individuals from Belize that differed by a three-base deletion (CCC). The morphologic study demonstrated that the Euclidean distances ranged from 0.02 to 0.14, with the highest value observed between populations from Belize and Bolivia. Based on these analyses, all the An. darlingi populations examined demonstrated a genetic similarity that is consistent with the existence of a single species and suggest that gene flow is occurring throughout the species' geographic range.  (+info)



Argentina


  • The Temperate Jungle of South America, which covers regions of Southern Chile and Argentina, represents the largest tract of essentially undisturbed temperate forest in the world. (greenpeace.org)

America's


  • South America's most underrated city? (bbc.com)

English


  • It always puzzled me why the only former British colony in the continent of South America was so off the map for the English. (telegraph.co.uk)

people


  • Legend has it that the moon gifted this infusion to the Guaraní people of South America. (npr.org)