Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Communicable DiseasesPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.MycosesDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.History of MedicineHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.PhenazinesAgar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Streptococcus milleri Group: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.

*  9780125138406: Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry - IberLibro: 0125138407

Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry en - ISBN 10: 0125138407 - ISBN 13: 9780125138406 - ... With respect to bioremediation of soils, this work provides a unique bridge between general and applied soil microbiology and ... With respect to bioremediation of soils, this work provides a unique bridge between general and applied soil microbiology and ... With respect to bioremediation of soils, this work provides a unique bridge between general and applied soil microbiology and ...

*  PhD Scholarship in Soil Microbiology at University of Copenhagen, Denmark

PhD scholarship in Soil Microbiology: Biodiversity toolbox. "Implementing molecular tools for soil biodiversity investigation" ... PhD Scholarship in Soil Microbiology at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 17 April, 2012 Denmark No Comments ... activity of soil microorganisms and soil microfauna that will be used to help to evaluate ecosystem services that these soils ... Soil is by far the most species-rich of the Earth´s many microbial habitats with hundreds of thousands of different microbial ...

*  Growth of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria in soil - Rousk - 2011 - FEMS Microbiology Ecology - Wiley Online Library

Soil-specific limitations for access and analysis of soil microbial communities by metagenomics Next article in issue: Soil- ... Ellen Kandeler, Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry, 2015, 187. CrossRef. *5. Rajasekaran Murugan, Ralf Loges, ... Hang Cui, Caihuan Wang, Zhenhong Gu, Honghui Zhu, Shenlei Fu, Qing Yao, Evaluation of soil storage methods for soil microbial ... Previous article in issue: Nitrogen turnover in soil and global change Previous article in issue: Nitrogen turnover in soil and ...

*  Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship

Enumeration of Environmental Microbiology - Microbiology 2017 (Ireland). *Flora in Soil & Water Microbiology - Microbiology ... Improvements in Agricultural Microbiology - Microbiology 2017 (Ireland). *Innovations in Veterinary Microbiology - Microbiology ... Recommended Global Microbiology Conferences. USA & Americas. *Pharmaceutical Microbiology 2017, USA. *American Microbiology ... Current Trends in Microbiology - Microbiology 2017 (Ireland). *Emerging Techniques in Bacteriology - Microbiology 2017 (Ireland ...

*  Using Stable Isotopes to Differentiate Trophic Feeding Channels within Soil Food Webs - Crotty - 2012 - Journal of Eukaryotic...

Journal of Eukaryotic MicrobiologyVolume 59, Issue 6, Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2012. ...

*  Genome and proteome analysis of phage E3 infecting the soil-borne actinomycete Rhodococcus equi - Salifu - 2013 - Environmental...

Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2013, 114, 6, 1625. Wiley Online Library ... Genome and proteome analysis of phage E3 infecting the soil-borne actinomycete Rhodococcus equi. Authors. *. Samson P. Salifu, ... We report on the characterization and genomic analysis of bacteriophage E3 isolated from soil and propagating in Rhodococcus ...

*  Faculty

Soil microbiology; mycology; biology education. *Michael E. Kaspari, Ph.D. (University of Arizona, 1992), Presidential ...

*  FEMS Microbiology Letters - Volume 342, Issue 2 - Actinobacteria within soils: capacities for mutualism, symbiosis and...

FEMS Microbiology Letters. © Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights ... Actinobacteria within soils: capacities for mutualism, symbiosis and pathogenesis (pages 77-78). Hilde Schrempf ... Taxonomic and functional diversity of Streptomyces in a forest soil (pages 157-167). Cyril Bontemps, Maxime Toussaint, Pierre- ... Special Issue: Actinobacteria within soils: capacities for mutualism, symbiosis and pathogenesis. May 2013. Volume 342, Issue 2 ...

*  Biogeochemical impacts of the northward expansion of kudzu under climate change: the importance of ecological context - Hickman...

Soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA. *. Peltzer, S. C., L. K. Abbott, and C. A. ... 4). But kudzu invasion failed to affect net N mineralization, soil ammonium, total soil C, total soil N, microbial biomass, N2O ... Soil moisture content (g H2O g−1 dry soil) was determined by drying a subsample at 105°C until soils were no longer decreasing ... when soils from SERC were taken on 5 September 2007, and soils from the other sites were taken on 6 September. Three soil cores ...

*  Awards | Fellowships| Research Project Database | Grantee Research Project | ORD | US EPA

Soil Microbiology (1 recipient). T. Terrestrial Ecology (2 recipients). Terrestrial Ecology and Ecosystems (59 recipients). ... Microbiology (27 recipients). Model Uncertainty (1 recipient). Molecular Biology (1 recipient). Molecular Biology/Genetics (17 ... Marine Microbiology (1 recipient). Marine Sciences (5 recipients). Marine/Environmental Science (1 recipient). Materials ... Environmental Microbiology (7 recipients). Environmental Monitoring (3 recipients). Environmental Physiology (1 recipient). ...

*  Executive Master of Sustainability Leadership (EMSL) Faculty | Chatham University, Pittsburgh, PA

Organic and Sustainable Agriculture; Environmental/Soil Microbiology; Soil Food Webs; Microbiome and Mental Health. ... "Life + Dirt = Soil: Linking Microbial Biodiversity to Soil Structure and Function," University of Pittsburgh Colloquium Series ... DGGE fingerprinting of culturable soil bacterial communities complements culture-independent analyses. 2007. Soil Biology and ... Microbial diversity in soil: A microscopic world under every footstep. 2006. In: McKinstry, R.B., Ripp, C. and Lisy, E. (Eds.) ...

*  Purification, characterization, gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing of D: -stereospecific amino acid amidase from soil...

The D-amino acid amidase-producing bacterium was isolated from soil samples using an enrichment culture technique in medium ... Title: Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology Volume: 32 ISSN: 1367-5435 ISO Abbreviation: J. Ind. Microbiol. ... The D-amino acid amidase-producing bacterium was isolated from soil samples using an enrichment culture technique in medium ... Purification, characterization, gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing of D: -stereospecific amino acid amidase from soil ...

*  Production of (R)-ethyl-3,4-epoxybutyrate by newly isolated Acinetobacter baumannii containing epoxide hydrolase.

Several new microorganisms have been isolated from soil samples with high epoxide hydrolase activity toward ethyl 3,4- ... Soil Microbiology. Substrate Specificity. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Alkenes; 0/Butyrates; 0/Culture Media; 0/Epoxy ... Title: Applied microbiology and biotechnology Volume: 79 ISSN: 0175-7598 ISO Abbreviation: Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. ... Several new microorganisms have been isolated from soil samples with high epoxide hydrolase activity toward ethyl 3,4- ...

*  A bacteriophage of Bacillus subtilis which forms plaques only at temperatures above 50 C. I. Physical and chemical...

Bacteriophage TSP-1 was isolated from soil in a search for phage which would form plaques on Bacillus subtilis W168 at 53 C. It ... Soil Microbiology. Spectrophotometry. Staining and Labeling. Time Factors. Viral Proteins. Virus Cultivation. Virus Replication ... Bacteriophage TSP-1 was isolated from soil in a search for phage which would form plaques on Bacillus subtilis W168 at 53 C. It ...

*  The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production (Hardback) - Routledge

Water Deficits versus Soil Microbiology. Drought. Management Strategies for Reducing Drought. Rhizosphere Chemistry ... Covers root morphology, root functions, nutrient and water uptake by roots, root-soil interactions, root-environment ... Emphasizes crop production, plant nutrition, and soil chemistry relative to root growth and functions ... Written for plant scientists, crop scientists, horticulturalists, and soil scientists,plant physiologists, breeders, ...

*  Azotobacter - Wikipedia

Azotbacter». SOIL MICROBIOLOGY BIOL/CSES 4684 «Azotobacter vinelandii». John Innes Centre - Molecular Microbiology Department « ... in Dry Soils». Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 51 (1): 123-125. PMC 238827. PMID 16346962 !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: ... in Some Polish Soils» (PDF). Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 12 (3): 371-374 Tejera N., Lluch C., Martínez-Toledo M. V ... Gandora V., Gupta R. D., Bhardwaj K. K. R. (1998). «Abundance of Azotobacter in great soil groups of North-West Himalayas». ...

*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)

Soil Microbiology and Biochemisty. Academic Press Incorporated, New York.. * Pavoni, J. L., J. E. Heer Jr. and D. L. Hagerty. ... x 106 CFU/g soil to 2.00x106 CFU/g soil while the mean total viable fungal population ranged from 1.9 x 104 CFU/g soil to 7.1 x ... According to the soil classification by Odu et al., (1985) the degree of acidity for soil from stations A and D ranged from ... Soil samples were air-dried and sieved through a 0.2mm wire mesh to obtain fine soil particles (U.S. EPA, 1978). Ten grams (10g ...

*  CiNii 論文 - Isotopic fractionation of sulfur in micro zones of tidal flat sediments ...

Experimental Methods of Soil Microbiology, 45-52, 1992 被引用文献1件 ...

*  African Journal of Agricultural Research - microbiological attributes in a latosol in glyphosate application under water...

The soil microbiota stability was favored by the absence of glyphosate application and water deficit condition on soil. MCB and ... and two soil moisture treatments (appropriate and water deficit conditions), plus two soybean conventional varieties subject ... only to the soil moisture treatments. It was evaluated total organic carbon (TOC), basal respiration rate (CO2), microbial ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on soil microbial activity under appropriate and water ...

*  Irenus A. Tazisong, Ph.D

NRE 406/506- Soil Microbiology/Biochemistry. Research Interests. My interest focuses on the role of phytases, phosphatases, and ... M.S. Soil Science, Alabama A&M University, 2003. Thesis: Chemically Partitioned and Anaerobically Reduced Trace Metals in Soils ... Ph.D. Soil Science, Alabama A&M University, 2007. Dissertation: Enzymatic Hydrolysis and 31-P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ... Phosphatases and amidohydrolases hydrolysis of organic compounds and 31P NMR quantification of soil organic phosphorus. ...,-Ph.D.aspx

*  Characterization of a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Consortium From a Petrochemical Sludge Landfarming...

In: Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry, eds. K. Alef and P. Nanipieri, 193-270. San Diego: Academic Press. ... of soil). The lowest degree of CO^sup 2^-C production was observed in soil inoculated with area 1 soil sample. The differences ... C production in soil inoculated with area 5 soil was 90% higher than that inoculated with area 4 soil sample, which produced ... were added to the soil sample due to the soil's low fertility. In parallel experiments, 1 g of each landfarming soil sample was ...

*  Bullet point alignment problem | Adobe Community

Looking at soil microbiology using DNA shows it is very complex. There are tens of thousands of different species in each gram ... a href="soil_diversity.html",Soil Biodiversity,/a, ,a href="soil_microbial.html",Soil Microbial Ecology,/a, ,a href="soil_ ... If you are interested in soil biology and soil health, this leading-edge assay can show you how your soil changes from year to ... If you are interested in soil biology and soil health, this leading-edge assay can show you how your soil changes from year to ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Immunology, Issue 80, Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology, Water Microbiology, Amoebae, microorganisms, coculture, ... Immunology, Issue 68, Microbiology, Genetics, natural transformation, DNA uptake, FLP recombination, chitin, Vibrio cholerae ... Microbiology, Issue 92, Aging, mutations, genome instability, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fluctuation test, magnetic sorting, ... Microbiology, Issue 37, Werner syndrome, helicase, topoisomerase, RecQ, Bloom's syndrome, Sgs1, genomic instability, genetics, ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Immunology, Issue 80, Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology, Water Microbiology, Amoebae, microorganisms, coculture, ...

*  Metabolic activity of Flavobacterium strain P25 during starvation and after introduction into bulk soil and the rhizosphere of...

FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 18: 129-138. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.1995.tb00170.x ... Metabolic activity of Flavobacterium strain P25 during starvation and after introduction into bulk soil and the rhizosphere of ... Metabolic activity of Flavobacterium strain P25 during starvation and after introduction into bulk soil and the rhizosphere of ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Volume 18, Issue 2, pages 129-138, October 1995 ...

Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology: The Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Medical Microbiology. The journal publishes articles on medical microbiology including bacteriology, virology, phycology, mycology, parasitology, and protozoology.PyromorphiteExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Buchanan (horse): Buchanan (1881 – c.1898) was an American thoroughbred racehorse and was the winner of the 1884 Kentucky Derby, Ripple Stakes and Clark Stakes.Electron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Replica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Pasteur point: The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.BacitracinMarine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.John Howie (businessman): John Howie (12 March 1833 – 20 September 1895) was a wealthy Victorian captain of industry and investor, the proprietor of the renowned J & R Howie Hurlford Fireclay Works. He would have been about 350th on a notional Rich List of Britain at the time, with a fortune equal to over £200 million today.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.BiodegradationAmplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.EcosystemMultidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Mycology: Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, wine, cheese, (edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.XAP Home Automation protocol: xAP is an open protocol used for home automation and supports integration of telemetry and control devices primarily within the home. Common communications networks include RS232, RS485, Ethernet& wireless.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Thermal cyclerAgilent ChemStation: Agilent ChemStation is a software package to control Agilent liquid chromatography and gas chromatography systems such as the 1050, 1100 and 1200 Series HPLC system. It is an evolution of the Hewlett-Packard ChemStation System.Coles PhillipsStaphylococcus cohnii: Staphylococcus cohnii is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. The species commonly lives on human skin; clinical isolates have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance.The Flash ChroniclesBacteremia: (NOS) |MycosisResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.ErtapenemNitrogen deficiencyAnalytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Methyl violetPancreatic abscessManure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Beaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchUniversity of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.MethanophenazineTrypticase soy agar: Trypticase soy agar or Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) and trypticase soy broth or Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) with agar are growth media for the culturing of bacteria. They are general-purpose media, providing enough nutrients to allow for a wide variety of microorganisms to grow.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.GeneXpert MTB/RIFGA module: In molecular biology, the GA module, or protein G-related albumin-binding module, is a protein domain which occurs on the surface of numerous Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Protein G of group C and G Streptococci interacts with the constant region of IgG and with human serum albumin.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Lung microbiome: The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). These microbes include bacteria, yeasts, viruses and bacteriophages.Phytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.CoagulaseHumic acid: Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.

(1/5277) Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water.

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

(2/5277) A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis.

A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment.  (+info)

(3/5277) Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov.

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

(4/5277) Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium.

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

(5/5277) Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp.

Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies.  (+info)

(6/5277) Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199.

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

(7/5277) Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism.

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

(8/5277) Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles.

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)


  • As a consequence, the fields of soil microbiology and biochemistry have been highlighted. (
  • This book provides a modern, authoritative, and comprehensive collection of methods for the study of soil microbiology and biochemistry. (
  • With respect to bioremediation of soils, this work provides a unique bridge between general and applied soil microbiology and biochemistry, presenting an integrated discussion of concepts, theories, and methods. (


  • The project aims to develop a high throughput analyses toolbox for soil biodiversity and activity -based on cutting-edge molecular technologies that will enable cost-efficient in-depth analyses of the diversity and activity of soil microorganisms and soil microfauna that will be used to help to evaluate ecosystem services that these soils provide. (
  • Several new microorganisms have been isolated from soil samples with high epoxide hydrolase activity toward ethyl 3,4-epoxybutyrate. (
  • When waste is dumped on land, soil microorganisms including fungi and bacteria, readily colonise the waste carrying out the degradation and transformation of degradable (organic) materials in the waste (Stainer et al . (

microbial communities

  • My dissertation work examined the impact of agronomic and anthropogenic disturbances on the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in soils from organic farms and upland pastures. (


  • Novel questions and challenges relating to agricultural practice and soil microbial ecology, ecotoxicology, biotechnology, and bioremediation must be addressed. (

ecosystem services


  • Phosphatases and amidohydrolases hydrolysis of organic compounds and 31P NMR quantification of soil organic phosphorus. (


  • Implementing molecular tools for soil biodiversity investigation"at Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, ESR2, 3 years starting July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2015. (
  • in, computer science, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular biology or similar relevant discipline -Documented experience with bioinformatic analysis of large metagenomic NGS data sets (i.e. (


  • The mean temperature values of the soils ranged from 27 o C to 28 o C while the mean pH values ranged from pH 5.4 to 7.9. (
  • Effect of warming on the temperature dependence of soil respiration rate in arctic, temperature and tropical soils. (


  • 2006). Characterization of soil bacterial communities on culture plates using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene. (


  • Purification, characterization, gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing of D: -stereospecific amino acid amidase from soil bacterium: Delftia acidovorans. (


  • Effects of native pasture burning and Pinus monoculture on changes in soil biological attributes on the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina - Brazil. (


  • We pair plots invaded by kudzu with adjacent uninvaded plots, and examine rates of leaf litter decomposition, soil nitrogen pools and net cycling rates, N trace gas emissions, and microbial dynamics. (
  • The D-amino acid amidase-producing bacterium was isolated from soil samples using an enrichment culture technique in medium broth containing D-phenylalanine amide as a sole source of nitrogen. (


  • Bacteriophage TSP-1 was isolated from soil in a search for phage which would form plaques on Bacillus subtilis W168 at 53 C. It forms clear plaques only at temperatures from 50 to 55 C. Approximately 95% of the free phage adsorb after 2 min at 53 C. The lytic cycle is between 55 and 60 min long with a burst size of about 55 particles per infected bacterium. (


  • We report on the characterization and genomic analysis of bacteriophage E3 isolated from soil and propagating in Rhodococcus equi strains. (


  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on soil microbial activity under appropriate and water deficit conditions. (


  • Currently, I am conducting research focused on the use of biochar and other soil amendments in agriculture and environmental remediation and the influence of the oral and gastrointestinal microbiome on mental health and athletic performance. (
  • The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a specific activity parameter to assess the effects of environmental conditions, such pH, on the microbial of forest soils. (


  • The factors consisted of four treatments with different Roundup Ready ® soybean cultivars, two herbicidal treatments [glyphosate (1.080 and 1.800 g a.e. ha -1 ) + control] and two soil moisture treatments (appropriate and water deficit conditions), plus two soybean conventional varieties subject only to the soil moisture treatments. (


  • A combination of factors, including time since establishment, soil types, growing season length, and temperatures, may limit kudzu's biogeochemical impacts along its invasion front. (


  • Soil is by far the most species-rich of the Earth´s many microbial habitats with hundreds of thousands of different microbial species in a few grams. (
  • A total of 48 soil samples were collected fortnightly in the months of June, July and August 1995, from four different stations of a waste-dump site. (
  • Liming and glyphosate effect in the microbial activity in different classes of soils. (


  • 2014). Ecological restoration strategies for and abandoned sulfuric acid recycling factory soil with heavy metal contaminants Ecological Society of America 96th Annual Meeting "From Oceans to Mountains," August 10-15, Sacramento, CA. (


  • The soil microbiota stability was favored by the absence of glyphosate application and water deficit condition on soil. (


  • The mean total viable aerobic hetertrophic bacteria population ranged from 0.38 x 10 6 CFU/g soil to 2.00x10 6 CFU/g soil while the mean total viable fungal population ranged from 1.9 x 10 4 CFU/g soil to 7.1 x 10 4 CFU/g soil. (