Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
What effect does cutting down trees have on soil quality? | Reference.comTrees filter pollution by keeping chemicals from reaching more of the soil. Tree roots hold soil when precipitation tries wash ... Soil becomes eroded, dry and polluted when trees are cut down. ... Where can you buy potting soil?. * Q: How long does it take for ... Tree roots hold soil when precipitation tries wash topsoil away, and trees draw moisture to the area so soil retains more water ... The soil eventually erodes and quality is diminished.. Polluted air and water is purified by trees. When these arboreal plants ...
Soil Science Society of America Journal Abstract - Soil Bulk Density Analysis in Three Dimensions by Computed Tomographic...Soil Structure/Soil Biota Interrelationships 1993 * Soil erosion via preferential flow to drainage systems in clay soils ... DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOIL WATER MOVEMENT THROUGH SOIL MACROPORES USING SOFT X-RAYS AND STEREOGRAPHING Soil Science. 2003 168:2 ... Home » Publications » Soil Science Society of America Journal. Soil Science Society of America Journal Abstract - Soil Bulk ... Measuring differences in soil properties in soils with different cultivation practices using computer tomography Soil and ...
Crop Management Effects on Water Infiltration for Claypan Soils - RedorbitSoil EC^sub a^ can depend on various soil properties, including soil water content, soil salinity, CEC (Rhoades et al., 1999; ... soil organic matter, soil bulk density, soil water content, and soil texture, impact plant-available water stored in the root ... Genesis of claypan soil. Soil Science 53:459-482. Omay, A.B., C.W. Rice, L.D. Maddux, and W.U. Gordon. 1997. Changes in soil ... In: Methods of soil and analysis. Part 4. J.H Dane and G.C. Topp (ed.) Soil Science Society of America Book Series No. 5. Soil ...
Spatial Distribution of PCB Dechlorinating Bacteria and Activities in Contaminated SoilBasic studies of the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological properties of soil, innovations in soil analysis, and the ... Its coverage reflects the multidisciplinary nature of soil science, and focuses on studies that take account of the dynamics ... Open Access journal that publishes research and review articles in the field of soil science. ... Applied and Environmental Soil Science is a peer-reviewed, ... Physical and Chemical Characterization of Soil Samples. Soil ...
Denitrifying bacterial communities display different temporal fluctuation patterns across Dutch agricultural soils |...Soil properties influencing the denitrification potential of Flemish agricultural soils. Biol Fertil Soils 38:358-366CrossRef ... 4.Soil Microbiology Laboratory, Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz"University of Sao PauloSão ... Smith MS, Tiedje JM (1979) Phases of denitrification following oxygen depletion in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 11:261-267CrossRef ... Mosier AR, Doran JW, Freney JR (2002) Managing soil denitrification. J Soil Water Conserv 57:505-512Google Scholar ...
SL336/SS541: Understanding Soil Phosphorus Storage CapacityA soil can have only one soil P storage capacity or SPSC. Mehlich 1 solution does not extract P, Fe, and Al with the same ... Surface and Subsurface Soils (A and E Horizons). SPSC = (0.1 - Soil PSR M1) * Mehlich 1-[(Fe/56) + (Al/27)] * 31 * 1.3 (mg/kg) ... Relationship between soil P storage capacity (SPSC) and water-soluble P (WSP) for A and E horizons of manure-impacted soils. ... We will refer to this approach as the "soil P storage capacity" (SPSC). It could be used by soil scientists, environmental ...
Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Urban Pollutants Assessment of Existing Roadside Swales with Engineered Filter Soil...The swales were assessed with respect to visual appearance, infiltration rate, soil pH, and soil texture, as well as soil ... Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2016 * Assessment of metal and PAH profiles in SUDS soil based on an improved experimental ... Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2016 227:1 * Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems Applied ... Roadside infiltration swales with well-defined soil mixtures (filter soil) for the enhancement of both infiltration and ...
Units of study - Agriculture - The University of SydneyTo do this, this unit of study is concerned with exploring the key pedology, soil chemistry, soil physical and soil biological ... This is a problem-based applied soil science unit. It is designed to allow students to identify soil-related problems in the ... Time will be spent investigating how the quality of the soil can be assessed, using the indicators of the mentioned soil ... However, challenges such as those presented by lack of plant nutrient supply, soil acidification, physical degradation, soil ...
Agriculture | Free Full-Text | Uncovering the Footprints of Erosion by On-Farm Maize Cultivation in a Hilly Tropical Landscape...This was a positive sign that the deficits in chemical soil fertility were overriding physical soil weaknesses. The study ... Soil organic matter contents (SOM) were generally low, more so at higher inclinations, probably due to greater erosion than at ... Maize yields decreased gradually with increasing inclination; at ZERO, effects of climate and soil moisture on yield were ... illustrated that chemical soil fertility in these soils is easily amenable to modifications by mineral and organic manures. ...
Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China - Qin - 2013 - Global Biogeochemical Cycles - Wiley Online...Follett, R. F. (2001), Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils, Soil Tillage Res., 61(1-2), 77-92. ... 1,000,000 soil database of China, in 17th World Congress of Soil Science, 1757 p., Soil and Fertilizer Society of Thailand, ... Soil organic carbon changes in particle-size fractions following cultivation of Black soils in China, Soil Tillage Res., 105(1 ... Eswaran, H., E. Van Den Berg, and P. Reich (1993), Organic carbon in soils of the world, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 57(1), 192-194. ...
Soil liquefaction - WikipediaThis may occur in all soil types including dense soils. However, on reaching a state of zero effective stress such soils ... The resistance of the cohesionless soil to liquefaction will depend on the density of the soil, confining stresses, soil ... A state of 'soil liquefaction' occurs when the effective stress of soil is reduced to essentially zero, which corresponds to a ... Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and ...
Sinharaja Vergin Rain Forest:Soils and Soil Microflora -Mysrilanka.comTable 3. Information on soil profiles. Horizon. Texture. Comb structure. Consistency. Presence of roots & mottling. Soil depth ... The soils of Sri Lanka have been classified into 14 great groups. The soils of the Sinharaja belong to the Red-Yellow Podzolic ... The soils are also impermeble due to the presence of ferrogenous and kaolinitic soil material rich in alumina. Traces of ... Rain forest soils are usually well developed. Soil profiles of Sinharaja studied by Sri Lankan scientists are summarized in ...
In situ fixation of metals using bauxite residue: chemical assessment. - Lancaster EPrintsIn both soils, the concentrations of metals in the soil pore water and metal fluxes were greatly decreased by the amendments. ... French soil), and one by sewage sludge applications (UK soil). This Fe-oxide rich material was compared with lime, or beringite ... Contamination of soils with heavy metals and metalloids is a widespread problem all over the world. Low cost, non-invasive, in ... An application of 2% red mud performed as well as beringite applied at 5%. Increasing soil pH was a common mechanism of action ...
Assessment of the specificity of Burkholderia and Pseudomonas qPCR assays for detection of these genera in soil using 454...Table 2. Bacterial values detected in two different soils using qPCR. Detection method (cells per gram of soil). Soil ... The total number of bacteria in the two soils was estimated to be in the range of 3.43 × 108 and 4.24× 108 cells g−1 of soil ... Based on qPCR data, the number of Pseudomonas in the soil samples was between 4.93 × 105 and 3.90× 106 cells g−1 of soil. In ... DNA extraction from soil was carried out by FastDNA® SPIN for Soil kit (MP Biomedicals, Solon, OH) according to manufacturer's ...
NiPERA... occurring in EU soils. Therefore, PNEC values for typical eco-regions in EU soils vary, depending on the soil chemistry, ... only applies for the soil chemistry prevailing in the Danish soils. However, other soil chemistries are encountered in the EU ... Soil Use. Soil Chemistry. L/A. Factorii. Median HC5 (µg/L). PNEC (µg/L)iii. ... The soil chemistry and median HC5/PNEC values calculated for the different selected eco-regions in EU soils are summarized in ...
History of Soil Science - Schweizerbart science publishersSoils and soil minerals form or transform in direct response to biogeochemical factors that are driven by local, regional or ... Exploring soil processes from mineral to landscape scale:. A dedication to Udo Schwertmann 1. B. Ulrich. The role of soil ... potassium status and clay mineralogy of soils 133. D.S. Fanning & S.N. Burch. Acid sulphate soils and some associated ... soil loss in tropical Africa 55. H.-P.Blume, L. Beyer, M.Bolter, H. Erlenkeuser, E. Kalk, S. Kneesch, U. Pfisterer & D. ...
Understanding biological diversity in soil: The UK's Soil Biodiversity Research Programme - NERC Open Research Archivegrassland soil, research programme, soil biodiversity, soil treatments, Sourhope, vegetation dynamics NORA Subject Terms:. ... 2006 Understanding biological diversity in soil: The UK's Soil Biodiversity Research Programme. Applied Soil Ecology, 33 (2). ... to determine the extent to which soil biodiversity is an indicator of soil ecosystem resilience. The research was focussed on a ... It had six scientific aims, which in outline were: (i) to quantify the taxonomic diversity of key groups of the soil biota in a ...
British Library EThOS: Leaf litter decomposition in tropical forests : disentangling leaf litter quality, soil nutrients,...Increased soil N availability altered microbial community composition, which increased decomposition of some leaf litter types ... Leaf litter species identity was a significant predictor of decomposition across the landscape, whilst soil C:N ratio was more ... Global change drivers, such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) change and soil nitrogen (N) fertilisation by deposition, could ... Leaf litter decomposition in tropical forests : disentangling leaf litter quality, soil nutrients, climate and microbial ...
Dynamics of soil processes under extreme meteorological boundary conditions [Elektronische Ressource] : response of below...... and arsenic turnover in a soil from a northern temperate fen / vorgelegt von Klaus-Holger Knorr : Dynamics of soil processes ... and iron cycling in fen soils ; effects of experimental drought and subsequent rewetting on internal carbon, sulfur, iron, ... Dynamics of soil processes under extreme meteorological boundary conditions [Elektronische Ressource] : response of below- ... under extreme meteorological boundary conditions - Response of below-ground carbon, sulfur, and iron cycling in fen soils ...
Diversity | Free Full-Text | The Effect of Tillage System and Crop Rotation on Soil Microbial Diversity and Composition in a...Soil management influenced soil biodiversity on Acrisol by change of composition and abundance of individual species. ... The relative abundance of these taxes was correlated with measured soil properties. The P, Mg, total organic carbon, total N ... Anaerobic bacteria, such as clostridia, dominate in no-tilled soil as well as anaerobic methanogenic archaea, which were ... The microbial community drives important nutrient cycling processes that can influence soil quality, cropping productivity and ...
Sabinet | Laboratory optimisation of a urea-formaldehyde soil stabiliserThe test soil was brown shale gravel. Synergistic strength improvements were obtained when combining the resin with anionic ... For full strength development, the soil moisture content must be reduced to below 3%. Optimum indirect tensile strength is ... The experimental results also suggest that the presence of appropriate organic matter is critical for effective soil ... obtained at formaldehyde to urea molar ratio of 2:1. Soil strength increases as the reaction pH is lowered but the need for ...
Functionally and phylogenetically diverse plant communities key to soil biota - Zurich Open Repository and ArchiveFunctional diversity was a reliable predictor for most biota, with the exception of soil microorganisms, which were better ... Functional diversity was a reliable predictor for most biota, with the exception of soil microorganisms, which were better ... Plant functional and phylogenetic diversity were generally better predictors of soil biota than the traditionally used species ... Plant functional and phylogenetic diversity were generally better predictors of soil biota than the traditionally used species ...
CHAPTER 2 - SOIL AND WATER2.1 The soil. 2.1.1 Soil composition. 2.1.2 Soil profile. 2.1.3 Soil texture. 2.1.4 Soil structure ... CHAPTER 2 - SOIL AND WATER. 2.1 The soil. 2.2 Entry of water into the soil. 2.3 Soil moisture conditions. 2.4 Available water ... In fine textured soils: clay is predominant (clayey soils).. In the field, soil texture can be determined by rubbing the soil ... In coarse textured soils: sand is predominant (sandy soils).. In medium textured soils: silt is predominant (loamy soils).. ...
Soil5 natural soil amendments to make your garden flourish by Debbie Wolfe Mar 08, 2016. ...
Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.PyromorphitePeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.BiodegradationOrganic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.EcosystemExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Nitrogen deficiencyManure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.In situ chemical oxidation: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Phytoextraction process: Phytoextraction is a subprocess of phytoremediation in which plants remove dangerous elements or compounds from soil or water, most usually heavy metals, metals that have a high density and may be toxic to organisms even at relatively low concentrations.http://www.Humic acid: Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water.Coles PhillipsPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Warner OlandLumbricus rubellus: Lumbricus rubellus is a species of earthworm that is related to Lumbricus terrestris. It is usually reddish brown or reddish violet, iridescent dorsally, and pale yellow ventrally.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis is an aerobic non-sporulating Gram-positive plant pathogenic actinomycete that currently constitutes the only species within the genus Clavibacter. The other former Clavibacter species have been reclassified to genera Leifsonia, Rathayibacter and Curtobacterium.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleCarbon fixation: Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. The most prominent example is photosynthesis, although chemosynthesis is another form of carbon fixation that can take place in the absence of sunlight.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Aerobic denitrification: Aerobic denitrification or co-respiration the simultaneous use of both oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO3−) as oxidizing agents, performed by various genera of microorganisms. This process differs from anaerobic denitrification not only in its insensitivity to the presence of oxygen, but also in that it has a higher potential to create the harmful byproduct nitrous oxide.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Atmospheric methane: Atmospheric methane is the methane present in Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric methane concentrations are of interest due to methane's impact on climate change, as it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.Sidewalk chalk: Sidewalk chalk are typically large colored (and sometimes white or cream) sticks of chalk (calcium sulfate rather than rock chalk, calcium carbonate) mostly used for drawing on pavement or cement sidewalk. It is sometimes used by children to draw a four square court or a hopscotch board.Chromotropic acidCalifornia coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Nitrogen trichlorideNational Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Pseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.Carbon dioxide removal: Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods refers to a number of technologies which reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, direct air capture, ocean fertilization and enhanced weathering.Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Adlercreutzia: Adlercreutzia is a genus in the phylum Actinobacteria (Bacteria).Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Heptadecanoic acidTransfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Zetaproteobacteria: The class Zetaproteobacteria is the sixth and most recently described class of the Proteobacteria. Zetaproteobacteria can also refer to the group of organisms assigned to this class.PrinomastatLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Calcium aluminosilicate: Calcium aluminosilicate, an aluminosilicate compound with calcium cations, most typically has formula CaAl2Si2O8.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions
(1/2707) Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil.
The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin. (+info)
(2/2707) Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium.
Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate. (+info)
(3/2707) Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia.
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme. (+info)
(4/2707) Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. (+info)
(5/2707) Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste.
A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The effect of soil freeze-thaw cycles was evident in the large proportion of empty sentinel oocysts. The potentially infective sentinel oocysts were reduced to <1% while the proportions in controls did not decrease below 50% potentially infective during the first field experiment. Microscopic observations of empty oocyst fragments indicated that abrasive effects of soil particles were a factor in oocyst inactivation. A similar pattern was observed in a second field experiment at the same site. (+info)
(6/2707) The growth of demand will limit output growth for food over the next quarter century.
The rate of growth of world food demand will be much slower for 1990-2010 than it was for the prior three decades. The major factor determining the increase in food demand is population growth. Income growth has a much smaller effect. From 1960 to 1990, population growth accounted for approximately three fourths of the growth in demand or use of grain. For 1990-2010, it is anticipated that population growth will account for nearly all of the increase in world demand for grain. The rate of population growth from 1990 to 2020 is projected to be at an annual rate of 1.3% compared with 1.9% for 1960 to 1990-a decline of more than 30%. World per capita use of grain will increase very little-perhaps by 4%. The increase in grain use is projected to be 40% less than in 1960-1990. It is anticipated that real grain prices will decline during the period, although not nearly as much as the 40% decline in the previous three decades. Concern has been expressed concerning the deterioration of the quality and productivity of the world's farmland. A study for China and Indonesia indicates that there has been no significant change in the productive capacity of the land over the past 50 years. Contrary to numerous claims, the depth of the topsoil has not changed, indicating that erosion has had little or no impact. (+info)
(7/2707) Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand. (+info)
(8/2707) Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming.
Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming. (+info)
- This fertilizer aims to improve the ecological environment and to provide plants with nutrition,Organic raw materials with biological activity are added in this fertilizer.On the basis of soil fertility,with the combination of the organic and the. (ecplaza.net)
- Animal manures and sewage sludge production from urban waste as an alternative source of chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and crop production are known. (ac.ir)
- In the present study, we conducted field experiments to study the effects of nitrogen enriched compost (NEC) and mineral nitrogen (MN) fertilizer with a selected plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS40, on productivity of sunflower and soil fertility. (epfl.ch)
- We conclude that the application of NEC fertilizer with efficient PGPR biofertilizer may improve sunflower productivity and soil chemical and biological fertility in nutrient-poor agroecosystems of arid and semi-arid regions. (epfl.ch)
- Not only does flooding directly impact soil fertility status, but other production practices, such as seeding date and preseeding tillage, will be altered and traditional fertilizer application methods may need adjustment. (gov.mb.ca)
- Refer to Table 7 in the Soil Fertility Guide for specific safe ratio of seed placed N. (gov.mb.ca)
- Typically, commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen as a supplement for depleted soil. (ehow.com)
- Fertilizers are used to maintain the correct level of nitrogen in the soil, ensuring strong, green plants with a healthy growth rate. (ehow.com)
- Where soil has become depleted of its natural nitrogen stores, fertilizers are able to make up the deficiency. (ehow.com)
- The results also showed that integrated N biofertilizer regime enhanced soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activities and soil nitrogen contents. (epfl.ch)
- The clay textured soils and the moist climate in the Red River Valley, however, create the opportunity for a wide variety of options for applying nitrogen fertilizer efficiently during a wet, late spring. (gov.mb.ca)
- If these fertilizers are left on the soil surface, there is a risk that nitrogen will be lost due to volatilization or 'gassing off. (gov.mb.ca)
- Adding fertilizer to soil will substitute for the nutrients that are consumed by plants or that are washed away by rain. (scienceproject.com)
- Typically, up to half of the cereal crops N needs may be met with seed row application, depending on the spreading width of seed and fertilizer, row spacing, soil type and moisture levels at seeding. (gov.mb.ca)
- It can improve nutrient absorptivity of crop and suitable for saline-alkali soil but can not burn leaves and roots of crop.chlorine is not included in accumulation of lower salt,special suitable for fear-chlorion crops.like:tobacco,flowers and. (ecplaza.net)
- In order to sewage sludge, manure and chemical fertilizers on quality crop yield and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) L. and also some chemical properties of soil test crop in years 90-89 as a randomized complete block design with four replications in the Zabol University research field conducted. (ac.ir)
- This is especially important where crops are planted in the same soil each season and additional nutrients are needed for each new crop. (ehow.com)
- Anhydrous ammonia should be placed at least 4' below the soil surface, and ideally the crop should be seeded perpendicular to anhydrous ammonia bands. (gov.mb.ca)
- In addition, this method of application may allow farmers to soil test after seeding to determine the availability of fall applied N. (gov.mb.ca)
- Remaining N could be delayed until your spring soil test results are available. (gov.mb.ca)
- Also results showed that the addition of fertilizers to increase soil pH, and EC of soil was significantly reduced, so 100% sludge lowest pH, and most EC, were related to 100% manure application. (ac.ir)
- It is available in different forms: liquid, which must be injected into the ground, or dry pellets, which can be applied to the surface of the soil by hand or by machine. (ehow.com)
- There is no need to delay seeding after application if anhydrous ammonia is placed at recommended depths, especially in moist clay soils. (gov.mb.ca)
- However, urea's average performance is still acceptable, especially with good soil contact and favourable moisture (see Table 1). (gov.mb.ca)