Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)United StatesHealthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.BrazilSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.SwedenMexicoLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.TurkeyHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.DenmarkAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.VietnamLife Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.CaliforniaParents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.BangladeshWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.ScotlandIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Great BritainSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.EnglandRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.IndiaRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

*  Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of...
This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. ... socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. ... Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of ... Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of ...
  http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2017/10/09/jech-2017-209641
*  Socioeconomic Factors | ASPE
Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and ... All of these socioeconomic characteristics are more common among people with cognitive impairment, as shown in Figure 4 ( ... FIGURE 4. Socioeconomic Characteristics by Cognitive Impairment and Race/Ethnicity, 2006 Health and Retirement Study ... Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and ...
  https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-alzheimers-disease-literature-review/socioeconomic-factors
*  Race, Socioeconomic Factors and Health - RWJF
This issue brief examines the causes of racial and ethnic health disparities, and highlights interventions that have demonstrated promising impacts.
  https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2011/04/race-and-socioeconomic-factors-affect-opportunities-for-better-h.html
*  Do Socioeconomic Factors Affect Pain?
Socioeconomic disparities in pain may be attributable to both greater frequency in stressful financial events as well as ... greater vulnerability to economic hardship for those at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum. A study published in a ...
  http://www.psyweb.com/blogs/s/do-socioeconomic-factors-affect-pain
*  Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia
Socioeconomic factors have been shown to influence caries risk.24,25 Low income may be associated with education levels and the ... Although socioeconomic status is considered a risk factor for caries,24,25 there are other biological, dietary and behavioral ... The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia ... which showed a significant association between the prevalence of dental caries and socioeconomic factors, were similar to those ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242012000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso
*  Age and Socioeconomic Factors Are Strongest Determinants of Sunburn ( Despite repeated health warnings about ...)
Socioeconomic,Factors,Are,Strongest,Determinants,of,Sunburn,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters ... Risk Factors For Stroke Studied 10. Analyzing The Risk Factors For Diabetic Neuropathy. 11. Heart Disease Risk Factors Found To ... Risk Factors for vision problems in Diabetes. 6. Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Risk Factors. 7. Factors That Might ... Age and Socioeconomic Factors Are Strongest Determinants of Sunburn. Despite repeated health warnings about the dangers of sun ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/Age-and-Socioeconomic-Factors-Are-Strongest-Determinants-of-Sunburn-12389-1/
*  Epilepsy or seizure disorder? The effect of cultural and socioeconomic factors on self-reported prevalence | RTI
Epilepsy or seizure disorder? The effect of cultural and socioeconomic factors on self-reported prevalence. ... The effect of cultural and socioeconomic factors on self-reported prevalence. Epilepsy & Behavior, 62, 214-217. DOI: 10.1016/j. ...
  https://www.rti.org/publication/epilepsy-or-seizure-disorder-effect-cultural-and-socioeconomic-factors-self-reported
*  Socioeconomic factors behind breast cancer disparities
Differences in insurance and socioeconomic status appears to explain most of the disparities in breast cancer incidence and ... Contribution of clinical and socioeconomic factors to differences in breast cancer subtype and mortality between Hispanic and ... Additional efforts to enable health care access, reform the health care system, and raise socioeconomic standards are likely to ... To identify what might account for this disparity, additional analyses for various factors were performed. Adjusting for the ...
  http://www.fredhutch.org/en/news/spotlight/2017/09/phs_martinez_breastcancerrestreat.html
*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Spatio-Temporal Variation of PM2.5 Concentrations and Their Relationship with Geographic and...
The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the ... this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/1/173/notes
*  The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on health-related quality of life in asthma. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Objective : We related demographics, asthma severity, and socioeconomic factors to HRQL. Methods : We interviewed 50 patients ... demographic and socioeconomic variables may also be important factors. ... The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on health-related quality of life in asthma. R f. 185141 Article - En ... We related demographics, asthma severity, and socioeconomic factors to HRQL. Methods We interviewed 50 patients with moderate ...
  http://www.bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/185141/
*  Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in The Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors...
Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in The Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors ... Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in The Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors ... This paper studies whether socioeconomic factors explain ethnic differences in these outcomes. DESIGN: Data on health status, ... Ethnic differences in these outcomes were examined with and without adjustment for socioeconomic factors, using logistic ...
  http://jech.bmj.com/content/52/5/298
*  The relationship between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors and HIV prevalence in a national population based...
The relationship between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors and HIV prevalence in a national population based ... Conclusion: There were marked differentials by residence in the way underlying socioeconomic factors affects HIV transmission ... The relationship between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors and HIV prevalence in a national population based ... Our results suggest that community level factors have a more important influence in rural than urban areas. Preventive ...
  http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/6189?show=full
*  Effect of the interaction between high altitude and socioeconomic factors on birth weight in a large sample from South...
307 ALTITUDE, SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS, AND BIRTH WEIGHT TABLE 1a. Distribution of risk factors for birthweight in lowland, middle ... SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS, AND BIRTH WEIGHT et al. (2001) did not find evidence of an altitude-socioeconomic level interaction. ... factors, effect, large, birth, high, interactiv, weight, south, samples, american, socioeconomic, altitude. ... Effect of the interaction between high altitude and socioeconomic factors on birth weight in a large sample from South America. ...
  https://www.docme.ru/doc/1943339/effect-of-the-interaction-between-high-altitude-and-socio..
*  Ecological and socio-economic factors affecting extinction risk in parrots | SpringerLink
Our analyses included intrinsic biological, life history and ecological attributes, external anthropogenic threats, and socio-economic ... Ewers RM, Didham RK (2006) Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation. Biol Rev 81:117- ... Fisher DO, Blomberg SP, Owens IPF (2003) Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors in the decline and extinction of Australian ... Our results promote understanding of global and regional factors associated with endangerment in this highly threatened ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10531-015-1036-z
*  Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic factors in modeling impacts of global environmental change
Fischer G (2001). Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic factors in modeling impacts of global environmental change. In: ... Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic factors in modeling impacts of global environmental change ...
  http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/6399/
*  Department of Health | Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.09 Index of disadvantage
Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.04 Literacy and numeracy. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.05 Education outcomes for young ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.06 Educational participation and attainment of adults. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.07 ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.09 Index of disadvantage. The HPF was designed to measure the impact of the National Strategic ... Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.02 Access to functional housing with utilities. *Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.03 Environmental ...
  http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/oatsih-hpf-2012-toc~tier2~soc-econ-fact~209
*  Socioeconomic factors of early childhood mortality in Ethiopia: evidence from demographic and health survey | Ethiopian...
Socioeconomic factors of early childhood mortality in Ethiopia: evidence from demographic and health survey. ... This study employs a probit model to identify these socioeconomic factors and finds maternal education, maternal age at first ... This study identifies the socioeconomic factors causing childhood mortality in Ethiopia based on the Ethiopian Demographic and ... WP 3 2010_Fisum Zewdu_Socioeconomic factors of early childhood mortality in Ethiopia evidence from demographic and health ...
  http://eeaecon.org/node/5712
*  Best Way To Reduce Gun Violence: Improve Socio-Economic Factors?
RE: Best Way To Reduce Gun Violence: Improve Socio-Economic Factors? (06-07-2015 12:09 AM)Can_of_Beans Wrote: (05-07-2015 11:42 ... RE: Best Way To Reduce Gun Violence: Improve Socio-Economic Factors? (06-07-2015 12:09 AM)Can_of_Beans Wrote: (05-07-2015 11:42 ... RE: Best Way To Reduce Gun Violence: Improve Socio-Economic Factors? (05-07-2015 11:42 PM)Gatheist Wrote: [...]. A little on my ... RE: Best Way To Reduce Gun Violence: Improve Socio-Economic Factors? (06-07-2015 11:41 AM)Metazoa Zeke Wrote: (06-07-2015 12:45 ...
  http://www.thethinkingatheist.com/forum/Thread-Best-Way-To-Reduce-Gun-Violence-Improve-Socio-Economic-Factors
*  Environmental and socio-economic factors related to urban bird communities - LUCK - 2012 - Austral Ecology - Wiley Online...
Environmental and socio-economic factors related to urban bird communities. Authors. *. GARY W. LUCK,. * Institute for Land, ... Urban fauna communities may be strongly influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors, but the relative importance of ... We examined the relative importance of environmental and socio-economic factors in explaining variation in urban bird ... Socio-economic factors had relatively little direct influence on urban birds, but neighbourhood socio-economics may influence ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2012.02383.x/full
*  DI-fusion Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary...
Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (The ABENA study 2004-2005) ... Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (The ABENA study 2004-2005) ...
  http://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/221650/Details
*  Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications
... ... "How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households' direct and indirect energy use and savings?," Journal ... "Global patterns of materials use: A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages ... Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are ...
  https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v63y2013icp696-707.html
*  Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population | European Respiratory Society
Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population. A. Johannessen, T.M.L. Eagan, E.R. Omenaas, P.S. ... Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population. A. Johannessen, T.M.L. Eagan, E.R. Omenaas, P.S. ... Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population. A. Johannessen, T.M.L. Eagan, E.R. Omenaas, P.S. ... Socioeconomic risk factors for lung function decline in a general population Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
  http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2010/02/11/09031936.00186509
*  Residential segregation of blacks in Virginia cities :assessing socioeconomic factors
Socioeconomic status of black residents was measured over two dimensions: education and income. The association between ... Findings also suggested that the relationship between minority socioeconomic status and degrees of segregation did not vary in ... Using data from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing, the relationship between socioeconomic status and residential ... The regression models estimating the effects of socioeconomic variables on residential contact did not show statistical ...
  https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/43418
*  Visualizing disease incidence in the context of socioeconomic factors
But are there are other socioeconomic factors that influence disease incidence as well? This TED talk from Bill Davenhall ... inspired us to explore socioeconomic factors that may influence disease incidence. To explore the connections of socioeconomic ... Disease incidence is usually connected to biological factors such as genetics, eating habits, exercise and so on. ... But are there are other socioeconomic factors that influence disease incidence as well? This TED talk from Bill Davenhall ...
  https://visualizeit.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/visualizing-disease-incidence-in-the-context-of-socioeconomic-factors/

Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Transport in the Netherlands Antilles: This article lists forms of Transport in the Netherlands Antilles.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.CASY cell counting technology: CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1.University of CampinasSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Renewable energy in the Czech Republic: Renewable energy in the Czech Republic describes the renewable energy related development in the Energy in the Czech Republic.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Old Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Teenage Mother (film): Teenage Mother (a.k.Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Waterladder pumpInequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. Much literature focuses on inequality between families, but inequality often exists within families as well.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Low birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.Economy of ChittagongBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Breastfeeding promotionNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.

(1/19736) Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia.

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

(2/19736) Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

(3/19736) Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

(4/19736) Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

(5/19736) Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

(6/19736) The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics.

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

(7/19736) The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction.

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

(8/19736) Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)



  • childhood
  • Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and childhood height), educational attainment, occupational characteristics, and various measures of social integration have all been linked to cognitive function and neurocognitive disorders in adulthood and old age (Glymour & Manley, 2008). (hhs.gov)
  • conditions
  • Factors influencing walkability include the presence or absence and quality of footpaths, sidewalks or other pedestrian rights-of-way, traffic and road conditions, land use patterns, building accessibility, and safety, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Background: Emerging issues in HIV prevention include the importance of considering underlying social and economic factors at the community and individual level. (uib.no)
  • Conclusion: There were marked differentials by residence in the way underlying socioeconomic factors affects HIV transmission both at the individual and community level. (uib.no)
  • Our results suggest that community level factors have a more important influence in rural than urban areas. (uib.no)
  • socioeconomic level ABSTRACT Several studies of South American populations showed that altitude is associated with low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation. (docme.ru)
  • measures
  • Due to discrepancies between residents' health in inner city neighborhoods and suburban neighborhoods with similar walkability measures, further research is needed to find additional built environment factors in walkability indices. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Given the peculiarities of sickle cell anemia and its sequelae in the oral cavity, this study examined caries and socioeconomic factors in children with this disease. (scielo.br)
  • influence
  • Combinations of these factors influence an individual's decision to walk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Davide Morselli shows that emotional climates of relative large communities (regions, cantons) are tangled with other socioeconomic factors, such as the wealth and unemployment rate, and influence individual emotional response to life events. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • All of these socioeconomic characteristics are more common among people with cognitive impairment, as shown in Figure 4 (Alzheimer's Association, 2011). (hhs.gov)
  • Among the seven risk factors analyzed, altitude was the main predictor of birth weight (except for gestational age). (docme.ru)
  • effect
  • Although some of them analyzed the altitude-birth weight association, only a few assessed the effect of the interaction between altitude and socioeconomic factors on birth weight. (docme.ru)
  • Interaction between both factors showed no effect. (docme.ru)
  • For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that even when P is likely greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. (wikipedia.org)
  • important factors
  • Identifying the important factors will help in policy formulation and intervention designing, should the country meet reduction of the infant and child mortality rates to the one set by the Millennium Development Goals. (eeaecon.org)
  • risk
  • We confirmed that parrots have a lower Red List Index (higher aggregate extinction risk) than other comparable bird groups, and modeled the factors associated with extinction risk. (springer.com)
  • Treatment: Prophylactic treatment, e.g. with low molecular weight heparin may be indicated when there are additional risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greatest risk factor for developing leprosy is contact with another case of leprosy. (wikipedia.org)
  • political
  • In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changing socioeconomic factors also impacted the political situation in the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • To evaluate these different factors together, the authors utilized data from the California Cancer Registry from 2004-2014. (fredhutch.org)
  • global
  • Our results promote understanding of global and regional factors associated with endangerment in this highly threatened taxonomic group, and will enhance the prioritization of conservation actions. (springer.com)
  • least
  • Generously apply sunscreen using a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 15 that provides broad-spectrum protection from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. (bio-medicine.org)