Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.United StatesSocieties, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.EuropeMedical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Awards and PrizesEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Great BritainQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.GermanyExpeditions: Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Taboo: Any negative tradition or behavior that is generally regarded as harmful to social welfare and forbidden within a cultural or social group.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Famous PersonsPolynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Religion and ScienceArchaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Philosophy, MedicalWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Literature, ModernDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.History of DentistryCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)ItalyPhysician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.BrazilModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)

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Types of Societies A society is made up of people living within defined territorial boarders who share a common culture. A ... If an addiction is an illness, we question ourselves, where is the virus? Where is the medical problem? There is no toxins or ... Essay about Types of Societies ...TYPES OF SOCIETIES Sociologist Gerhard Lenski (1924-) defined societies in terms of their ... One common preindustrial society is the hunting and gathering society. This society survives by hunting animals and gathering ...
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The mission of the Twin Cities Medical Society is to connect, represent and engage physicians in improving clinical practice, ...
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Report of the Committee on medical topography, meteorology, endemics and epidemics, made to the Medical society of the state of ... Report of the Committee on medical topography, meteorology, endemics and epidemics, made to the Medical society of the state of ... Report of the Committee on medical topography, meteorology, endemics and epidemics, made to the Medical society of the state of ... title,Report of the Committee on medical topography, meteorology, endemics and epidemics, made to the Medical society of the ...
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... on the scene of an emergency by reason of serving on an emergency call panel or similar committee of a county medical society ... Medical good Samaritan civil immunity.. * General rule. -Any physician or any other practitioner of the healing arts or any ... A sum not exceeding $15,000 for reimbursement for medical and hospital expenses associated with accidental injury. ...
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Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should ... Additional source: EurekAlert!, the online, global news service operated by AAAS, the science society ... Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should ... Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. ...
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NASS is a global multidisciplinary medical society that utilizes education, research and advocacy to foster the highest quality ...
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Monroe Owen County Medical Society. P.O. Box 5092, Bloomington, IN 47407. Phone: 812-332-4033. Email: director@mocms.org ... Monroe Owen County Medical Society , P.O. Box 5092, Bloomington, IN 47407 , 812-332-4033 , director@mocms.org ...
indiana.edu/~mocms/?page_id=15&yr=2014&month=4&dy=&cid=all&format=list

*  Dr. Stuart H. Garber Elected President of the California Homeopathic Medical Society

Garber has maintained a position on the Board of Directors for the California Homeopathic Medical Society for the past ten ... Founded in 1877, The California Homeopathic Medical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the highest standards for ... has accepted the presidency of the California Homeopathic Medical Society. Dr. Garber was the first person in the United States ... Stuart H. Garber, see his website at http://www.drgarbers.com, for the California Homeopathic Medical Society go to http://www. ...
prweb.com/releases/2013/7/prweb10892218.htm

*  A history of the Massachusetts Medical Society (1923 edition) | Open Library

A history of the Massachusetts Medical Society by Walter L. Burrage, 1923, s.n.], Plimpton Press) edition, ... Medical_Society ,title = A history of the Massachusetts Medical Society ,publication-date = 1923 }}. ... 2 editions of A history of the Massachusetts Medical Society by Walter L. Burrage • Add edition? An ebook is available for this ... A history of the Massachusetts Medical Society with brief biographies of the founders and chief officers, 1781-1922 by Walter L ...
https://openlibrary.org/books/OL7251000M/A_history_of_the_Massachusetts_Medical_Society

*  Colorado Medicine, Vol. 12 (Classic Reprint) : Colorado State Medical Society : 9780243275861

12 (Classic Reprint) by Colorado State Medical Society, 9780243275861, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... Transactions of the Colorado State Medical Society State Medical Society Colorado State Medical Society ... Transactions of the Colorado State Medical Society State Medical Society Colorado State Medical Society ... Transactions of the Colorado State Medical Society State Medical Society Colorado State Medical Society ...
https://bookdepository.com/Colorado-Medicine-Vol-12-Classic-Reprint-Colorado-State-Medical-Society/9780243275861

*  INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF MEDICAL HYDROLOGY | The BMJ

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF MEDICAL HYDROLOGY. Br Med J 1936; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3955.834 (Published 24 October ...
bmj.com/content/2/3955/834

*  The Gluten Free Society Offers Medical Certification Course

The Gluten Free Society is now offering a Medical Certification course to health care providers. The course will improve ... The Gluten Free Society is now offering a Medical Certification course to health care providers. The course will improve a ... The Gluten Free Society's Tier 1 certificate includes each health care provider being listed as an expert in the Society's ... The Gluten Free Society is an online resource for doctors and patients seeking help in the area of gluten related diseases. The ...
prweb.com/releases/2013/3/prweb10506550.htm

*  Q&A with Medical Society president on medical marijuana | New Hampshire

P. Travis Harker, a Concord physician, is president of the New Hampshire Medical Society and holds both a medical degree and a ... Q&A with Medical Society president on medical marijuana. June 30. 2013 11:40PM. *. Q & A on medical pot in NH with bill sponsor ... P. Travis Harker, a Concord physician, is president of the New Hampshire Medical Society and holds both a medical degree and a ... How was the medical society involved in the drafting of the law?. We wanted to have a very limited and narrow scope for this ...
newhampshire.com/article/20130701/NEWS12/130709983/0/NEWHAMPSHIRE10

*  Dr. Timothy Moran - Louisiana State Medical Society

Louisiana State Medical Society. 6767 Perkins Road, Suite 100. Baton Rouge, LA 70808 ...
lsms.org/members/?id=34679157

*  Ebooks by Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society - online reading and free download

Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society ebooks: read or download for free ... Homoeopathic Medical Society you should place a link like books by author Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society ... M:: Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society : download and read ebooks The Act Of Incorporation And The By-Laws Of The ...
ebooksread.com/authors-eng/massachusetts-homoeopathic-medical-society.shtml

*  American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) position statement: interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound in sports...

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) position statement: interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound in sports ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/american-medical-society-for-sports-medicine-amssm-position-statement-interventional-musculoskeletal-ultrasound-in-sports-medicine-1499248.html

*  Join Us | The European Society for Medical Oncology | ESMO

The European Society for Medical Oncology provides valuable services for oncology professional: Find out why you should join ... Welcome to the EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR MEDICAL ONCOLOGY,. the leading European professional organisation for medical oncology. ... Recognition and Status of Medical Oncology. Medical oncology is included among the medical specialities covered by the European ... The European Society for Medical Oncology provides valuable services for every type of oncology professional - over 16,000 ...
esmo.org/Membership/Join-ESMO?hit=A-04-08-15-AoO-access-P2-All

*  Want to Learn More About Blue Quality Provider Programs and Patient Centered Medical Home? | North Carolina Medical Society

Join the North Carolina Medical Society Foundation (NCMSF) on Wednesday, February 8, 2012, 12:00 pm, for a webinar, co- ... Join the North Carolina Medical Society Foundation (NCMSF) on Wednesday, February 8, 2012, 12:00 pm, for a webinar, co- ... The North Carolina Medical Society. Physical Address: 222 N. Person Street. Raleigh, NC 27601. Get Directions. Phone:. 1.919. ... Join the North Carolina Medical Society Foundation (NCMSF) on Wednesday, February 8, 2012, 12:00 pm, for a webinar, co- ...
ncmedsoc.org/want-to-learn-more-about-blue-quality-provider-programs-and-patient-centered-medical-home/

*  Early Career Awards | Society for Medical Decision Making

Medical Care 2003; 41: 874-881.. 2003 - Alan Schwartz, PhD. Schwartz A, Hasnain M: Risk perception and risk attitude in ... The Society encourages and recognizes outstanding work by young investigators. Trainee achievement is recognized by the annual ... Video Decision Support Tool for Advance Care Planning in Dementia: Randomized Controlled Trial. British Medical Journal in 2009 ... Bailit JL, Votruba ME: Medical cost savings associated with 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196 ...
smdm.org/hub/page/early-career-awards/about

*  Episiotomy | HCA Virginia

This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of ... The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org ... If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away. ... your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical ...
hcavirginia.com/hl/?/14809/&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

All taboos are taboos for reasons that make sense to a given society, but might not to the next. I would be hard pressed to ... And then Spock even grabs Kirk's neck and squeezes - Kirk would at the least require medical attention, but all we see is a ... It falls short at points (like how a supernova catches an FTL society like the Romulans off guard), but still, you should WMG ... Even McCoy - the only cadet in a real position of power before everything went to hell - was, unlike most of the Medical cadets ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Donald Guthrie (physician)Manganin: Manganin is a trademarked name for an alloy of typically 86% copper, 12% manganese, and 2% nickel. It was first developed by Edward Weston in 1892, improving upon his Constantan (1887).The Gentlemen's Alliance CrossInternational Myeloma Foundation: The International Myeloma Foundation (IMF) is a non-profit organization serving patients with myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The IMF also provides support and information for family members, caregivers of myeloma patients, physicians and nurses.Otis Brawley: Otis Webb Brawley is a physician who is the Chief Medical and Scientific Officer and Executive Vice President of the American Cancer Society. He is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology and a Master of the American College of Physicians, Fellow of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology.International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies: International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) was established on March 2, 1985 in Washington, D.C.International Congress on Sleep ApneaThe Flash ChroniclesNational Clinical Guideline CentreList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,American Dental Society of Anesthesiology: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA) is an American professional association established in 1953 and based in Chicago.Annals of Pediatric Cardiology: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Pediatric Cardiology Society of India. The journal publishes articles on the subjects of pediatric cardiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac pathology, cardiac anesthesia, pediatric intensive care, and cardiac imaging.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchGA²LENEuropean Society for Medical Oncology: ==About ESMO==David Glass (sociologist): 1970sDiscoverer 23Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research CenterLasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Proto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Pulmonology: Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.ACP: Pulmonology: Internal Medicine Subspecialty.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Andrew Dickson WhiteTimeline of historic inventionsHellenistic portraitureOxford knee score: The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) is a Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire that was developed to specifically assess the patient's perspective of outcome following Total Knee Arthroplasty. The OKS has subsequently been validated for use in assessing other non-surgical therapies applied to those suffering from issues with the knee.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Niigata UniversityCamponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.International College of Dentists: InternationalHoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentMedical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDocument-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: The International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization that concerns itself with the issues of euthanasia, doctor-prescribed suicide, advance directives, assisted suicide proposals, "right-to-die" cases, disability rights, pain control, and related bioethical issues. They oppose the legalization of euthanasia.Yashoda HospitalsIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.American Lung Association: The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy and research..The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityNephrology: Nephrology (from Greek [nephros "kidney]", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a [[Specialty (medicine)|specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions that affect the kidneys (such as diabetes and autoimmune disease) and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems (such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension) are also studied in nephrology.Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation: The Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation (ONCC) was established for the development, administration, and evaluation of a program for certification in oncology nursing. Incorporated in 1984 and governed by a board of directors, ONCC is the certifying body for oncology nursing and meets standards established by the Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.German Meteor expedition: The German Meteor expedition (German: Deutsche Atlantik Expedition) was an oceanographic expedition that explored the South Atlantic ocean from the equatorial region to Antarctica in 1925–1927. Depth soundings, water temperature studies, water samples, studies of marine life and atmospheric observations were conducted.Endocrine Research: Endocrine Research is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers endocrinology in the broadest context. Subjects of interest include: receptors and mechanism of action of hormones, methodological advances in the detection and measurement of hormones; structure and chemical properties of hormones.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Ippolito de' MediciTotem and Ore: Totem and Ore is a book written by B Wongar in 2006. It is an A4 coffee table format book which has a number of photos which show the effect of the British nuclear testing on the aboriginal people of Australia during the 1950s and 60s.International Panel on Fissile Materials: The International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM), established in 2006, is a group of independent nuclear experts from 16 countries. It aims to advance international initiatives to “secure and to sharply reduce all stocks of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium, the key materials in nuclear weapons, and to limit any further production”.Friendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. It was established in Bangladesh in 2002 to provide basic services to the highly suffering inaccessible areas from climate changes impact.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Regulation of science: The regulation of science refers to use of law, or other ruling, by academic or governmental bodies to allow or restrict science from performing certain practices, or researching certain scientific areas. It is a bioethical issue related to other practices such as abortion and euthanasia; and areas of research such as stem-cell research and cloning synthetic biology.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.Thomas KolbTalking CCTV: Talking CCTV is a CCTV surveillance camera that is equipped with a speaker to allow an operator to speak to the people at the CCTV-monitored site.

(1/1843) Recruiting minority cancer patients into cancer clinical trials: a pilot project involving the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and the National Medical Association.

PURPOSE: Minority accrual onto clinical trials is of significant interest to cooperative oncology study groups. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) conducted a study to identify barriers and solutions to African American accrual onto clinical trials. METHODS: We hypothesize that the National Medical Association (NMA) might provide insight into ways to increase minority participation and that ECOG might facilitate that participation. Four sites were selected in which NMA chapters existed and ECOG main institutions with less than half of the corresponding percentage of minorities in their communities entered trials for 1992. Fifteen workshops were conducted using discussions and open-ended, self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Seventy percent of NMA physicians cited mistrust of the research centers, fear of losing patients, and a lack of respect from ECOG institutions as the most important barriers to minority cancer patient referrals, compared with 30% for ECOG physicians. Sixty-nine percent of NMA and 43% of ECOG physicians cited a lack of information about specific trials. Nearly half of NMA physicians (47%) cited a lack of minority investigators as a barrier, compared with 4% of ECOG physicians. Solutions by both groups were improved communication (73%) and culturally relevant educational materials (40%). ECOG physicians cited more minority outreach staff as a potential solution (22% v 6%). NMA physicians cited increased involvement of referring physicians (44% v4%). CONCLUSION: NMA physicians who serve a significant sector of the African American population demonstrated a willingness to participate and work with a cooperative group effort to increase participation of minority patients and investigators.  (+info)

(2/1843) American Society of Clinical Oncology 1998 update of recommended breast cancer surveillance guidelines.

OBJECTIVE: To determine an effective, evidence-based, postoperative surveillance strategy for the detection and treatment of recurrent breast cancer. Tests are recommended only if they have an impact on the outcomes specified by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for clinical practice guidelines. POTENTIAL INTERVENTION: All tests described in the literature for postoperative monitoring were considered. In addition, the data were critically evaluated to determine the optimal frequency of monitoring. OUTCOME: Outcomes of interest include overall and disease-free survival, quality of life, toxicity reduction, and secondarily cost-effectiveness. EVIDENCE: A search was performed to determine all relevant articles published over the past 20 years on the efficacy of surveillance testing for breast cancer recurrence. These publications comprised both retrospective and prospective studies. VALUES: Levels of evidence and guideline grades were rated by a standard process. More weight was given to studies that tested a hypothesis directly relating testing to one of the primary outcomes in a randomized design. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: The possible consequences of false-positive and -negative tests were considered in evaluating a preference for one of two tests providing similar information. Cost alone was not a determining factor. RECOMMENDATIONS: The attached guidelines and text summarize the updated recommendations of the ASCO breast cancer expert panel. Data are sufficient to recommend monthly breast self-examination, annual mammography of the preserved and contralateral breast, and a careful history and physical examination every 3 to 6 months for 3 years, then every 6 to 12 months for 2 years, then annually. Data are not sufficient to recommend routine bone scans, chest radiographs, hematologic blood counts, tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen [CA] 15-5, and CA 27.29), liver ultrasonograms, or computed tomography scans. VALIDATION: The recommendations of the breast cancer expert panel were evaluated and supported by the ASCO Health Services Research Committee reviewers and the ASCO Board of Directors.  (+info)

(3/1843) Huge court fight may be in offing as Ontario college considers penalty for maverick MD.

Physicians who practise alternative medicine are paying close attention to the case of an Ontario physician who was found guilty of professional misconduct. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario says it is simply doing its job.  (+info)

(4/1843) British Hyperbaric Association carbon monoxide database, 1993-96.

OBJECTIVES: To study the referral pattern of patients, poisoned with carbon monoxide and subsequently transferred to British hyperbaric oxygen facilities, from April 1993 until March 1996 inclusive. METHODS: A standard dataset was used by hyperbaric facilities within the British Hyperbaric Association. The data on each patient were sent in confidence to the Hyperbaric Unit at Whipps Cross Hospital for analysis. The epidemiology of poisoning and the population studied were analysed. Times of removal from exposure, referral to a hyperbaric facility, arrival at the hyperbaric facility, and start of treatment were recorded. Data on the outcome of the episode were documented in one of the contributing facilities. RESULTS: 575 patients exposed to carbon monoxide were reported as being referred to British hyperbaric facilities in the three years, the busiest facilities being in London and Peterborough. The proportions of accidental and non-accidental exposures were 1:1.05. Of the accidental exposures, central heating faults were responsible in 71.5% of cases (n = 206). Smoke inhalation from fires was responsible for a further 13.5% (n = 39). The mean delay to arrival in a hyperbaric oxygen facility was 9 hours and 15 minutes after removal from exposure. Recovery after treatment was sometimes incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: The reported pattern of referral was regionally weighted towards the south east of England. Smoke inhalation victims were often not referred for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The delay to treatment was multifactorial; and the mean delay was well in excess of six hours. There is room for improvement in the consistency and speed of referral. Treatment schedules require standardisation. A central advice and referral service would be helpful.  (+info)

(5/1843) Terminologia anatomica: new terminology for the new anatomist.

Over many years, anatomical terminology has been the subject of much controversy and disagreement. Previously, the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee has been responsible for the production of six editions of Nomina Anatomica. In 1989 a new committee, the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), was created by its parent body, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). FCAT has worked for 9 years and published Terminologia Anatomica (TA) in 1998. FCAT's aim has been to democratize the terminology and make it the internationally accepted, living language of anatomy. The worldwide adoption of the same terminology would eliminate national differences, which were causing extreme confusion in instances where the same structure was known by several names. The new terminology is thus the result of worldwide consultation and contains Latin and equivalent English terms. It is indexed in Latin and English and contains an index of eponyms in order to find the correct non-eponymous term. The future goal of FCAT is to continue to improve the terminology-new structures are described, different terms come into use, and the terminology needs to be expanded to include terms used by clinicians for structures that currently do not appear in the list. Future versions of the terminology must accommodate the needs of all who use it, both in the clinical and scientific worlds.  (+info)

(6/1843) Impact of new diagnostic criteria for diabetes on different populations.

OBJECTIVE: For epidemiological purposes, it has now been recommended that a fasting plasma glucose value of 7.0 mmol/l can be used to diagnose diabetes, instead of a 2-h value of 11.1 mmol/l. This study assesses the impact of making this change on the prevalence of diabetes and on the phenotype of individuals identified. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collated from nine population based southern hemisphere studies in which a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Comparisons were made between the prevalence derived from fasting values only and the prevalence derived from 2-h values only. Cardiovascular risk was assessed in all individuals. RESULTS: There were 20,624 subjects in the nine surveys of whom 1,036 had previously diagnosed diabetes and 1,714 had newly diagnosed diabetes, according to either fasting or 2-h glucose. The differences in prevalence within each population resulting from changing the diagnostic criteria ranged from +30 to -19% (relative difference) and +4.1 percentage points to -2.8 percentage points (absolute difference). BMI was the most important determinant of disagreement in classification. A total of 31% of those individuals who were diabetic on the fasting value were not diabetic on the 2-h value, and 32% of those with diabetes on the 2-h value were not diabetic on the fasting value. Apart from obesity, there were no differences in cardiovascular risk between those identified by the fasting and the 2-h values. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the diagnostic criteria is likely to have variable and sometimes quite large effects on the prevalence of diabetes in different populations. Furthermore, the fasting criterion identifies different people as being diabetic than those identified by the 2-h criterion.  (+info)

(7/1843) Advocacy--answering old mail. Canadian Association of General Surgeons.

Since its inception in 1977, the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS) has struggled with its responsibility to represent general surgeons in practices across this country. The CAGS has tended to be mute in the presentation of many of its accomplishments, which have improved the role of specialists in community practice, training programs and the subspecialties of general surgery. With the forthcoming changes in direction for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, based on a recent external survey, the CAGS has a golden opportunity to advocate for a clear identity, autonomous from the Royal College for the purposes of scientific meetings, continuing professional development, scientific and practice affiliation with other surgical specialty societies, and new developments with corporate sector support for advancements in science technology and education. Advocacy for general surgery must be stressed as the priority for the CAGS into the future.  (+info)

(8/1843) British HIV Association guidelines for prescribing antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy (1998).

The aim of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy is to deliver a healthy uninfected child to a healthy mother, without prejudicing the future treatment opportunities of the mother. The use of zidovudine monotherapy rapidly became standard practice once it had been shown to reduce by 67% mother to child transmission in women with CD4+ lymphocyte counts above 200 x 10(6)/l. High rates of transmission are seen when maternal disease is advanced (high viral load, low CD4+ lymphocyte counts) despite zidovudine. In these women highly active antiretroviral therapy gives the best prospect for prolonged health and it is anticipated that reducing plasma viral load below the limits of detection will further reduce transmission rates. However, safety data for antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy are limited and each additional treatment exposes a significant proportion of uninfected infants to potential long term hazards. Where maternal therapy is not indicated and the sole objective of treatment is to reduce mother to child transmission, recent data suggest that short course zidovudine (especially in conjunction with prelabour caesarean section) is a reasonable option. This may minimise the emergence of viruses with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine and preserve maternal options for later therapy.  (+info)



Homeopathic Medical Society


  • Dr. Stuart H. Garber, DC, PhD, developer of Dr. Garber's Natural Solutions ( http://www.drgarbers.com ) has accepted the presidency of the California Homeopathic Medical Society. (prweb.com)
  • An early advocate of homeopathy, Dr. Garber has maintained a position on the Board of Directors for the California Homeopathic Medical Society for the past ten years. (prweb.com)
  • Founded in 1877, The California Homeopathic Medical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the highest standards for homeopathy, the encouragement of homeopathic practice, maintaining the principles of ethics in homeopathic practice and fellowship and personal growth of its members. (prweb.com)

enacted medical marijuana


  • He responded to these questions from the New Hampshire Union Leader about the state's newly enacted medical marijuana legislation. (newhampshire.com)

California


physician


  • Dr. P. Travis Harker, a Concord physician, is president of the New Hampshire Medical Society and holds both a medical degree and a master's degree in public health. (newhampshire.com)
  • Welcome New Hanover Regional Medical Center Physicians and Physician Assistants! (ncmedsoc.org)

Decision Making


  • Net Health Benefits: A New Framework for the Analysis of Uncertainty in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Medical Decision Making. (smdm.org)

join


  • Join the North Carolina Medical Society Foundation (NCMSF) on Wednesday, February 8, 2012, 12:00 pm, for a webinar, co-sponsored by the North Carolina Medical Group Management Association (MGMA), that will help physicians understand the Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) as well as Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina (BCBSNC)'s Blue Quality Provider Programs SM (BQPP). (ncmedsoc.org)

Free


  • The Gluten Free Society is offering health care providers a certification course. (prweb.com)
  • The Gluten Free Society is now offering a Medical Certification course to health care providers. (prweb.com)
  • This reason alone is why the Gluten Free Society has been advocating for better education of gluten related issues. (prweb.com)
  • The Gluten Free Society is an online resource for doctors and patients seeking help in the area of gluten related diseases. (prweb.com)
  • The Gluten Free Society lends its support to research endeavors revolving around grains, gluten, lectins, and other compounds within grain that may harm human health. (prweb.com)
  • British Deaf History Society Limited: Activate your charity profile today - and you can do all this for FREE. (charitychoice.co.uk)

treat


  • Is it troubling to you as a practitioner that you are being asked to diagnose a condition, but the patient decides that medical marijuana is the way to treat it? (newhampshire.com)

work


  • The Society encourages and recognizes outstanding work by young investigators. (smdm.org)

doctors


  • Two months after a newspaper expos about the Manchester VA Medical Center, whistleblower doctors and medical professionals on Monday raised concerns about continued problems at the facility. (newhampshire.com)

benefits


  • Talk to your healthcare team about the benefits and risks of using medical marijuana. (cancer.ca)
  • The benefits and risks of marijuana for medical purposes have not been thoroughly reviewed by Health Canada, and individual products have not gone through an approval process. (cancer.ca)

patients


  • Overuse of antibiotics has major consequences for individual patients and society more generally. (smdm.org)

Medicine


  • American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) position statement: interventional musculoskeletal ultrasound in sports medicine. (omicsonline.org)