Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Polydipsia: Excessive thirst manifested by excessive fluid intake. It is characteristic of many diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS; and NEPHROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS. The condition may be psychogenic in origin.Housing, AnimalSocial Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in...

The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ... Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of ... less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation ... Male BCCAO with social isolation; (F) Female BCCAO with social isolation. Scale bar: 20 μm. Abbreviations: PL: photoreceptor ...
mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/8/16111/htm

*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on social isolation-induced functional changes in noradrenergic system in the brain (KAKENHI...

Long-term social isolation enhances spontaneous motor activity, and induces aggressive behavior in mice and rats. However, ... Study on social isolation-induced functional changes in noradrenergic system in the brain. Research Project ... Social isolation / Mice / Noradrenaline / Antidepressants / Aggressive behavior / alpha2-Adrenoceptor / beta2-Adrenoceptor / ... we investigated functional changes in central noradrenergic system caused by social isolation. Male ddY mice were isolated for ...
https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-04671346/

*  Internet Not Linked To Social Isolation

A new study confirms that Internet and mobile phones are not linked to social isolation. Online activities such as social ... Study Finds Social Media is Actually Social (readwriteweb.com). *Study: Internet use leads to more diverse networks ( ... Breaking: Online social network use isn't detrimental to your actual social network (crunchgear.com) ...
joedawsons.com/2009/11/internet-not-linked-to-social-isolation.html

*  Social Isolation Is Dangerous for Your Health: Here Are Some Solutions - Living Well With HIV - TheBody.com

No one living with HIV/AIDS is immune from the impact of isolation. And its impact is profound. Here's what you can do about it ... "Social isolation" is defined as a lack of contact and social support between an individual and other people. It differs from ... No one living with HIV/AIDS is immune from the impact of isolation. Numerous studies find that social isolation is a problem ... When combined with the known effects of social isolation on health outcomes (for example, persons who lack social support are ...
thebody.com/content/79521/social-isolation-is-dangerous-for-your-health-here.html?ic=wnhp

*  Young at Arts, tackling social isolation of older adults through the arts - Yorkshire Dance

It is creating social opportunities through culture and the arts. ... Young at Arts is a two-year project addressing the social ... Time to Shine takes a city-wide approach to addressing the social isolation of older people. The LEAF partnership's Young at ... The project, designed to reduce social isolation and loneliness as part of Time to Shine funded through Big Lottery Ageing ... A two-year partnership project addressing social isolation of older adults through engagement with culture and the arts. ...
https://yorkshiredance.com/project/young-at-arts/

*  Social isolation caused by working on my master's thesis is driving me | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community

Similar Discussions: Social isolation caused by working on my master's thesis is driving me * Exams are driving me nuts. ( ... Social isolation caused by working on my master's thesis is driving me insane. The sharp difference between the academic year, ... Social isolation caused by working on my master's thesis is driving me ... Evening : Depending on what day it is, some social gathering. Yes...that's sounds nice. Wonder how long I'll be able to keep it ...
https://physicsforums.com/threads/social-isolation-caused-by-working-on-my-masters-thesis-is-driving-me.126178/

*  What are the dangers of social isolation in the digital age? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap

What are the dangers of social isolation in the digital age?. 4 doctors weighed in ... What is the meaning of social isolation now with constant access to digital media? ... The fantasy world of cyberspace is breeding problems for the emerging youth whose social skills are soley based on the social ... The fantasy world of cyberspace is breeding problems for the emerging youth whose social skills are soley based on the social ...
https://healthtap.com/user_questions/142501-what-are-the-dangers-of-social-isolation-in-the-digital-age

*  Eradicate social isolation - American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare

Join the Grand Challenges for Social Work. Network Co-Leads to Eradicate Social Isolation: Sandra Edmunds Crewe, James Lubben, ... Berkman, L. F., & Glass, T. (2000). Social integration, social networks, social supports and health. In L. F. Berkman & I. ... encourage health and human service professionals to address social isolation, and promote effective ways to deepen social ... Policy recommendations for meeting the Grand Challenge to Eradicate Social Isolation (Grand Challenges for Social Work ...
aaswsw.org/grand-challenges-initiative/12-challenges/eradicate-social-isolation/

*  National Association to Stop Guardian Abuse: How Social Isolation Is Killing Us

Social isolation is a growing epidemic - one that's increasingly recognized as having dire physical, mental and emotional ... The evidence on social isolation is clear. What to do about it is less so. ... New research suggests that loneliness is not necessarily the result of poor social skills or lack of social support, but can be ... A wave of new research suggests social separation is bad for us. Individuals with less social connection have disrupted sleep ...
nasga-stopguardianabuse.blogspot.com/2017/01/how-social-isolation-is-killing-us.html

*  Breaking Bread Together: tackling social isolation & hunger with food waste - Kristie Wang

Different from a food bank, FoodCycle also tackles social isolation - its communal dining events help people build social ... Breaking Bread Together: tackling social isolation & hunger with food waste. Standard. April 6, 2015. by Kristie Wang ... By providing a sit-down meal in a warm and welcoming atmosphere, we work to reduce social isolation - as people who often feel ... We serve FoodCycle meals to people at risk from food poverty and social isolation, which in practice means that we build a ...
kristiewang.com/breaking-bread-together-tackling-social-isolation-hunger-with-food-waste/

*  A Space for Seeking and Deepening: Social Isolation and New Technology | Pew Internet & American Life Project

Social Isolation and New Technology , Pew Internet & American Life Project Social Isolation and New Technology Pew Internet & ...
evangelizationplace.blogspot.com/2009/11/social-isolation-and-new-technology-pew.html

*  Quality of Life Issues Facing MS Patients

Social Isolation. Social isolation is common in individuals with MS for a variety of reasons, including declining ability to ... Social and Emotional Support. Interventions oriented toward improving depression, increasing positive social interactions, ... which led to a feeling of social isolation. A collaborative family-centered intervention model including a psychoeducational ...
empr.com/quality-of-life-issues-facing-ms-patients/slideshow/2913/

*  Relationship Between Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Carotid Artery Plaque | Stroke

Five social isolation variables were examined: (1) marital status (currently married versus not); (2) number of friends known ... Models adjusting for social isolation, oral hygiene, years of residence, and physical activity barely changed carotid artery ... Assessment of Cultural, Lifestyle, and Social Isolation Variables. Cultural background was assessed as country of origin and ... social isolation, and physical activity. MT indicates missing teeth. ...
stroke.ahajournals.org/content/34/9/2120

*  Phys.org - mice

Females react differently than males to social isolation. While male and female mice have similar responses to physical stress ... Sick wild house mice spend time away from their social groups, leading to a decrease in their potential for disease ...
https://phys.org/tags/mice/sort/popular/all/

*  Unilateral hearing loss - Wikipedia

Social isolation. *Chronic interpersonal communication difficulties due to inability of brain to isolate or beam form sounds ... interpersonal and social relations. In quiet conditions, speech discrimination is no worse than normal hearing in those with ... This can aggravate social problems and increase the difficulty of speech comprehension. ... people's personal space and moods since brain is hyper-focused on deciphering auditory information in lieu of non-verbal social ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unilateral_hearing_loss

*  New form of brain plasticity: How social isolat...

This paper reveals that the stress of social isolation disrupts the sequence in which the myelin-making cells, the ... This paper reveals that the stress of social isolation disrupts the sequence in which the myelin-making cells, the ... By redirecting your social media traffic to your website, Scoop.it will also help you generate more qualified traffic and leads ... The picture isn't pretty for those who post a lot of selfies on social media sites like Facebook and Instagram. At least for ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/3307174901/2012/11/12/new-form-of-brain-plasticity-how-social-isolation-disrupts-myelin-production

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space...

Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of ... Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also ... Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of ... Keywords: urban green space; stress; health; socio-economic deprivation; social isolation; place belonging; physical activity; ...
mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/4/440

*  Depression (major depressive disorder) Disease Reference Guide - Drugs.com

Social isolation. *Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts or suicide. *Self-mutilation, such as cutting ... Don't become isolated. Try to participate in social activities, and get together with family or friends regularly. Support ... social activities or relationships with others. Some people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. ...
https://drugs.com/mcd/depression-major-depressive-disorder

*  Schizophrenia - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Social isolation. *Health and medical problems. *Being victimized. *Aggressive behavior, although it's uncommon ...
https://mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/symptoms-causes/dxc-20253198

*  Understanding Adverse Effects of E-Commerce: Media and Communication IS&T Book Chapter | IGI Global

Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or ... This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, ...
https://igi-global.com/chapter/understanding-adverse-effects-commerce/12494

*  Videos - Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

This group collaborated to create a social media piece on "The Importance of Understanding the Microbiome" and included: Ali ... In this educational video, Jonathan talks about the difficulty of dealing with symptoms, isolation, searching for information, ...
cdhf.ca/en/videos/ulcerative-colitis-

*  The Awareness Center, Inc. (International Jewish Coaltion Against Sexual Assault): The Cruelest Crime - Sexual Abuse Of...

They're often social isolates with shaky images of what it is to be male, and they've never had any friends except the six-year ... "The family isolation in which sexual abuse thrives is broken," says branch director Maggie Kennedy. ... Jesse, 37, a Boston social worker, was incapacitated by anxiety attacks when she had to counsel incestuous families. In therapy ... This process, she explains, helps to alleviate the isolation, guilt and shame that even young children experience after incest ...
theawarenesscenter.blogspot.com/1984/12/the-cruelest-crime-sexual-abuse-of.html

*  Drug Directory - Search Medicine & Drug Info | Symptom Causes, Common Drug List - AARP

Join or renew today! Members receive exclusive member benefits & affect social change. ...
healthtools.aarp.org/drug-directory/drugs-F

Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Loneliness: Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation or lack of companionship. Loneliness typically includes anxious feelings about a lack of connectedness or communality with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future.Staphylococcus microti: Staphylococcus microti is a Gram positive, coagulase-negative member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of clustered cocci. This species was originally isolated from viscera of the common vole, Microtus arvalis.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Polydipsia in birds: Polydipsia is an excessively large water intake. Its occurrence in captive birds has been recorded, although it is a relatively rare abnormal behaviour.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Brendan Gahan: Brendan Gahan is an American social media marketer, public speaker, and YouTube marketing expert. He is the former Director of Social Media for the creative agency Mekanism where he was responsible for creating viral campaigns for clients including Pepsi, Virgin Mobile, Axe, and 20th Century Fox.SonepiprazoleUrban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.CorticosteroneAnglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Neuroactive steroid: Neuroactive steroids, also known as neurosteroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors. The term neurosteroid was coined by the French physiologist Étienne-Émile Baulieu and refers to steroids synthesized in the brain.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Bainbridge reflex: The Bainbridge reflex, also called the atrial reflex, is an increase in heart rate due to an increase in central venous pressure. Increased blood volume is detected by stretch receptors (baroreceptors) located in both atria at the venoatrial junctions.Physical restraintSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Okurigana: are kana] suffixes following [[kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to mean a specific idea and be read a certain way.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Oxytocin receptor: The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin. In humans, the oxytocin receptor is encoded by the OXTR gene which has been localized to human chromosome 3p25.Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.

(1/807) An analysis of multiple misplaced parental social contingencies.

This study analyzed the training of a mother to modify five subclasses of her attention to her young child's noncompliance with instructions, and also displayed the changes in her child's behavior correlated with these events. Training in four subclasses consisted of teaching the mother to withhold various forms of social attention to her daughter's undesired behavior; training in the fifth subclass involved introduction of a brief room-timeout procedure for noncompliance. The effectiveness of the parent-training procedure, consisting of initial instructions and daily feedback, was demonstrated through a multiple-baseline design across the five subclasses of parent behavior. Sequential decreased in the first three subclasses of the mother's social attention to undesired child behavior resulted in incomplete improvements in some child responses; however, a decrease in the fourth subclass resulted in a significant increase in undesired child behavior. Complete remediation of all child behaviors was achieved following the training of a timeout procedure for noncompliance. Postchecks conducted up to 16 weeks later showed that these effects were durable.  (+info)

(2/807) The effects of social punishment on noncompliance: a comparison with timeout and positive practice.

The effects of social punishment, positive practice, and timeout on the noncompliant behavior of four mentally retarded children were assessed in a multitreatment withdrawal design. When programmed, the experimental procedure occurred contigent on non-compliance to experimenter-issued commands. Commands were given at 55-sec intervals throughout each experimental session. The results showed (1) lower levels of noncompliance with social punishment than with the positive-practice or timeout conditions, and (2) that relatively few applications of social punishment were required to obtain this effect. The advantages of social punishment over other punishment procedures, considerations to be made before using it, and the various aspects of the procedure that contribute to its effectiveness were discussed.  (+info)

(3/807) Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination.

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

(4/807) Effects of isolation housing and timing of drug administration on amikacin kinetics in mice.

AIM: To study the influences of social condition and drug administration time on amikacin metabolism in mice. METHODS: Forty Male ICR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to 1) housing condition: individual housing (I, one mouse in a cage) or aggregated housing (A, 10 mice in a cage) and 2) drug administration time: at midday (D) or at midnight (N), i.e. I-D, I-N, A-D, and A-N groups. Amikacin was injected s.c. 15 mg.kg-1 after 4 wk of raising at D or N. Blood samples were taken at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 min after medication in each mouse. Plasma amikacin was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration-time data were fitted with one-compartment open model in each mouse and data were analyzed with group t test. RESULTS: The clearance (Cl) of amikacin was larger and the half-life (T1/2) was shorter in A-N group than in A-D or I-N groups respectively. AUC(0-1) in A-N group was less than in I-N group. No differences of kinetic parameters between 2 isolated housing (I-D and I-N) groups were found. CONCLUSION: Aggregated housing and midnight drug administration increased the disposition of amikacin.  (+info)

(5/807) Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women.

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

(6/807) Suppression of the secretion of luteinizing hormone due to isolation/restraint stress in gonadectomised rams and ewes is influenced by sex steroids.

In this study we used an isolation/restraint stress to test the hypothesis that stress will affect the secretion of LH differently in gonadectomised rams and ewes treated with different combinations of sex steroids. Romney Marsh sheep were gonadectomised two weeks prior to these experiments. In the first experiment male and female sheep were treated with vehicle or different sex steroids for 7 days prior to the application of the isolation/restraint stress. Male sheep received either i.m. oil (control rams) or 6 mg testosterone propionate injections every 12 h. Female sheep were given empty s.c. implants (control ewes), or 2x1 cm s.c. implants containing oestradiol, or an intravaginal controlled internal drug release device containing 0.3 g progesterone, or the combination of oestradiol and progesterone. There were four animals in each group. On the day of application of the isolation/restraint stress, blood samples were collected every 10 min for 16 h for the subsequent measurement of plasma LH and cortisol concentrations. After 8 h the stress was applied for 4 h. Two weeks later, blood samples were collected for a further 16 h from the control rams and ewes, but on this day no stress was imposed. In the second experiment, separate control gonadectomised rams and ewes (n=4/group) were studied for 7 h on 3 consecutive days, when separate treatments were applied. On day 1, the animals received no treatment; on day 2, isolation/restraint stress was applied after 3 h; and on day 3, an i. v. injection of 2 microg/kg ACTH1-24 was given after 3 h. On each day, blood samples were collected every 10 min and the LH response to the i.v. injection of 500 ng GnRH administered after 5 h of sampling was measured. In Experiment 1, the secretion of LH was suppressed during isolation/restraint in all groups but the parameters of LH secretion (LH pulse frequency and amplitude) that were affected varied between groups. In control rams, LH pulse amplitude, and not frequency, was decreased during isolation/restraint whereas in rams treated with testosterone propionate the stressor reduced pulse frequency and not amplitude. In control ewes, isolation/restraint decreased LH pulse frequency but not amplitude. Isolation/restraint reduced both LH pulse frequency and amplitude in ewes treated with oestradiol, LH pulse frequency in ewes treated with progesterone and only LH pulse amplitude in ewes treated with both oestradiol and progesterone. There was no change in LH secretion during the day of no stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were higher during isolation/restraint than on the day of no stress. On the day of isolation/restraint maximal concentrations of cortisol were observed during the application of the stressor but there were no differences between groups in the magnitude of this response. In Experiment 2, isolation/restraint reduced the LH response to GnRH in rams but not ewes and ACTH reduced the LH response to GnRH both in rams and ewes. Our results show that the mechanism(s) by which isolation/restraint stress suppresses LH secretion in sheep is influenced by sex steroids. The predominance of particular sex steroids in the circulation may affect the extent to which stress inhibits the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and/or the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to the actions of GnRH. There are also differences between the sexes in the effects of stress on LH secretion that are independent of the sex steroids.  (+info)

(7/807) Developing communality: family-centered programs to improve children's health and well-being.

Despite decades of enormous investment in research and public programs, the United States continues to face pandemics of preventable health problems such as low birth weight, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and interpersonal violence. With some justification, these problems have been blamed on the failings of families. The reasons why families may function poorly in their child-rearing roles have not been coherently or vigorously addressed by our social policies; sometimes these policies have aggravated the problems. This paper provides background to allow a better understanding of families' role in the social determination of children's health, and argues for programs and policies that assist families through the creation of social supports embedded in communities that are characterized by trust and mutual obligation.  (+info)

(8/807) An expansion of the peer-tutoring paradigm: cross-age peer tutoring of social skills among socially rejected boys.

We examined the effects of a cross-age peer-tutoring program on the social skills of 2 sixth-grade and 2 kindergarten socially rejected and isolated boys. Peer tutoring consisted of the older boys conducting social skills training with their younger tutees. The frequency of positive social interactions increased for all 4 boys, with maintenance of treatment gains following a 5-week interval.  (+info)



loneliness


  • The project, designed to reduce social isolation and loneliness as part of Time to Shine funded through Big Lottery Ageing Better, has established a community of older adults who are now engaged in a variety of arts activities which are supporting them to form life-long friendships. (yorkshiredance.com)
  • Loneliness can accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, and isolated individuals are twice as likely to die prematurely as those with more robust social interactions. (blogspot.com)
  • New research suggests that loneliness is not necessarily the result of poor social skills or lack of social support, but can be caused in part by unusual sensitivity to social cues. (blogspot.com)
  • In this way, loneliness can be contagious: When one person becomes lonely, he withdraws from his social circle and causes others to do the same. (blogspot.com)

avoidance of social


  • HIV/AIDS can cause fatigue resulting in fewer social outings, neuropathy can reduce mobility and physical manifestations such as lipodystrophy can result in avoidance of social relationships, sex, work and sport activities. (thebody.com)

Chronic


  • Chronic parenting stress: Moderating versus mediating effects of social support. (aaswsw.org)

depression


  • Even a perception of social disconnectedness has a negative impact on mental health , especially anxiety and depression . (thebody.com)
  • Social isolation is common in individuals with MS for a variety of reasons, including declining ability to engage in physical activity, cognitive changes, changes in relationships and employment, and depression. (empr.com)
  • Interventions oriented toward improving depression, increasing positive social interactions, expressed affection, working with families surrounding issues of emotional support, and providing psychoeducation may be helpful. (empr.com)
  • For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. (drugs.com)

outcomes


  • When combined with the known effects of social isolation on health outcomes (for example, persons who lack social support are 1.5 times more likely to have an MI ), it becomes clear that individuals, health care providers and communities need to quickly address the problem of social isolation. (thebody.com)

Dangerous


  • Can retreating from bullying and social isolation become dangerous? (healthtap.com)
  • Social isolation is a silent killer-as dangerous to health as smoking. (aaswsw.org)

mice


  • Long-term social isolation enhances spontaneous motor activity, and induces aggressive behavior in mice and rats. (nii.ac.jp)

cues


  • Lonely people are more likely to perceive ambiguous social cues negatively, and enter a self-preservation mind-set - worsening the problem. (blogspot.com)
  • His work has found that the most effective interventions focus on addressing "maladaptive social cognition" - that is, helping people re-examine how they interact with others and perceive social cues. (blogspot.com)
  • Seeming lack of awareness of other people's personal space and moods since brain is hyper-focused on deciphering auditory information in lieu of non-verbal social cues. (wikipedia.org)

people


  • Social isolation" is defined as a lack of contact and social support between an individual and other people. (thebody.com)
  • Isolation shouldn't be confused with the number of people around an individual. (thebody.com)
  • A person living with HIV can be surrounded by crowds of people, yet because of stigma and discrimination, experience low self-worth or carry secrets that result in the very same subjective experience of social isolation. (thebody.com)
  • The origins of social isolation among people living with HIV are not difficult to discern. (thebody.com)
  • To make matters worse, many people turn to addictive behaviors such as opiates, stimulants and high-risk sex to find relief from the emotional pain of social isolation. (thebody.com)
  • It should also be noted that persons affected by HIV/AIDS, especially those who went through the 1980s and 1990s, can experience the same symptoms of trauma and isolation as people who are HIV-positive. (thebody.com)
  • Time to Shine takes a city-wide approach to addressing the social isolation of older people. (yorkshiredance.com)
  • You can get some social interaction with people at the gym too. (physicsforums.com)
  • Our challenge is to educate the public on this health hazard, encourage health and human service professionals to address social isolation, and promote effective ways to deepen social connections and community for people of all ages. (aaswsw.org)
  • Ideally, experts say, neighborhoods and communities would keep an eye out for such older people and take steps to reduce social isolation. (blogspot.com)
  • Different from a food bank, FoodCycle also tackles social isolation - its communal dining events help people build social connections, which has shown to be a key factor affecting community resilience and even individual life spans. (kristiewang.com)
  • We take these ingredients (mainly fresh fruit and vegetables) to a local kitchen space, and our volunteers turn them into healthy three-course meals for people at risk of food poverty and social isolation in the community. (kristiewang.com)
  • We serve FoodCycle meals to people at risk from food poverty and social isolation, which in practice means that we build a partnership with a local community group working with vulnerable individuals. (kristiewang.com)
  • A recent study found that partners of individuals with MS reported "being unsure of what the future might hold and feeling helpless and out of control' and that other people could not understand and support them, which led to a feeling of social isolation. (empr.com)

immune


  • No one living with HIV/AIDS is immune from the impact of isolation. (thebody.com)
  • Individuals with less social connection have disrupted sleep patterns , altered immune systems , more inflammation and higher levels of stress hormones . (blogspot.com)

stress


  • This paper reveals that the stress of social isolation disrupts the sequence in which the myelin-making cells, the oligodendrocytes, are formed. (scoop.it)
  • Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. (mdpi.com)

risk


  • Social isolation is clearly a risk to emotional and physical health. (thebody.com)
  • Effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an at‐risk population. (aaswsw.org)
  • One recent study found that isolation increases the risk of heart disease by 29 percent and stroke by 32 percent. (blogspot.com)

cognitive


  • Social network, cognitive function and dementia incidence in elderly women. (aaswsw.org)

Evidence


  • Social isolation in childhood and adult inflammation: Evidence from the National Child Development Study. (aaswsw.org)
  • The evidence on social isolation is clear. (blogspot.com)

effects of social


  • The effects of social isolation are profound. (thebody.com)

robust


  • We're now in conversations with all major supermarkets and have a much more robust expansion model of social franchising. (kristiewang.com)

activities


  • Online activities such as social networking, email, blogging etc can even lead to larger, more diverse networks! (joedawsons.com)

health


  • Social integration, social networks, social supports and health. (aaswsw.org)
  • Centrality of social ties to the health and well-being of older adults. (aaswsw.org)

events


  • The sharp difference between the academic year, with it's frequent meetings, social events and occasional lecture and the summer where all I can look forward to is writing another section is starting to get to me. (physicsforums.com)

connections


  • Ensuring they have easy access to transportation, through discounted bus passes or special transport services, can help maintain social connections. (blogspot.com)

Internet


  • A new study confirms that Internet and mobile phones are not linked to social isolation. (joedawsons.com)
  • The fantasy world of cyberspace is breeding problems for the emerging youth whose social skills are soley based on the social media internet. (healthtap.com)

community


  • Performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among three European community-dwelling older adult populations. (aaswsw.org)

work


  • Policy recommendations for meeting the Grand Challenge to Eradicate Social Isolation (Grand Challenges for Social Work Initiative Policy Brief No. 5). (aaswsw.org)
  • Cleveland, OH: American Academy of Social Work & Social Welfare. (aaswsw.org)

partnership


  • A two-year partnership project addressing social isolation of older adults through engagement with culture and the arts. (yorkshiredance.com)

brain


  • New form of brain plasticity: How social isolat. (scoop.it)

help


  • He is collaborating with the United States military to explore how social cognition training can help soldiers feel less isolated while deployed and after returning home. (blogspot.com)

environment


  • Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study, we show that (1) enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2) impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3) that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. (mdpi.com)

among


  • Numerous studies find that social isolation is a problem among the aging population in general, and especially among the elderly living with HIV. (thebody.com)

result


  • One study found that 8.2% of HIV-related deaths were the result of suicide, and social isolation is almost certainly a contributing factor. (thebody.com)

service


  • As well as the immediate benefit of a healthy meal, many FoodCycle service users really value the social side of our meal. (kristiewang.com)

discrimination


  • HIV-related stigma results in economic, social and legal marginalization , as well as shame, discrimination (or fear of discrimination), low self-worth and trauma, all of which can lead to social withdrawal. (thebody.com)

physical


  • Social isolation is a growing epidemic - one that's increasingly recognized as having dire physical, mental and emotional consequences. (blogspot.com)
  • physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. (mdpi.com)

increase


  • This can aggravate social problems and increase the difficulty of speech comprehension. (wikipedia.org)

Media


  • What is the meaning of social isolation now with constant access to digital media? (healthtap.com)

changes


  • In this study, we investigated functional changes in central noradrenergic system caused by social isolation. (nii.ac.jp)