Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Q-Sort: A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.

*  Equity, efficiency and social welfare : an application of generalised Lorenz dominance to New Zealand incomes data 1984-98 ...

... an application of generalised Lorenz dominance to New Zealand incomes data 1984-98. [Srikanta Chatterjee; Nripesh Podder; ... Equity, efficiency and social welfare : an application of generalised Lorenz dominance to New Zealand incomes data 1984-98. ... Equity, efficiency and social welfare : an application of generalised Lorenz dominance to New Zealand incomes data 1984-98/ ... Add tags for "Equity, efficiency and social welfare : an application of generalised Lorenz dominance to New Zealand incomes ...

*  Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird - College Paper

"Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird.", 27 Aug. ... Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird. "The one thing that doesn't abide by ... "Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird." August 27, 2014. Accessed ... "Dominance, Prejudiced Stereotypes, and Social Inequality in To Kill A Mockingbird." August 27, 2014. Accessed ...

*  Social Hierarchy in Animals: Dominance Tests in Mice - Maze Engineers

The study of social hierarchy in animals is important to understand the neurological basis of social dominance behavior. We ... Social reward pathways may also activate in response to winning social conflicts, and so could serve as a dominance hierarchy ... All of these other paradigms for testing social dominance correlate well with performance in the tube dominance test[4]. ... The relationship between social status, individual health, and social stability makes the scientific understanding of social ...

*  PSY 70 - William C. Sanderson, PhD

Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance. Consumerism/Materialism: What function does it serve?. Distribution of Resources ... It is not an area of study, like vision, reasoning, or social behavior. It is a way of thinking about psychology that can be ...

*  EYE COLOR AS A PREDICTOR OF SOCIAL DOMINANCE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus Emmanuel M. Vera Cruz, Reggie May L. Bero,...

1 EYE COLOR AS A PREDICTOR OF SOCIAL DOMINANCE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus Emmanuel M. Vera Cruz, Reggie May L. Bero ... EYE COLOR AS A PREDICTOR OF SOCIAL DOMINANCE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus Emmanuel M. Vera Cruz, Reggie May L. Bero, ... questions: 1. Is ECP of the fish consequences of prior social (dominance or subordination) experience or is it a coping style ... Download ppt "EYE COLOR AS A PREDICTOR OF SOCIAL DOMINANCE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus Emmanuel M. Vera Cruz, Reggie ...

*  SelectedWorks - Shannon McCauley

Body Size and Social Dominance Influence Breeding Dispersal in Male .... Ecological Entomology (2010) ... 1. Dispersal behaviour can be affected by an individual's phenotype, by the environmental or social context they experience, ...

*  An Investigation of Assessment Games During Fallow Deer Fights - Jennings - 2005 - Ethology - Wiley Online Library

Previous article in issue: Testosterone and Linear Social Dominance Status in Captive Male Dabbling Ducks in Winter Previous ... Testosterone and Linear Social Dominance Status in Captive Male Dabbling Ducks in Winter ... Richard A. Peters, Jose A. Ramos, Juan Hernandez, Yayong Wu, Yin Qi, Social context affects tail displays by Phrynocephalus ... age and dominance rank in the male fallow deer, Dama dama, Animal Behaviour, 2010, 79, 6, 1293. CrossRef ...

*  Introduction. Modelling natural action selection | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

2000 Towards the integration of social dominance and spatial structure Anim. Behav 59 1035-1048. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1400. ... 2004 The use of artificial-life models for the study of social organization Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns WIn Macaque societies ... 1989 The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates Standen V, Foley RIn Comparative sociecology of mammals and ... Bryson et al. (2007) therefore make both a contribution to the theory of macaque social behaviour and a methodological point by ...

*  Carotenoid-based coloration, oxidative stress and corticosterone in common lizards | Journal of Experimental Biology

1994). Plumage variation, plasma steroids and social dominance in male house finches. Condor 96, 614-625. ... 2005). Social factors and individual vulnerability to chronic stress exposure. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 29, 67-81. ... 1993). Effects of corticosterone on social behavior of male lizards. Horm. Behav. 27, 184-199. ... Environmental factors including stressors, health status and social context significantly affect carotenoid-based coloration. ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 39, social, chemosensory, behavior, visual, dominance, crayfish. 1956. Play Button ... Social behavior depends on sensory input from the visual, mechanical and olfactory systems. One important issue concerns the ... Crayfish that were housed in same-sex pairs developed a social rank of either dominant or subordinate. Responses to reflection ... Depending on the experimental setup, the system can be used for testing neophobia, white aversion, social cohesion, motor ...

*  Data from: Age-graded dominance hierarchies and social tolerance in packs of free-ranging dogs - Dryad

This files contains data concerning gender, dominance rank, age and body size for some of the dogs studied. In particular, body measurements were collected for members of two dog packs, one studied during the period 2005-2006 (most behaviorual data analyses concerning this group were published by Cafazzo et al. 2010, Behav Ecol 21, 443-455), and another one studied during 2007-2008 (most behavioural data analyses concerning this one are included in Bonanni et al. 2017). As said above, the variable "age class" does not express the actual age of dogs in years, but rather it ranks pack members from the youngest (lowest rank) to the oldest one (highest rank). All body measurements are espressed in cm. Head size was obtained by summing up three distances: nose-occipital bone, temporal-temporal, mandible-forehead. Empty cells refer to missing values. In the original paper by Bonanni et al. (2017), these data were used to: 1) assess the correlation between standardized dominance ...

*  Big thinkers | Harvard Gazette

Psychologists at Harvard University have found that infants younger than a year old understand social dominance and use relative size to predict who will prevail when two individuals' goals conflict.

*  Dominance as Expressed and Inferred Through Speaking Time - Mast - 2002 - Human Communication Research - Wiley Online Library

Differences in speaking time during a group interaction are hypothesized to reflect differences in individual dominance. In order to test this assumption and to identify potential moderator variables influencing the strength of the predicted association, a meta-analysis was conducted. Whether speaking time is used to convey dominance to the same extent that it is used in inferring dominance was tested by contrasting studies concerned with dominance expressed in speaking time with studies of inferred dominance based on speaking time. Overall, and for the investigated subcategories of studies, the relationship between dominance and speaking time was significant. The strength of the associations, however, differed considerably due to the influence of moderator variables. The results showed that inferred dominance studies showed stronger associations between speaking time and ...

*  PPT - DOMINANCE PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3209975

DOMINANCE. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE. Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents. Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another. Snapdragons. HUH?. Slideshow 3209975 by penney

Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Ocular dominance: Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other. It is somewhat analogous to the laterality of right- or left-handedness; however, the side of the dominant eye and the dominant hand do not always match.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.

(1/455) Loud, sad or bad: young people's perceptions of peer groups and smoking.

This paper suggests that most 13 year olds and many 11 year olds have a clear and detailed grasp of their own social map, recognize the pecking order which is established amongst their peers and are aware of the different levels of risk-taking behaviour, including smoking, adopted by different peer groups in their school year. Thirty six 11 year olds and 40 13 year olds took part in the study. Their remarkably consistent views about which pupils adopt or reject smoking are closely related to their perceptions of their social map. Their accounts differentiate top girls, top boys, middle pupils, low-status pupils, trouble-makers and loners, associating smoking behaviour consistently with three of the five groups--the top girls, the low-status pupils and the trouble makers. Top boys, although sharing many of the characteristics of top girls, have an added protection factor--their keen interest in football and physical fitness. From their descriptions, it is apparent that different groups of pupils smoke for different reasons which are related to pecking order and group membership. The implications of these young people's views for health education programmes to prevent smoking and other risk-taking behaviours are far reaching.  (+info)

(2/455) Coalition formation in animals and the nature of winner and loser effects.

Coalition formation has been documented in a diverse array of taxa, yet there has been little formal analysis of polyadic interactions such as coalitions. Here, we develop an optimality model which examines the role of winner and loser effects in shaping coalition formation. We demonstrate that the predicted patterns of alliances are strongly dependent on the way in which winner and loser effects change with contestant strength. When winner and loser effects decrease with the resource-holding power (RHP) of the combatants, coalitions will be favoured between the strongest members of a group, but not between the weakest. If, in contrast, winner and loser effects increase with RHP, exactly the opposite predictions emerge. All other things being equal, intervention is more likely to prove worthwhile when the beneficiary of the aid is weaker (and its opponent is stronger), because the beneficiary is then less likely to win without help. Consequently, intervention is more probable when the impact of victory on the subsequent performance of a combatant increases with that individual's strength because this selects for intervention in favour of weaker combatants. The published literature on hierarchy formation does not reveal how winner and loser effects actually change with contestant strength and we therefore hope that our model will spur others to collect such data; in this light we suggest an experiment which will help to elucidate the nature of winner and loser effects and their impact on coalition formation in animals.  (+info)

(3/455) Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa).

A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of social factors on the concentrations of boar taint substances, androstenone and skatole, in boars. The factors included dominance (social rank) and the effects of strongly tainted animals on other members of the group. Four successive replicates of 100 pigs (50 boars + 50 gilts) with an average live weight of 24 kg were randomly allocated to 10 pens of 10. Data for this study were collected during the period of 67 to 114 kg of live weight and included the repetitive recording of agonistic behavior during competitive feeding; blood sampling for determination of plasma androstenone, skatole and testosterone in boars; feces sampling for determination of skatole content; and collection of bulbourethral glands in boars, and uteri plus ovaries in gilts at slaughter, for the assessment of sexual maturity. Results show an influence of social rank on plasma concentrations of androstenone (P = .0001) and testosterone (P = .0001), the weight of the bulbourethral glands (P = .0001), and plasma skatole (P = .02). Pens were classified according to the pig with the highest concentration of androstenone in the pen into high, medium, and low maximum pens. In pens with high maximum concentrations of androstenone, the second-highest androstenone concentration (P = .0001), and the average concentration (P = .0003) in the pen were higher than those in pens with medium or low maximum concentrations of androstenone. Mean aggression level was also higher (P = .02), but pens with high maximum aggression level did not have higher mean androstenone concentration. Rank effect on androstenone was more important than aggression effect. Neither maximum androstenone concentration nor maximum aggression level in a pen was related to the pen mean stage of sexual maturity in either sex. No influences of rank, aggression, or aggression received were found on the feces skatole level, and no pheromonal communicative function was demonstrated for skatole. High androstenone concentrations did not have a suppressive effect on androstenone concentrations in other males of the group; on the contrary, the levels were increased. This may be due to a stimulating effect of androstenone and, possibly, mating activity. Consequently, in the production of boars for slaughter, strongly tainted animals should be avoided or removed and mating activity minimized. This could be facilitated by, for instance, slaughtering before sexual maturity or separate rearing of the sexes.  (+info)

(4/455) Skin darkening, a potential social signal in subordinate arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): the regulatory role of brain monoamines and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides.

Arctic charr were allowed to interact in groups of three for 5 days. Skin darkness was quantified by measuring the mean brightness of individual fish before and after social interaction. Brain levels of monoamines and monoamine metabolites and plasma concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), N-acetyl-(beta)-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) were analysed. The results show that social subordination resulted in a significant skin darkening. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of alpha-MSH, ACTH and cortisol were elevated in subordinates, and these fish also displayed elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the telencephalon. The ratio of [5-HIAA] to serotonin [5-HT] was increased in several brain areas. In addition, the ratio of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) to norepinephrine (NE) concentrations was significantly increased in the optic tectum of subordinate fish. Skin darkness following social interaction showed a significant positive correlation with plasma levels of alpha-MSH. Plasma levels of ACTH and alpha-MSH were both positively correlated with that of cortisol. Brain [5-HIAA]/[5-HT] ratios were positively correlated with circulating plasma levels of ACTH, and a similar positive correlation was seen between [MHPG]/[NE] ratios in the optic tectum and plasma levels of ACTH, alpha-MSH and N-acetyl-beta-endorphin. In contrast, hypothalamic [MHPG]/[NE] ratios displayed a negative correlation with plasma alpha-MSH concentrations. The present study demonstrates that social stress induces skin darkening in Arctic charr and that this effect could be mediated by a stress-induced increase in the levels of alpha-MSH in the circulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that 5-HT and NE in the central nervous system could be factors regulating the pituitary release of ACTH and alpha-MSH.  (+info)

(5/455) Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates.

We evaluated the effects of the lipophilic nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) type 1 receptor antagonist antalarmin on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic components of the stress response in adult male rhesus macaques. After oral administration, significant antalarmin concentrations were detected in the systemic circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid by a mass spectrometry-gas chromatography assay developed specifically for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic and dose-response studies suggested that an oral dose of 20 mg/kg was optimal for behavioral and endocrine effects. We then administered this dose in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion to monkeys exposed to an intense social stressor: namely, placement of two unfamiliar males in adjacent cages separated only by a transparent Plexiglas screen. Antalarmin significantly inhibited a repertoire of behaviors associated with anxiety and fear such as body tremors, grimacing, teeth gnashing, urination, and defecation. In contrast, antalarmin increased exploratory and sexual behaviors that are normally suppressed during stress. Moreover, antalarmin significantly diminished the increases in cerebrospinal fluid CRH as well as the pituitary-adrenal, sympathetic, and adrenal medullary responses to stress. We conclude that CRH plays a broad role in the physiological responses to psychological stress in primates and that a CRH type 1 receptor antagonist may be of therapeutic value in human psychiatric, reproductive, and cardiovascular disorders associated with CRH system hyperactivity.  (+info)

(6/455) Income, occupational position, qualification and health inequalities--competing risks? (comparing indicators of social status).

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The debate on health inequalities has shifted from the consequences of occupational position, as expressed in the Registrar General's classification, to consequences of material living conditions. This change in interest occurred without comparative analyses of different sources of health inequalities. Thus this study investigated the relative contribution of "material resources" (income), "qualification" and "occupational position" for explaining social differentials in mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analyses were performed with records from a statutory health insurance in West Germany. The analyses were performed with data of 84,814 employed men and women between 25 and 65 years of age who were insured between 1987 and 1995 for at least 150 days. RESULTS: The three indicators were statistically associated, but not strong enough to warrant the conclusion that they share the same empirical content. The relative risk (hazard rate) for income by controlling for occupational position and gender for the highest as compared with the lowest category was 1.99 (95% CI 1.66, 2.39). The corresponding relative risk for income by controlling for qualification and gender was 2.03 (95% CI 1.68, 2.46). In both multivariate analyses, the effects of occupational position and qualification were no longer interpretable because of large confidence intervals. In sum, income related relative mortality risks were the comparably highest, while qualification and occupational position were no longer substantial. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasise the present discussion on the consequences of material living conditions. Income on the one hand and qualification and occupational position on the other are largely independent. Mortality related effects of income override those of the other socioeconomic status indicators. However, seen in a time perspective, qualification may still have a placement function at least for the first occupational position.  (+info)

(7/455) Social status controls somatostatin neuron size and growth.

Many animal species show flexible behavioral responses to environmental and social changes. Such responses typically require changes in the neural substrate responsible for particular behavioral states. We have shown previously in the African cichlid fish, Haplochromis burtoni, that changes in social status, including events such as losing or winning a territorial encounter, result in changes in somatic growth rate. Here we demonstrate for the first time that changes in social status cause changes in the size of neurons involved in the control of growth. Specifically, somatostatin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus of H. burtoni increase up to threefold in volume in dominant and socially descending animals compared with cell sizes in subordinate and socially ascending fish. Because somatostatin is known to be an inhibitor of growth hormone release, the differences in cell size suggest a possible mechanism to account for the more rapid growth rates of subordinate and socially ascending animals compared with those of dominant or socially descending fish. These results reveal possible mechanisms responsible for socially induced physiological plasticity that allow animals to shift resources from reproduction to growth or vice versa depending on the social context.  (+info)

(8/455) The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs.  (+info)


  • As such, the stability of a dominance hierarchy can affect whether a population prospers or collapses. (
  • The relationship between social status, individual health, and social stability makes the scientific understanding of social hierarchy in animals critical to human medicine and psychology. (
  • Perhaps the most basic paradigm for establishing social hierarchy in mice is the tube dominance test [3] . (
  • This test of social dominance can be applied to successive pairs of mouse individuals in a laboratory population, to determine the overall social hierarchy. (
  • As such, the tube test is unlikely to impose an artificial hierarchy, which may be an issue with other paradigms such as social defeat . (
  • 2 Introduction Heterogeneous fish growth is a common phenomenon in cultured fish populations Variation in individual growth rates attributed in part to: social interactions formation of feeding hierarchies Fish status in a stable dominance hierarchy classified as: dominant subordinate, or intermediate In Nile tilapia the eye color pattern is a consequence of fish's relative position in the social hierarchy (Volpato et al. (
  • In particular, groups form a clear dominance hierarchy where only dominant pairs breed. (


  • Dominance hierarchies are a common feature of animal societies. (
  • Dominance hierarchies impact the survival and reproduction of individuals by regulating access to food, mates, and shelter. (
  • Why are dominance hierarchies important? (


  • Under this framework, social behavior is understood to ultimately arise through natural selection. (
  • Today, we understand that regions of the brain responsible for recognizing body language and storing social memory control dominance behavior. (
  • As such, model organisms (lab rodents in particular) have been major assets to scientists studying the neurological basis of social dominance behavior. (
  • Overall, the tube dominance test is a highly reliable predictor of dominance behavior in lab mice. (
  • Social behavior depends on sensory input from the visual, mechanical and olfactory systems. (


  • The Nobel laureate, Nikolaas Tinbergen (1963), established that social behaviors arise through a combination of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors. (
  • Individuals with long winning streaks in the tube test exhibit behaviors that typify dominance in mice. (
  • The tube dominance test corresponds to the tendency for dominant individuals in wild rodent populations to win social conflicts, but there are also paradigms for other social behaviors in mice associated with dominance. (
  • The cotton-top tamarin displays a wide variety of social behaviors. (


  • Using her novel - To Kill A Mockingbird - as a platform, Lee explores the ideas of dominance, breaching prejudiced stereotypes and social inequality. (


  • Environmental factors including stressors, health status and social context significantly affect carotenoid-based coloration. (


  • Peter Kivisto is Richard A. Swanson Professor of Social Thought and Chair of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Welfare at Augustana College and the Finland Distinguished Professor at the University of Turku, Finland. (


  • As testaments to this fact, our brains have evolved extraordinary amounts of neural circuitry for processing social interactions, and socioeconomic status is a top health indicator. (
  • Although it is well established that males adjust the number of sperm they ejaculate according to their social status and female attractiveness less is known about how males may promote their fertilization success through adjusting the fertilizing ability of their sperm (sperm quality, see Snook 2005 for further discussion). (
  • Veblen's skills as an acerbic social critic are on display in his discussion of "conspicuous consumption," which he depicts as a characteristic means by which the leisure class makes status claims. (


  • By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists . (


  • at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions. (


  • Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration which has social and cultural aspects as well. (


  • A visible burrow system (VBS) can be used to study dominance by controlling food resources. (


  • Our published results indicate that responses of crayfish to the reflective environment depend on socialization and dominance rank. (


  • If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. (


  • Whether the tube test is performed before or after other dominance tests (see below) does not affect these correlations [5] . (



  • In some species, social ranks do not change ( e.g. in insects such as bees), but most social mammals like humans and other primates have adaptable roles, where one individual can move through many social ranks over a lifetime. (