Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Q-Sort: A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.

*  Social dominance orientation
Social dominance theory. SDO was first proposed by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto as part of their Social Dominance Theory ( ... Social dominance orientation. Machiavellism. Mayberry Machiavellians Mayberry Machiavellians bag of tricks. Lysenkoism. Humor. ... Social dominance orientation (SDO) as a personality trait can predicts social and political attitudes. It is measures using ... Social dominance orientation. News. Books. Recommended Links. Bureaucracy as a Political Coalition. Bootlickocracy: Prevalence ...
*  Social dominance - Wikipedia
Social dominance may refer to: Social dominance orientation Social dominance theory Expressions of dominance Power (social and ...
*  Social dominance theory - Wikipedia
Power (social and political) F-scale (personality test) Right-wing authoritarianism Hegemony Social dominance orientation Elite ... A social dominance approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 72 (1): 37-53. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.37. PMID ... Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62290-5 ... "Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes" (PDF). Journal of Personality ...
*  Social dominance orientation - Wikipedia
Social dominance orientation was originally defined as "the degree to which individuals desire social dominance and superiority ... Social dominance orientation (SDO) is a personality trait which predicts social and political attitudes, and is a widely used ... Rubin, Mark; Hewstone, Miles (2004). "Social Identity, System Justification, and Social Dominance: Commentary on Reicher, Jost ... "Social dominance orientation and the political psychology of gender: A case of invariance?". Journal of Personality and Social ...
*  Social Status-Dependent Shift in Neural Circuit Activation Affects Decision Making | Journal of Neuroscience
Social dominance caused an increase in swimming, while social submission led to a decrease in the activity of the swim circuit. ... In many social species, dominance hierarchy formation facilitates group organization, and social ranks are easily discerned ... Formation and stability of social dominance. Paired zebrafish quickly form stable dominance relationships. We observed the ... 2007) Social dominance regulates androgen and estrogen receptor gene expression. Horm Behav 51:164-170. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh. ...
*  Frontiers | Cyclic ADP-Ribose and Heat Regulate Oxytocin Release via CD38 and TRPM2 in the Hypothalamus during Social or...
That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of ... exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social ... and suggested that CD38 and TRPM2 are potential therapeutic targets for OT release in psychiatric diseases caused by social ... exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social ...
*  Deric's MindBlog: February 2011
These results suggest that preverbal infants mentally represent social dominance and use a cue that covaries with it ... Haidt argued that social psychologists are a "tribal-moral community" united by "sacred values" that hinder research and damage ... In the Tuesday Science section of the NY Times, Tierny does a fascinating article on social psychologists, the folks who do ... Morozov urges the cyberutopians to open their eyes to the fact that the -asocial pursuit of profit is what drives social media ...
*  Medical Xpress - sensitization
Researchers explore how infants infer social dominance relationships. (Medical Xpress)-The adaptive advantage of dominance ...
*  The Final and Complete List of All Entries Submitted for The Open Laboratory 2009 - A Blog Around The Clock
Evolving Thoughts: Social dominance hierarchies. Evolving Thoughts: Tautology 1a: corrections. Evolving Thoughts: It was 150 ... A Blog Around The Clock: Why social insects do not suffer from ill effects of rotating and night shift work?. A Blog Around The ... Wild Muse: Genital mimicry, social erections and spotted hyenas. Wired Science: Freaky Sleep Paralysis: Being Awake in Your ... Not Exactly Rocket Science: Gender gap in maths driven by social factors, not biological differences. Not Exactly Rocket ...
*  Center for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences » People
Social Dominance • Species Specificity • Spermatogenesis • Spermatozoa • Starvation • Steroids • Stochastic differential ... H.F. Nijhout, Stochastic gene expression: dominance, thresholds and boundaries., in Dominance and Haploinsufficiency, edited by ... Nijhout, HF, Polymorphic mimicry in Papilio dardanus: mosaic dominance, big effects, and origins., Evolution and Development, ... Gilchrist, MA; Nijhout, HF, Nonlinear developmental processes as sources of dominance., Genetics, vol. 159 no. 1 (September, ...
*  Medical Xpress - social environment
Infants ascribe social dominance to larger individuals. Psychologists at Harvard University have found that infants less than ... The social environment (context), also known as the milieu, is the identical or similar social positions and social roles as a ... Social stress affects immune system gene expression in monkeys. The ranking of a monkey within her social environment and the ... Social stress leads to atherosclerosis. Studies on genetically engineered mice show that social stress activates the immune ...
*  OB Notes | Personality Psychology | Humanistic Psychology
Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence ... Social technical approach - making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the ... We have three basic social needs: affiliation. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. esteem and self- ... patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies.g.. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it ...
*  Physiological, morphological and behavioural effects of selecting zebra finches for divergent levels of corticosterone |...
Rohwer, S. and Wingfield, J. C. (1981). A field study of social dominance, plasma levels of luteineizing hormone and steroid ... Poisbleau, M., Fritz, H., Guillon, N. and Chastel, O. (2005). Linear social dominance hierarchy and corticosterone responses in ... Dominance. Selection for different levels of peak CORT did not have any effect on dominance or aggression, and neither did ... Creel, S. (2001). Social dominance and stress hormones. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16,491 -497. ...
*  Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness
... speaking more loudly increased their social dominance ratings.. For neither physical nor social dominance were there ... 0.01) and content physical dominance (r. =. 0.65, p. ,. 0.001). Vocal social dominance was significantly correlated with F0-SD ... Physical dominance was predicted by low F0 variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only ... 0.06, n.s.) or social (β. =. −0.06, n.s.) dominance ratings; nor did intensity (physical: β. =. 0.08, n.s., social: β. =. 0.11 ...
*  The smell of desperadoes? Beavers distinguish between dominant and subordinate intruders | SpringerLink
... such as age and social status, and play a vital role in competitor assessment. In many territorial species, subordinates must ... Creel S (2001) Social dominance and stress hormones. Trends Ecol Evol 16:491-497CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hayes RA, Richardson BJ, Wyllie SG (2001) Increased social dominance in rabbits, Oryctalus cuniculus, is associated with ... Young AJ, Monfort SL (2009) Stress and the cause of extra-territorial movement in a social carnivore. Biol Lett 5:439-441PubMed ...
*  Looking for advise on a Rottweiler
Breeds differ in tendencies towards social dominance; and individuals within a breed differ considerably. Rottweilers as a ... Dogs do not believe in social equality. They live in a social hierarchy led by a pack-leader (Alpha). The alpha dog is ...
*  cardiovascular physiologic phenomena
SOCIAL DOMINANCE, GENDER, AND CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY. Tamara Newton; Fiscal Year: 2002. ..... *Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 ... Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Rd, Bristol, BS8 2PR, UK. Eur J Epidemiol 23: ... Thus, we expect to demonstrate how personality traits, in combination with social interactions and behavior throughout the day ...
*  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
2001 Social dominance and stress hormones. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16, 491-497. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02227-3 (doi:10.1016/S0169 ... 1986 Social organization of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). II. Dominance and reproduction. Anim. Behav. 34, 1510-1527. ... 1997 Social dominance in birds: early findings and new horizons. Curr. Ornithol. 14, 125-187. ... 1979 Ecological study of social organization in the great tit Parus major LIII. Home range of the basic flocks and dominance ...
*  Prior social experience affects the behavioral and neural responses to acute alcohol in juvenile crayfish | Journal of...
1991). Social behavior, dominance, and social deprivation of rats determine drug choice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 38, 389-399 ... 2009). Stability of dominance relationships in crayfish depends on social context. Anim. Behav. 77, 195-199. doi:10.1016/j. ... 2007). Direct benefits of social dominance in juvenile crayfish. Biol. Bull. 213, 21-27. doi:10.2307/25066615. ... 2016). Effects of different social and environmental conditions on established dominance relationships in crayfish. Biol. Bull. ...
*  Areas of Instruction Animal Studies Minor
Danilowicz, M., & Hollis, R., (Faculty Sponsor: Sellers, J. G.) (2011, April). Priming Stereotypes: Social Dominance ... "The Social Basis of Character: An Ecological Humanist Approach," in Ethics in Practice, edited by Hugh Lafollette (Blackwell ... Presented at the Social Neuroendocrinology Preconference. San Diego, CA.. -Sellers, J.G. & Cerezo, E. (2011, August). The roles ... The principal social role of philosophy (literally "friendship with wisdom") is to interpret, critique, and redirect the ...
*  Eusociality - Wikipedia
Hultgren, K.M.; Duffy, J.E. (2012). "Phylogenetic community ecology and the role of social dominance in sponge-dwelling shrimp ... International Union for the Study of Social Insects. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Gintis, Herbert (2012). "Clash of the ... For example, in the Neotropical social wasp Synoeca surinama, social displays determine the caste ranks of individuals in the ... Social behavior in facultative social bees is often reliably predicted by ecological conditions, and switches in behavioral ...
*  Dept. of Primatology | News
... and investigates issues related to the evolution of social systems and social behavior, cultural differences and reproductive ... Female social dominance over males is rare among mammal species. Bonobos, one of our closest living relatives, are known for ... have now analyzed the dominance relations between male and female wild bonobos and took particular interest in the high social ... Only during periods of rank instability, in the beginning and at the end of Kusasi's dominance, did other males succeed in ...
*  Bite inhibition - Wikipedia
"Social dominance, aggression and faecal glucocorticoid levels in a wild population of wolves, Canis lupus". Science Direct. ... "Social Dominance and Stress Hormones". Science Direct. Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02227-3. Retrieved 12 November ... "Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs". nrc research press. Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date ... Dominance hierarchies may be formed in groups of canines through intense displays of aggression. However, this type of vying ...
*  Dominant | Define Dominant at
Social dominance is gained and maintained through factors such as size and aggressiveness. ... Being an animal that occupies the highest position in a social hierarchy and has the greatest access to resources such as food ...
*  What Do Your Fingers Tell | Psychology Today
Digit ratios however were unrelated to any measure of social dominance or leadership. So, on items such as "I have no problem ... 4D in men is related to aggressive dominance but not sociable dominance. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 208-212. ... Social comparison is a core element of human nature. It's how we evaluate ourselves. The downside? It can make us feel ... Mark van Vugt, Ph.D., is a professor of social and organizational psychology at the VU University Amsterdam and a research ...

Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Ocular dominance: Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other. It is somewhat analogous to the laterality of right- or left-handedness; however, the side of the dominant eye and the dominant hand do not always match.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.

(1/455) Loud, sad or bad: young people's perceptions of peer groups and smoking.

This paper suggests that most 13 year olds and many 11 year olds have a clear and detailed grasp of their own social map, recognize the pecking order which is established amongst their peers and are aware of the different levels of risk-taking behaviour, including smoking, adopted by different peer groups in their school year. Thirty six 11 year olds and 40 13 year olds took part in the study. Their remarkably consistent views about which pupils adopt or reject smoking are closely related to their perceptions of their social map. Their accounts differentiate top girls, top boys, middle pupils, low-status pupils, trouble-makers and loners, associating smoking behaviour consistently with three of the five groups--the top girls, the low-status pupils and the trouble makers. Top boys, although sharing many of the characteristics of top girls, have an added protection factor--their keen interest in football and physical fitness. From their descriptions, it is apparent that different groups of pupils smoke for different reasons which are related to pecking order and group membership. The implications of these young people's views for health education programmes to prevent smoking and other risk-taking behaviours are far reaching.  (+info)

(2/455) Coalition formation in animals and the nature of winner and loser effects.

Coalition formation has been documented in a diverse array of taxa, yet there has been little formal analysis of polyadic interactions such as coalitions. Here, we develop an optimality model which examines the role of winner and loser effects in shaping coalition formation. We demonstrate that the predicted patterns of alliances are strongly dependent on the way in which winner and loser effects change with contestant strength. When winner and loser effects decrease with the resource-holding power (RHP) of the combatants, coalitions will be favoured between the strongest members of a group, but not between the weakest. If, in contrast, winner and loser effects increase with RHP, exactly the opposite predictions emerge. All other things being equal, intervention is more likely to prove worthwhile when the beneficiary of the aid is weaker (and its opponent is stronger), because the beneficiary is then less likely to win without help. Consequently, intervention is more probable when the impact of victory on the subsequent performance of a combatant increases with that individual's strength because this selects for intervention in favour of weaker combatants. The published literature on hierarchy formation does not reveal how winner and loser effects actually change with contestant strength and we therefore hope that our model will spur others to collect such data; in this light we suggest an experiment which will help to elucidate the nature of winner and loser effects and their impact on coalition formation in animals.  (+info)

(3/455) Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa).

A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of social factors on the concentrations of boar taint substances, androstenone and skatole, in boars. The factors included dominance (social rank) and the effects of strongly tainted animals on other members of the group. Four successive replicates of 100 pigs (50 boars + 50 gilts) with an average live weight of 24 kg were randomly allocated to 10 pens of 10. Data for this study were collected during the period of 67 to 114 kg of live weight and included the repetitive recording of agonistic behavior during competitive feeding; blood sampling for determination of plasma androstenone, skatole and testosterone in boars; feces sampling for determination of skatole content; and collection of bulbourethral glands in boars, and uteri plus ovaries in gilts at slaughter, for the assessment of sexual maturity. Results show an influence of social rank on plasma concentrations of androstenone (P = .0001) and testosterone (P = .0001), the weight of the bulbourethral glands (P = .0001), and plasma skatole (P = .02). Pens were classified according to the pig with the highest concentration of androstenone in the pen into high, medium, and low maximum pens. In pens with high maximum concentrations of androstenone, the second-highest androstenone concentration (P = .0001), and the average concentration (P = .0003) in the pen were higher than those in pens with medium or low maximum concentrations of androstenone. Mean aggression level was also higher (P = .02), but pens with high maximum aggression level did not have higher mean androstenone concentration. Rank effect on androstenone was more important than aggression effect. Neither maximum androstenone concentration nor maximum aggression level in a pen was related to the pen mean stage of sexual maturity in either sex. No influences of rank, aggression, or aggression received were found on the feces skatole level, and no pheromonal communicative function was demonstrated for skatole. High androstenone concentrations did not have a suppressive effect on androstenone concentrations in other males of the group; on the contrary, the levels were increased. This may be due to a stimulating effect of androstenone and, possibly, mating activity. Consequently, in the production of boars for slaughter, strongly tainted animals should be avoided or removed and mating activity minimized. This could be facilitated by, for instance, slaughtering before sexual maturity or separate rearing of the sexes.  (+info)

(4/455) Skin darkening, a potential social signal in subordinate arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): the regulatory role of brain monoamines and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides.

Arctic charr were allowed to interact in groups of three for 5 days. Skin darkness was quantified by measuring the mean brightness of individual fish before and after social interaction. Brain levels of monoamines and monoamine metabolites and plasma concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), N-acetyl-(beta)-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) were analysed. The results show that social subordination resulted in a significant skin darkening. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of alpha-MSH, ACTH and cortisol were elevated in subordinates, and these fish also displayed elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the telencephalon. The ratio of [5-HIAA] to serotonin [5-HT] was increased in several brain areas. In addition, the ratio of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) to norepinephrine (NE) concentrations was significantly increased in the optic tectum of subordinate fish. Skin darkness following social interaction showed a significant positive correlation with plasma levels of alpha-MSH. Plasma levels of ACTH and alpha-MSH were both positively correlated with that of cortisol. Brain [5-HIAA]/[5-HT] ratios were positively correlated with circulating plasma levels of ACTH, and a similar positive correlation was seen between [MHPG]/[NE] ratios in the optic tectum and plasma levels of ACTH, alpha-MSH and N-acetyl-beta-endorphin. In contrast, hypothalamic [MHPG]/[NE] ratios displayed a negative correlation with plasma alpha-MSH concentrations. The present study demonstrates that social stress induces skin darkening in Arctic charr and that this effect could be mediated by a stress-induced increase in the levels of alpha-MSH in the circulation. Furthermore, the results suggest that 5-HT and NE in the central nervous system could be factors regulating the pituitary release of ACTH and alpha-MSH.  (+info)

(5/455) Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates.

We evaluated the effects of the lipophilic nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) type 1 receptor antagonist antalarmin on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic components of the stress response in adult male rhesus macaques. After oral administration, significant antalarmin concentrations were detected in the systemic circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid by a mass spectrometry-gas chromatography assay developed specifically for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic and dose-response studies suggested that an oral dose of 20 mg/kg was optimal for behavioral and endocrine effects. We then administered this dose in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion to monkeys exposed to an intense social stressor: namely, placement of two unfamiliar males in adjacent cages separated only by a transparent Plexiglas screen. Antalarmin significantly inhibited a repertoire of behaviors associated with anxiety and fear such as body tremors, grimacing, teeth gnashing, urination, and defecation. In contrast, antalarmin increased exploratory and sexual behaviors that are normally suppressed during stress. Moreover, antalarmin significantly diminished the increases in cerebrospinal fluid CRH as well as the pituitary-adrenal, sympathetic, and adrenal medullary responses to stress. We conclude that CRH plays a broad role in the physiological responses to psychological stress in primates and that a CRH type 1 receptor antagonist may be of therapeutic value in human psychiatric, reproductive, and cardiovascular disorders associated with CRH system hyperactivity.  (+info)

(6/455) Income, occupational position, qualification and health inequalities--competing risks? (comparing indicators of social status).

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The debate on health inequalities has shifted from the consequences of occupational position, as expressed in the Registrar General's classification, to consequences of material living conditions. This change in interest occurred without comparative analyses of different sources of health inequalities. Thus this study investigated the relative contribution of "material resources" (income), "qualification" and "occupational position" for explaining social differentials in mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analyses were performed with records from a statutory health insurance in West Germany. The analyses were performed with data of 84,814 employed men and women between 25 and 65 years of age who were insured between 1987 and 1995 for at least 150 days. RESULTS: The three indicators were statistically associated, but not strong enough to warrant the conclusion that they share the same empirical content. The relative risk (hazard rate) for income by controlling for occupational position and gender for the highest as compared with the lowest category was 1.99 (95% CI 1.66, 2.39). The corresponding relative risk for income by controlling for qualification and gender was 2.03 (95% CI 1.68, 2.46). In both multivariate analyses, the effects of occupational position and qualification were no longer interpretable because of large confidence intervals. In sum, income related relative mortality risks were the comparably highest, while qualification and occupational position were no longer substantial. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasise the present discussion on the consequences of material living conditions. Income on the one hand and qualification and occupational position on the other are largely independent. Mortality related effects of income override those of the other socioeconomic status indicators. However, seen in a time perspective, qualification may still have a placement function at least for the first occupational position.  (+info)

(7/455) Social status controls somatostatin neuron size and growth.

Many animal species show flexible behavioral responses to environmental and social changes. Such responses typically require changes in the neural substrate responsible for particular behavioral states. We have shown previously in the African cichlid fish, Haplochromis burtoni, that changes in social status, including events such as losing or winning a territorial encounter, result in changes in somatic growth rate. Here we demonstrate for the first time that changes in social status cause changes in the size of neurons involved in the control of growth. Specifically, somatostatin-containing neurons in the hypothalamus of H. burtoni increase up to threefold in volume in dominant and socially descending animals compared with cell sizes in subordinate and socially ascending fish. Because somatostatin is known to be an inhibitor of growth hormone release, the differences in cell size suggest a possible mechanism to account for the more rapid growth rates of subordinate and socially ascending animals compared with those of dominant or socially descending fish. These results reveal possible mechanisms responsible for socially induced physiological plasticity that allow animals to shift resources from reproduction to growth or vice versa depending on the social context.  (+info)

(8/455) The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs.  (+info)

  • subordinate
  • Glick and Fiske assert that hostile and benevolent sexism complement each other in reinforcing traditional gender roles and preserving patriarchal social structures of women as subordinate to men. (
  • beliefs
  • While benevolent sexism may not appear to be harmful to women on the surface, these beliefs are extremely caustic to gender equity and restrict women's personal, professional, political, and social opportunities. (
  • caste
  • His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. (
  • The Pariah Problem: Caste, Religion, and the Social in Modern India. (
  • tend
  • Natural selection produces status-seeking behavior because animals tend to have more surviving offspring when they raise their status in their social group. (
  • Psychological
  • It is measures using special Social Psychological scale. (
  • Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: "Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. (
  • Physical
  • Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. (
  • The only study to date that has examined links between the reactive-proactive axis and competitive ability in the wild found contrasting correlations within the same population, suggesting that this relationship may be dependent on the physical and social environment [ 31 ]. (
  • behavior
  • Yet, despite extensive literature in the field of alcohol research, the vast majority of publications focus on the effects of social mediators on drinking behavior, whereas the opposite, i.e. whether (and how) past social experience might shape the neurobehavioral effects of acute alcohol exposure, is significantly understudied. (
  • In 1969, Charles D. Michener further expanded Batra's classification with his comparative study of social behavior in bees. (
  • Observations made by researchers Pamela Heidi Douglas and Liza Moscovice of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, make important contributions to this research topic: To solve social conflicts female bonobos invite other females to engage in a socio-sexual behavior by using pointing gestures and mimicking hip swings. (
  • psychology
  • Delbert Duane "Del" Thiessen is an American psychology professor emeritus whose research focused on evolutionary mechanisms of reproduction and social communication. (
  • roles
  • More powerful social roles are increasingly likely to be occupied by a hegemonic group member (for example, an older white male). (
  • Sexism maintains patriarchal social structures and reinforces prescribed gender roles. (
  • nervous system function
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how social factors influence nervous system function is of great importance. (
  • These results significantly improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the interplay between social experience, alcohol intoxication and nervous system function. (
  • alters
  • The ranking of a monkey within her social environment and the stress accompanying that status dramatically alters the expression of nearly 1,000 genes, a new scientific study reports. (
  • empirical
  • Max Weber distinguishes status from social class, though some contemporary empirical sociologists combine the two ideas to create socioeconomic status or SES, usually operationalised as a simple index of income, education and occupational prestige. (
  • individual
  • The social environment of an individual is the culture that he or she was educated and/or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom the person interacts. (
  • Ascribed statuses are fixed for an individual at birth, while achieved status is determined by social rewards an individual acquires during his or her lifetime as a result of the exercise of ability and/or perseverance. (
  • wasps
  • They are built by the workers through a division of labor because they are social wasps. (
  • Smaller bodied wasps pass through age polytheism and are kept in the nest longer because they seem to have a higher social position in the colony while the larger bodied wasps are viewed as subordinates. (
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] He achieved international recognition as a social theorist with the 1989 publication of his first book in English, The Sublime Object of Ideology. (
  • Mice
  • That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of OT release were found in subordinates compared with ordinates. (
  • Studies on genetically engineered mice show that social stress activates the immune system and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. (
  • People
  • Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society. (
  • relative
  • The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. (
  • behavioral
  • In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. (
  • These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. (
  • Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. (
  • influence
  • Low mean fundamental frequency ( F 0 ) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. (
  • economic
  • The benefits of virtual worlds can be used to help autistic children develop social skills beyond their anticipated levels, suggest early findings from new research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). (
  • status
  • In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. (
  • Olfactory signals can contain information, such as age and social status, and play a vital role in competitor assessment. (
  • This study reveals that information about age and social status is coded in AGS of beavers and that this information is used to determine the level of an eventual future response to the signaler. (
  • Bales KL, French JA, McWilliams J, Lake RA, Dietz JM (2006) Effects of social status, age, and season on androgen and cortisol levels in wild male golden lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus rosalia ). (
  • Both forms of sexism share the assumption that women are inferior and restrict women to a lower social status. (
  • The word status refers to social stratification on a vertical scale. (
  • Status is an important idea in social stratification. (
  • female
  • Separate, parallel analyses are performed to assess the effects of each of these six variables on male perceptions of dominance and female perceptions of attractiveness. (
  • study
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dominance and age are coded in the anal gland secretion (AGS) of the monogamous and highly territorial Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber ), and if this information is used by conspecifics to evaluate the potential threat posed by an intruder. (
  • stress
  • These results showed that cADPR/CD38 and heat/TRPM2 are co-regulators of OT secretion and suggested that CD38 and TRPM2 are potential therapeutic targets for OT release in psychiatric diseases caused by social stress. (