Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

Freiwirtschaft: (German for "free economy") is an economic idea founded by Silvio Gesell in 1916. He called it (natural economic order).Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation: The Sensory Processing Disorder Foundation (formerly known as the KID Foundation) is a registered 501(c)3, nonprofit organization dedicated to research in 1979, education and advocacy for Sensory Processing Disorder. The Foundation was founded in 1979 by Dr.Reproductive coercion: Reproductive coercion (also called coerced reproduction) are threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive health or reproductive decision-making and is a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into becoming a parent or ending a pregnancy. Reproductive coercion is a form of domestic violence, also known as intimate partner violence, where behavior concerning reproductive health is used to maintain power, control, and domination within a relationship and over a partner through an unwanted pregnancy.List of psychological research methods: A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection.Information bias (epidemiology): Information bias}}Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.

(1/206) Children's perceptions of peers with somatic symptoms: the impact of gender, stress, and illness.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how illness characteristics influence children's responses to ill peers. METHODS: A sample of 363 4th and 5th graders responded to a vignette describing a peer with abdominal pain. In a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, conditions varied by (a) evidence for organic disease, (b) presence of stress, (c) sex of vignette character, and (d) sex of respondent. Children rated symptom severity, liking for the peer, and whether the peer should be excused from normal responsibilities. RESULTS: Same sex preferences significantly influenced children's liking for a peer. Children viewed symptoms with an organic etiology as more severe than those without one. Under certain conditions, symptom severity judgments mediated the relation between the presence of organic disease and (a) liking and (b) granting relief from responsibility. The presence of stress had little effect on ratings of symptom severity, liking, or relief from responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and evidence of organic disease influence children's perceptions of and responses to symptomatic peers.  (+info)

(2/206) Children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese: does a medical explanation for the obesity make a difference?

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of information on children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese. METHODS: Children (N = 184) were randomly assigned to observe a video of a boy or girl in one of three conditions: average-weight, obese, obese with medical information explaining the obesity. They rated stereotypical attitudes on the Adjective Checklist and behavioral intentions on the Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ-B). RESULTS: Ratings were generally more favorable for the average-weight than for the obese condition. However, provision of medical information had a positive effect on attitudes toward the obese peer only for younger children and a negative effect on willingness of older children to share academic activities with the peer. Boys and girls showed more positive behavioral intentions toward the same-sex target child regardless of obesity condition. CONCLUSIONS: Information explaining obesity has a minimal positive effect on children's attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a peer presented as obese.  (+info)

(3/206) Risk factors for alcohol dependence: a case-control study.

Several possible risk factors for ICD-10 alcohol dependence were studied by comparing cases (117 men, 188 women) with controls (248 men, 300 women). Logistic regression analyses showed that parental alcohol problems and high trait anxiety were significantly related to high occurrence of alcohol dependence in both men and women. In women, high antisocial behaviour, high impulsivity, and high externality were also related to high occurrence of alcohol dependence. High facial flushing and high stimulation when intoxicated were related to low occurrence of alcohol dependence in both men and women. In men, this was also the case for high social support. Several interactions were observed. In contrast to earlier studies, there was no significant association between alcohol dependence and left-handedness.  (+info)

(4/206) Identity in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate identify formation among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. Family functioning, perceived emotional support from family and peers, life stress, and anxiety produced by the cancer experience also were examined as they influenced identity development. METHOD: Participants were 52 adolescent survivors and their mothers recruited from a medical center and 42 healthy adolescent counterparts and their mothers recruited from the community. RESULTS: A greater frequency of survivors than their healthy peers was found within the foreclosed identity status. Factors associated with the foreclosed identity status included the cancer diagnosis, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and family functioning characterized by greater levels of conflict. CONCLUSIONS: Data were interpreted to suggest that the foreclosed identity status may serve a protective function in assisting survivors to cope with the stressors of the cancer experience.  (+info)

(5/206) A cross-domain growth analysis: externalizing and internalizing behaviors during 8 years of childhood.

In a sample of 405 children assessed in kindergarten through the seventh grade, we determined the basic developmental trajectories of mother-reported and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors using cross-domain latent growth modeling techniques. We also investigated the effects of race, socioeconomic level, gender, and sociometric peer-rejection status in kindergarten on these trajectories. The results indicated that, on average, the development of these behaviors was different depending upon the source of the data. We found evidence of the codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing behaviors within and across reporters. In addition, we found that African-American children had lower levels of externalizing behavior in kindergarten as reported by mothers than did European-American children but they had greater increases in these behaviors when reported by teachers. Children from homes with lower SES levels had higher initial levels of externalizing behaviors and teacher-reported internalizing behaviors. Males showed greater increases in teacher-reported externalizing behavior over time than did the females. Rejected children had trajectories of mother-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior that began at higher levels and either remained stable or increased more rapidly than did the trajectories for non-rejected children which decreased over time.  (+info)

(6/206) Relationship between occlusion and satisfaction with dental appearance in orthodontically treated and untreated groups. A longitudinal study.

The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between occlusion, satisfaction with dental appearance, and self-esteem at the ages of 11 (T1) and 15 years (T2), and to study perceived treatment effects. Separate questionnaires were completed by children and their parents to determine their attitude. The dental casts of 224 children were collected at T1 and T2, and assessed by the Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index. At T2, 16 children had been treated with removable and 51 with fixed appliances, while 157 were untreated. The children in the fixed appliance group had better dental aesthetics (AC) and occlusion (DHC) than those in the two other groups. Average PAR score reduction was 71.6 per cent (T1-T2) and satisfaction with own or child's dental appearance increased significantly. The untreated group showed increased malocclusions. In spite of that, the children expressed higher satisfaction with their own dental appearance at T2 than at T1, while the parents' satisfaction level was unchanged. For the total group, orthodontic concern at T1, AC at T2, and gender accounted for 18.0 per cent of the variation in the children's satisfaction with their own dental appearance. Parents' concern at T1 and AC at T2 accounted for 32.2 per cent of the variation in parents' satisfaction. Improvement in self-esteem from 11 to 15 years was not correlated with treatment changes. A gender difference was found. The answers to the questionnaire indicated that both children and parents rate pleasant aesthetics as an important factor for psychosocial well being.  (+info)

(7/206) Brief report: perceptions of young adolescents about a hypothetical new peer with cancer: an analog study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and behavioral intentions (desire to engage a peer in academic, social, and general activities) of young adolescents toward a hypothetical new peer with cancer and to assess the relationship between attitudes and empathy. METHODS: Two hundred fifty middle school students viewed videotapes of a hypothetical peer (i.e., actor) with or without cancer. Participants completed a measure of empathy and a measure of social desirability before viewing the videotape. Participants completed a measure of attitudes and a measure of behavioral intentions after viewing the videotape. RESULTS: Participants gave significantly higher ratings of behavioral intention (e.g., were more accepting) to the peer with cancer than to the healthy peer. Also, participants with high empathy reported more favorable impressions toward the hypothetical new peer than did participants with low or moderate empathy. Female participants had more favorable attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the hypothetical new peer than did male participants. CONCLUSIONS: The social perceptions of young adolescents about peers with cancer may be less negative than previously hypothesized.  (+info)

(8/206) Response bias by neuroblastoma screening participation status and social desirability bias in an anonymous postal survey, Ishikawa, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: To examine response bias by neuroblastoma screening participation status in a population-based postal survey of parents in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: The eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) parents whose infants were born in Ishikawa Prefecture between March 1997 and February 1998, and 2) of those parents who resided in the Prefecture in March 1999. Four-page questionnaires were mailed to one-third of screening participants (n = 2,886) and all the nonparticipants (n = 1,401). Questionnaires were anonymous, with no identifiers on the questionnaire. Colored papers were used for printing questionnaires to differentiate screening participation status. Response rates were calculated using demographic information on the infant registry as the denominator and demographic characteristics data from the returned questionnaire as the numerator. RESULTS: The response rate was 63% for participants and 33% for nonparticipants. The following factors were associated with lower response rates regardless of screening participation status: older maternal age (> or = 35 years), higher parity (> or = 4), nuclear family status, and mother having a full-time occupation. Approximately 20% of screening nonparticipants reported having participated in the screening. Place of residence, maternal age, and parity were associated with the percentage of incorrect reporting. CONCLUSION: Screening participation status was a major factor associated with low response rate, although some demographic characteristics were also predictive of low response rates. Incorrect reporting of screening participation among nonparticipants indicates a strong social desirability bias in this official survey in Japan.  (+info)


  • Social desirability bias (SDB) is defined as a tendency in people to present themselves in a more socially acceptable light, when faced with sensitive questions. (
  • Randomized Response Technique (RRT) is one of several techniques used by researchers to circumvent social desirability bias in personal interview surveys. (
  • The question is if there is a general bias towards social desirability when people are asked for their opinion. (


  • Sexual desire cannot be transformed into artistic achievement, philanthropy, social usefulness. (
  • The above three scales were therefore included in a battery together with the Ray Attitude to Blacks scale (17, 19), the Ray Achievement Orientation scale (15), the Pettigrew Conformity scale (12), the Bahr and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (3), the Taylor (25) Manifest anxiety scale, and a short Social Desirability scale (4). (


  • Research has shown that religious people are more likely than non-religious people to display the psychological trait known as social desirability, which is a desire to be viewed favorably by others. (


  • However, when correlation analyses excluded participants with elevated CAPI Lie scale scores (a measure of social desirability), only overall happiness demonstrated a significant negative correlation with child abuse potential. (


  • Social surveys $x Research $x Methodology. (


  • Depression and social isolation, for example, are highly correlated with poor cardiac health and stroke incidence, but may not fall within the realm of a typical provider conversation. (


  • While guilty of vagueness when propounding his theory of sublimation, Freud should not be held responsible for some of the vagaries which some of his followers and some of the Swiss analysts have indulged in regarding the desirability and possibility of sublimating sexual cravings. (


  • for example, an individual may experience tension because he or she is both shy and desirous of social success. (
  • In last year's edition, for example, we noted the importance of developments in social networking and Web 2.0 to educational uses of technology. (


  • Binge drinking also is a risk factor for many health and social problems, including motor-vehicle crashes, violence, suicide, hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and sudden infant death syndrome ( 3 ). (


  • International Journal of Social Robotics, 9 (1), 129-139. (


  • More widespread implementation of Community Guide-recommended interventions (e.g., measures controlling access to alcohol and increasing prices) could reduce the frequency, intensity, and ultimately the prevalence of binge drinking, as well as the health and social costs related to it. (