Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Adult Children: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.List of awards and nominations received by Genesis: The following list includes all the awards and nominations received by the English rock band Genesis. This does not include any awards or nominations received for solo works or other group activities.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).BrexpiprazoleCognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Urban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.Brendan Gahan: Brendan Gahan is an American social media marketer, public speaker, and YouTube marketing expert. He is the former Director of Social Media for the creative agency Mekanism where he was responsible for creating viral campaigns for clients including Pepsi, Virgin Mobile, Axe, and 20th Century Fox.Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Okurigana: are kana] suffixes following [[kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to mean a specific idea and be read a certain way.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Adjustment disorderSupplemental Security Income: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled.(SSA "Supplemental Security Income (SSI)" p.Freiwirtschaft: (German for "free economy") is an economic idea founded by Silvio Gesell in 1916. He called it (natural economic order).List of social psychology theoriesSunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Injustice Society
(1/1316) Investigating fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. Guidelines for family physicians.
OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based systematic approach to assessment of adult patients who present to family physicians complaining of fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. The guidelines present investigative options, making explicit what should be considered in all cases and what should be considered only in specific situations. They aim to provide physicians with an approach that, to the extent possible, is based on evidence so that time and cost are minimized and detection and management of the cause of the fatigue are optimized. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the key words "family practice" and "fatigue." Articles about chronic fatigue syndrome were excluded. Articles with level 3 evidence were found, but no randomized trials, cohort studies, or case-control studies were found. Articles looking specifically at the epidemiology, demographics, investigations, and diagnoses of patients with fatigue were chosen. Articles based on studies at referral and specialty centres were given less weight than those based on studies in family physicians' offices. MAIN MESSAGE: Adherence to these guidelines will decrease the cost of investigating the symptom of fatigue and optimize diagnosis and management. This needs to be proved in practice, however, and with research that produces level 1 and 2 evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults presenting with fatigue of less than 6 months' duration should be assessed for psychosocial causes and should have a focused history and physical examination to determine whether further investigations should be done. The guidelines outline investigations to be considered. The elderly require special consideration. These guidelines have group validation, but they need to be tested by more physicians in various locations and types of practices. (+info)
(2/1316) Admission and adjustment of residents in homes for the elderly.
This paper discusses the relationship between psychological variables, a brief cognitive measure and a behavioural rating scale, and the subsequent adjustment of a group of elderly people newly admitted to a social services home for the elderly. It shows that, in this sample, three groups can be identified: a fairly independent group of people who show no apparent deterioration in functioning during the first year of admission; a more dependent group who show loss of functioning during the same period; and a third group who show an immediate negative effect from admission, and who have a poor outcome. We comment on the lack of evidence in support of a general negative relocation effect, and on the value of the procedures used. (+info)
(3/1316) Coping with refractory epilepsy.
We investigated the coping behaviour and its correlation with demographic and illness-related data, depression, locus of control and psychosocial adaptation in 40 patients with intractable epilepsy with primarily or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Three standardized self-reporting questionnaires were applied, which are the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness (FKV), the von Zerssen Depression Scale (D-S), and the IPC-questionnaire measuring generalized locus of control beliefs; the Social Interview Schedule (SIS), a semi-structured interview, was used to measure the psychosocial adaptation. Active, problem-focused and compliance strategies were predominantly used and regarded as most helpful. Hence, the epileptic patients use similar coping patterns reported in patients with other non life-threatening chronic diseases. The level of depression was moderate and in the range of other chronic somatic diseases. The use of coping patterns, which are regarded as maladaptive, was correlated with distinct depression, a small degree of internal locus of control beliefs and poor psychosocial adaption. These results indicate the possibility to improve psychosocial adjustment by supporting effective strategies. (+info)
(4/1316) Technique evaluation of foster care in chronic psychiatric disorders.
Foster care received by 178 patients with chronic psychiatric disorders discharged from Hamilton Psychiatric Hospital in the years 1966 through 1969 was studied by technique evaluation. Residents were followed for 3 years by means of health records. The achievement of operational objectives of the program (Homes for Special Care) was compared with two types of outcome--emergency readmission to hospital and discharge to the community. Emergency readmission was associated with rural location of the foster home, inferior quality of the home operator and smaller size (i.e., fewer residents) of the home. Discharge to the community was more common among younger, female residents whose previous psychiatric hospitalization had been relatively brief. In general, prescription audit was not a fruitful way of evaluating quality of health care. (+info)
(5/1316) Tay-Sachs screening: social and psychological impact.
Participants in two Tay-Sachs screening programs were generally satisifed with the organization of the tests and the results. There was no evidence of adverse impact on reproductive plans or interpersonal relations, and the respondents professed to believe in the value of screening. While the carriers discussed their condition freely with others and were no less favorable to the idea of screening than the noncarriers, about one-half of their number expressed discomfort in being told they were heterozygotes. These feelings were allayed by counseling, but there was evidence of some residual unease. It is suggested that this anxiety would be less prominent and more easily reduced if screening were done under conditions of ordinary primary medical care rather than outside the conventional system. (+info)
(6/1316) Assessing the psychosocial consequences of epilepsy: a community-based study.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have measured, using validated scales, the psychosocial handicap of epilepsy in a general practice setting. AIM: To assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems associated with epilepsy. METHOD: A survey was undertaken of 309 subjects, with one or more non-febrile epileptic seizures, drawn from two general practices in the United Kingdom (UK). The outcome measures were the Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy Scale (SHE), the SF-36, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). RESULTS: One-third of persons with active epilepsy were significantly handicapped by their condition. The severity of subjective handicap was related to seizure frequency and to the duration of remission of seizures. Between one-third and one-half of subjects scored as 'cases' on the HAD scale and on the mental health subscale of the SF-36. Only one-third of the psychiatric morbidity revealed by the questionnaires had been recognized by the general practitioner (GP). Scores on the SF-36 indicated that people with active seizures perceived themselves as significantly less healthy than those in remission, and that, for persons in remission, drug treatment had a detrimental effect on certain aspects of well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of seizures, even at low frequencies, is associated with psychosocial handicap, and this may remain covert in general practice. (+info)
(7/1316) Follow-up of psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures: a pilot study - experience in a Dutch special centre for epilepsy.
A follow-up study was performed in 33 patients with proven (ictal EEG-CCTV) psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures (PNES). These patients received a questionnaire to evaluate seizures, treatment and rehabilitation. The response group consisted of 21 females (80% response) and seven males (100% response). Follow-up after diagnosis varied from 23-67 months. Seven patients (25%) reported that seizures had ceased and of the patients not seizure-free seven did report a seizure-free period after diagnosis of an average 6.7 months. Eight patients were on antiepileptic drugs again. Of 13 patients referred for psychotherapy, who also did receive treatment, six became free of seizures and seven did not. Of seven patients also referred, but who did not receive psychotherapy, all continued to have seizures. On a self-rating scale to compare "overall function" at the time of diagnosis and follow-up, 75% considered themselves to have "improved", but no improvement could be detected in psychosocial functioning. (+info)
(8/1316) Building momentum: an ethnographic study of inner-city redevelopment.
OBJECTIVES: One factor contributing to the decay of inner-city areas, and to consequent excess mortality, is the massive loss of housing. This report studied the effects of a redevelopment project on social functioning in an inner-city community. METHODS: This ethnographic study included the following elements: a longitudinal study of 10 families living in renovated housing, repeated observations and photographing of the street scene, focus groups, and informal interviews with area residents. The project was located in the Bradhurst section of Harlem in New York City and was focused on a redevelopment effort sponsored by local congregations. RESULTS: Those who were able to move into newly renovated housing found that their living conditions were greatly improved. Neighborhood revitalization lagged behind the rehabilitation of individual apartment houses. This uneven redevelopment was a visual and sensory reminder of "what had been." Residents missed the warmth and social support that existed in Harlem before its decline. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding damaged housing contributes greatly to the well-being of inner-city residents. The current pace and scope of rebuilding are insufficient to restore lost vitality. (+info)