No data available that match "Smoking"

*  The impact of long-term tobacco smoking on circulating IL-16+ NK cells | European Respiratory Society
The impact of long-term tobacco smoking on circulating IL-16+ NK cells. Anders Andersson, Apostolos Bossios, Carina Malmhäll, ... Our study indicates that long-term smoking exerts a negative impact on circulating NK cells, in terms of number and IL-16 ... Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a first line of anti-viral host defence and tobacco smoke may cause reduced cytotoxicity. ... Here, we investigated whether long-term smoking alters the number and IL-16 content of circulating NK cells. ...
*  Criminal Probe - Smoking Howitzers | Inside The Tobacco Deal | FRONTLINE | PBS
This report deals with only one of these trends--teenage smoking and attitudes toward smoking, together with related ... 6. In 1985, after declining for nearly a decade, the number of people in the age group most disposed to quit smoking (ages 45- ... 1. After increasing for over a decade, the prevalence of teenage smoking is now decling sharply. ... studied it extensively and were worried about any decrease in youth smoking, since it would affect their future customers. When ...
*  Helping Young Smokers Quit: Identifying Best Practices for Tobacco Cessation, Phase II National Program Evaluation, 2003-2006
... attitudes about smoking, plans to stop/continue smoking, attempts to quit smoking, reasons for participating in the program, ... attitudes about smoking, plans to stop/continue smoking, attempts to quit smoking, reasons for participating in the program, ... Subject Terms: addiction, adolescents, smoking, smoking cessation, tobacco products, tobacco use, youths ... including the organization's smoking cessation program and the organization's mission, general operations, and smoking-related ...
*  Persistent smokers may have higher risk to become depressed than never smokers | EurekAlert! Science News
In other words, both completely smoke-free life style and successful smoking cessation in long run seem to protect from ... In other words, both completely smoke-free life style and successful smoking cessation in long run seem to protect from ... smoke-free life and successful smoking cessation seem to have a positive impact. ... Data on smoking behavior and changes in it between 1975 and 1981 were analyzed as a predictor of depressive symptoms measured ...
*  Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes XRCC1 and ERCC2, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Risk | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &...
Similar gene-smoking interaction associations were found when pack-years of smoking (or smoking duration and smoking intensity ... smoking status, square root of pack-years of smoking, and years since smoking cessation (if ex-smoker). Years since smoking ... The interaction between smoking status and square root of pack-years was also included in all of the gene-smoking interaction ... Similar gene-smoking interaction associations were found when either log-transformed cigarettes per day or smoking duration ( ...
*  Plus it
... mother smoked, father smoked, spouse smoked, other household member smoked, coworker smoked). The index of total ETS exposure ... Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91 ... For each smoking family member or relative, we asked about the beginning and ending years of smoking, the total number of years ... Smoking and bladder cancer in Spain: effects of tobacco type, timing, environmental tobacco smoke, and gender. Cancer Epidemiol ...
*  A modified new method for estimating smoking-attributable mortality in high-income countries
This modified version produces improved estimates of smoking-attributable mortality that are consistent with results from a ... recently proposed an innovative regression-based method to estimate smoking-attributable mortality in developed countries based ... "Application of the modified PGW method for determining the smoking attributable fraction of deaths in New Zealand Maori, ... Keywords: life expectancy; mortality; smoking; Find related papers by JEL classification: *J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics ...
*  Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors | The BMJ
Cigarette smoking and cancer of the large bowel. In: Wald N, Baron J, eds. Smoking and hormone related disorders. Oxford: ... Smoking and Parkinson's disease. In: Wald N, Baron J, eds. Smoking and hormone related disorders. Oxford: Oxford University ... Smoking and inflammatory bowel disease. In: Wald N, Baron J, eds. Smoking and hormone related disorders. Oxford University ... Changes in smoking habits. The smoking habits of those who replied in 1951 and survived to the end of 1990 are contrasted, in ...
*  A randomized controlled trial of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure...
Impact: Findings suggest that RNC use does not ubiquitously reduce smoking behaviors or biomarkers, yet the lowest RNC level ... After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 80) that smoked progressively ... This study examined the effects of progressively decreasing RNC cigarettes on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure, and ... A randomized controlled trial of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure ...
*  Smokers on Steroids [HD]
Buy Smokers on Steroids [HD] securely online today at a great price. Smokers on Steroids [HD] available today at Weber Smokey Mountain Cooker.
*  Homocysteine Serum Level in Relation to Intake of Folate, Vitamins B12, B1, B2, and B6 and MTHFR c.665C→T Polymorphism among...
Daily Tobacco smoking patterns In rural and Urban areas of Poland â€" the results of the GATS study. Ann Agric Environ Med. ... In our study smoking was declared by about 10% of students while the data received within Global Adult Tobacco Survey indicated ...
*  Health Risks of Smoking Tobacco
Learn more about the health effects of smoking tobacco here. ... Smoking not only causes cancer. It can damage nearly every ... Quitting smoking, especially at younger ages, can reduce smoking-related disability.. Kids who smoke have smoking-related ... Other ways smoking tobacco affects your health. Not all of the health problems related to smoking result in deaths. Smoking ... the more they smoke and the longer they smoke. At least one study has also linked cigar smoking to sexual impotence in men. ...
*  Smoking
... is on the decline, but some people are still lighting up. Why? The answer is addiction. Find out more in this article ... This is an online version of the consumer guide titled You Can Quit Smoking. Originally produced by the Agency for Health Care ... link will open in a new window.. ... Policy and Research, this brochure provides practical information and helpful tips for those who plan to quit smoking. ...
*  Smoking fetishism - Wikipedia
Sexual interest in smoking or watching other people smoking.. *Recurring intense sexual fantasies involving smoking or watching ... Smoking fetishism (also known as capnolagnia) is a sexual fetish based on the pulmonary consumption (smoking) of tobacco, most ... Recurring intense sexual urges involving smoking or watching other people smoking.[5] ... Like any fetish, the causes and mechanisms of a smoking fetish vary widely, with roots of sexual association in early childhood ...
*  Smoking Skills
For more info go to: *******www.smoking-skills****/ The anti-smoking ad was produced & directed by Michael Krivicka from ... Smoking Skills is a hip and fresh approach to raise awareness for the dangers of smoking amongst urban teens. ... Smoking Skills is a hip and fresh approach to raise awareness for the dangers of smoking amongst urban teens. For more info go ... Smoking Skills is a hip and fresh approach to raise awareness for the dangers of smoking amongst urban teen... ...
*  Smoking Warhead?
Every paper except the New York Times leads with the U.N.'s announcement that its weapons inspectors found 11 empty warheads equipped to carry chemical ...
*  Alice's Smoking Caterpillar
... Welcome to A-1 Wholesalers. We offer our products at competitive prices with no minimum order ...
*  smoking rooms - Wiktionary
Retrieved from "" ...
*  Smoking - Posts
Treatments and Tools for Smoking. Find Smoking information, treatments for Smoking and Smoking symptoms. ... Smoking - MedHelp's Smoking Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... I stopped smoking for 2 days and last night I smoked ten cigarettes and was drinking vodka... ... What can I do to clean and rebuild my lungs after smoking? - Smoking Addiction Community ...
*  Kids and Smoking
... yet every year many young people take up smoking. Here's how to help your kids avoid smoking or using chewing tobacco - or quit ... The health risks of smoking are well known, ... The Facts About Smoking and Tobacco. One reason that smoking ... Stick to the smoking rules you've set up, and don't let a child smoke at home just to keep the peace. ... The health risks of smoking are well known, but kids and teens continue to smoke and use chewing tobacco. Many young people ...
*  Kids and Smoking
... The health risks of smoking are well known, but kids and teens continue to smoke and use chewing tobacco. ... The Facts About Smoking and Tobacco. One reason that smoking and chewing tobacco are major health hazards is because they ... Stick to the smoking rules you've set up, and don't let a child smoke at home just to keep the peace. ... If You Smoke. Kids are quick to spot any contradiction between what their parents say and what they do. Despite what you might ...
*  Smoking mad - SFGate
What in the world does the Dublin City Council, which recently declared secondhand smoke a public nuisance (likely leading to ... Bay Area smokers continue to exercise the perfectly legal right to smoke. [...] did we mention the cost of such bad behavior? A ... really believe that the CHP has nothing better to do than hunt for smoking drivers with children in the backseat? ... What in the world does the Dublin City Council, which recently declared secondhand smoke a public nuisance (likely leading to ...
*  Smoking Ban - latimes
Smoked Famine?' Owners of Eateries Say Ban Would Hurt Business,' Jan. 23:While many of those at the Spago meeting did, indeed, ... In response to "Smoked Famine?" Owners of Eateries Say Ban Would Hurt Business," Jan. 23:. While many of those at the Spago ... But my bistro is 11 inches inside the border from West Hollywood and I will be that close to competition that allows smoking ... If people are serious about smoke-free restaurants, let the free market create them. Otherwise, we may soon be obliged to no ...
*  Smoking fish
Is the smoked fish you buy in the supermarket really smoked or just painted with smoke flavouring? With food technologist ... Is the smoked fish you buy in the supermarket really smoked or just painted with smoke flavouring? With food technologist ... Smoking fish. From This Way Up, 12:15 pm on 11 May 2013 ...

No data available that match "Smoking"

(1/22632) Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

(2/22632) Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

(3/22632) Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men.

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

(4/22632) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(5/22632) Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

(6/22632) Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers--cough and airways irritancy syndrome?

Glass bottle workers have been shown to experience an excess of respiratory symptoms. This work describes in detail the symptoms reported by a cohort of 69 symptomatic glass bottle workers. Symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years (median = 4 yrs; range = 0-28). The interval preceding the development of dysponea was longer and much more variable (median = 16 yrs; range = 3-40). Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated.  (+info)

(7/22632) Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

(8/22632) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

  • 1984
  • Nearly 15 years later in 1984, the Comprehensive Smoking Education Act was passed requiring the health labels on cigarette packages to rotate between four different health warning labels. (
  • Significantly, the Civil Aeronautics Board banned and then unbanned smoking in 1984, with chairman Dan McKinnon saying, "Philosophically, I think nonsmokers have rights, but it comes into market conflict with practicalities and the realities of life. (
  • 2017
  • Smoking Guns was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland On Digital HD September 11 and DVD September 18 2017. (
  • 1990
  • Smoking caused over five million deaths a year from 1990 to 2015. (
  • The U.S. ban on inflight smoking began with domestic flights of two hours or less in April 1988, extended to domestic flights of six hours or less in February 1990, and to all domestic and international flights in 2000. (
  • workplaces
  • Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces. (
  • For example, one study listed on the website of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places substantially reduced RSP (respirable suspended particles) levels in western New York hospitality venues. (
  • These risks have been a major motivation for smoke-free laws in workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants, bars and night clubs, as well as some open public spaces. (
  • quit
  • This link will open in a new window. (
  • This is an online version of the consumer guide titled You Can Quit Smoking. (
  • Originally produced by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, this brochure provides practical information and helpful tips for those who plan to quit smoking. (
  • it has been estimated, for example, that only about 4% to 7% of people are able to quit smoking on any given attempt without medicines or other help. (
  • carcinogenic
  • reviewing the evidence accumulated on a worldwide basis, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • The smoking of food directly with wood smoke is known to contaminate the food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which may cause intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma. (
  • jacket
  • Viejo smoking (English title:Old dinner jacket) is a 1930 Argentine short musical film directed and written by Eduardo Morera, based on a play by Florencio Chiarello. (
  • A smoking jacket is an overgarment designed to be worn while smoking tobacco, usually in the form of pipes and cigars. (
  • The classic smoking jacket is a mid thigh-length jacket made from velvet, silk, or both. (
  • In the 1850s, the Gentlemen's Magazine of London defined the smoking jacket as a "kind of short robe de chambre, of velvet, cashmere, plush, merino or printed flannel, lined with bright colours, ornamented with brandebourgs, olives or large buttons. (
  • Diary, 30 March 1666 The short smoking jacket soon evolved from these silk garments. (
  • After dinner, a gentleman might put on a smoking jacket and retreat to a den or smoking room. (
  • Famous wearers included Jon Pertwee, Cary Grant, Fred Astaire (who was buried in a smoking jacket), Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin and Hugh Hefner. (
  • They are often worn with a smoking jacket. (
  • inhalation
  • Smoking generally has negative health effects, because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration. (
  • bans
  • In the US state of Indiana, the economic development agency included in its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth encouragement for cities and towns to adopt local smoking bans as a means of promoting job growth in communities. (
  • The World Health Organization considers smoking bans to have an influence to reduce demand for tobacco by creating an environment where smoking becomes increasingly more difficult and to help shift social norms away from the acceptance of smoking in everyday life. (
  • Along with tax measures, cessation measures, and education, smoking bans are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes. (
  • The CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which also showed substantially improved indoor air quality after smoking bans were instituted. (
  • generally
  • Legislation may also define smoking as more generally being the carrying or possessing of any lit tobacco product. (
  • This was generally well-separated from other buildings both because of the fire danger and because of the smoke emanations. (
  • premature
  • Women who smoke during pregnancy are about twice as likely to experience the following pregnancy complications: premature rupture of membranes, which means that the amniotic sac will rupture prematurely, and will induce labour before the baby is fully developed. (
  • Banning smoking in public places has helped to cut premature births by 10 percent, according to new research from the United States and Europe. (
  • Laws limiting smoking decrease premature births. (
  • extent
  • While the extent to which smoking is viewed as a negative health behavior may vary across different nations, it remains an issue regardless of how it is perceived by different societies. (
  • tuxedo
  • Created in 1966 by famous couturier Yves Saint Laurent, the Le Smoking tuxedo suit for women was the first of its kind to earn attention in the fashion world and in popular culture. (
  • For his "Le Smoking" collection, all female models were wearing tuxedos, but they were different from normal male's tuxedo. (
  • In French and many other languages, the anglicism smoking is a generic colloquialism referring to any kind of tuxedo/black tie clothing. (
  • pulmonary
  • Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) According to a 2015 review, passive smoking may increase the risk of tuberculosis infection and accelerate the progression of the disease, but the evidence remains weak. (
  • people
  • Sexual interest in smoking or watching other people smoking. (
  • Recurring intense sexual fantasies involving smoking or watching other people smoking. (
  • Recurring intense sexual urges involving smoking or watching other people smoking. (
  • People who smoke also have an increased risk of infections like bronchitis and pneumonia . (
  • If people are serious about smoke-free restaurants, let the free market create them. (
  • Tobacco smoking is the most popular form, being practiced by over one billion people globally, of whom the majority are in the developing countries. (
  • Many people chain-smoke when drinking alcoholic beverages, because alcohol potentiates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to re-sensitization and hence inducing a craving. (
  • Surgeon General
  • Scientific organisations confirming the effects of second-hand smoke include the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Surgeon General of the United States, and the World Health Organization. (
  • Breast cancer: The California Environmental Protection Agency concluded in 2005 that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger, primarily premenopausal females by 70% and the US Surgeon General has concluded that the evidence is "suggestive," but still insufficient to assert such a causal relationship. (
  • increasingly
  • Spoon pipes (glass pipes or glass bowl pipes) have become increasingly common with the rise of cannabis smoking. (
  • Due to the ubiquitous prohibition of in-flight smoking and the increasingly widespread use of electronic devices, the illuminated no-smoking signs have sometimes been re-purposed to inform passengers to switch devices off for take-off and landing. (
  • lungs
  • Smoking damages the airways and small air sacs in your lungs. (
  • Tobacco smoke has many chemicals and particles that irritate the airways and lungs. (
  • But tobacco smoke slows the sweeping action, so some of the particles in the smoke stay in the lungs and mucus stays in the airways. (
  • What can I do to clean and rebuild my lungs after smoking? (
  • Smoking is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. (
  • ceremonies
  • Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure, or as a social tool. (
  • Recent scientific research at the University of New England (Armidale, NSW Australia) has demonstrated that biologically active smoke artefacts are created during the heating process, using leaves from Eremophila longifolia (Emu Bush), which was one of the most widely employed plants for such smoking ceremonies. (
  • widely
  • Like any fetish, the causes and mechanisms of a smoking fetish vary widely, with roots of sexual association in early childhood and adolescence . (
  • Smoking soon spread to other areas and today is widely practiced around the world despite medical, social, and religious arguments against it. (
  • addictive
  • Chain-smoking is given as an example of excessive addictive behaviour in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (
  • establishments
  • While many of those at the Spago meeting did, indeed, represent "glitzy restaurants," there were an equally large number of owners like myself who have small establishments who are very much against a smoking ban. (
  • person
  • Emphysema cannot be cured or reversed, but it can be treated and slowed down if the person stops smoking. (
  • As a fetish, its mechanisms regard sexual arousal from the observation or imagination of a person smoking , sometimes including oneself. (
  • Which means that once a person starts to smoke, it's very hard to stop. (
  • Its name originally came from the idea of finding a smoking (i.e., very recently fired) gun on the person of a suspect wanted for shooting someone, which in that situation would be nearly unshakable proof of having committed the crime. (
  • long
  • According to Alfred Dunhill, Africans have had a long tradition of smoking hemp in gourd pipes, asserting that by 1884 the King of the Baluka tribe of the Congo had established a "riamba" or hemp-smoking cult in place of fetish-worship. (
  • The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and material intensive heavy salting and smoking declined. (
  • The item is hung first to develop a pellicle, then can be cold smoked for just long enough to give some flavor. (
  • scientific
  • Despite the industry's awareness of the harms of second-hand smoke as early as the 1980s, the tobacco industry coordinated a scientific controversy with the purpose of stopping regulation of their products. (
  • In addition to this, its meaning has evolved in uses completely unrelated to criminal activity: for example, scientific evidence that is highly suggestive in favor of a particular hypothesis is sometimes called smoking gun evidence. (
  • known
  • Sidestream smoke contains 69 known carcinogens, particularly benzopyrene and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive decay products, such as polonium-210. (
  • reduces
  • Smoking can also impair the general development of the placenta, which is problematic because it reduces blood flow to the foetus. (
  • There is limited evidence that smoking reduces the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, but not when the pregnancy is with more than one baby (i.e. it has no effect on twins etc. (
  • Smoking at high temperatures also reduces yield, as both moisture and fat are cooked away. (