Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Monkeypox: A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Orthopoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Ectromelia, Infectious: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.United StatesImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.

*  Smallpox Vaccine | Reston Hospital Center
What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated... ... Learn more about Smallpox Vaccine at Reston Hospital Center What Is Smallpox? ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?. The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus, called the vaccinia virus. This is related to ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated With the Smallpox Vaccine?Who ...
*  Smallpox Vaccine | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
SMALLPOX VACCINE. Smallpox vaccine is associated with the early history of immunization. In 1798, Edward Jenner reported that ... This statement reviews the current status of smallpox vaccine, the adverse effects that were associated with smallpox vaccine ... The only smallpox vaccine currently available in the United States is a live-virus preparation. The vaccine does not contain ... VACCINE: CURRENT STATUS. Currently, smallpox vaccine is stocked in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) state by the CDC.14 ...
*  Update: Adverse Events Following Smallpox Vaccination --- United States, 2003
Reported by: Smallpox vaccine adverse events coordinators. Military Vaccine Agency, Army Medical Command, U.S. Dept of Defense ... At the time of smallpox vaccination on March 8, he also received five other inactivated vaccines; 19 days after vaccination, he ... During January 24--March 28, 2003, smallpox vaccine was administered to 29,584 civilian health-care and public health workers ... Supplemental recommendations of adverse events following smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program: recommendations ...
*  smallpox - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for smallpox
Treatments and Tools for smallpox. Find smallpox information, treatments for smallpox and smallpox symptoms. ... smallpox - MedHelp's smallpox Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... In 1999, when I was extremely robust, I participated in a smallpox vaccine... ... Autoimmune response to smallpox vacc/ subsequent hypothyroid - Thyroid Cancer / Nodules & Hyperthyroidism Expert Forum ...
*  "Consent and compensation: A social compact for smallpox vaccine policy" by Alan I. Faden, Holly A. Taylor et al.
Faden, R.R., Taylor, H.A., Seiler, N.K. (2003). Consent and compensation: A social compact for smallpox vaccine policy in the ... Consent and compensation: A social compact for smallpox vaccine policy in the event of an attack ...
*  REMIXX WORLD!: Bavarian Nordic Delivers 1 Million Doses of IMVAMUNE® Smallpox Vaccine Developed Under U.S. Biopreparedness...
... "attenuated smallpox vaccine - sufficient quantity to protect 66 M [million] people, comprising those for whom smallpox vaccine ... smallpox vaccine also falls under the "mark-of-the-beast" US666/EU666 regulatory status index like certain flu vaccines from ... Smallpox Vaccine Represents the Company's First Major U.S. Product Sale. KVISTGÅRD, Denmark -July 13, 2010 - Bavarian Nordic A/ ... Currently stockpiled smallpox vaccines are based on a replicating form of the vaccinia virus, and are therefore considered ...
*  Researchers seek what links smallpox vaccine, heart ills
... Inoculations preceded complaints, deaths; CDC panel offers safeguards ... Smallpox vaccine has been associated with life-threatening complications in a small number of patients, but until now, it has ... Searching is what federal health officials were doing yesterday as they continued to probe whether smallpox vaccine contributed ... Two other recent vaccine recipients - a 57-year-old nurse's aide from Florida, Virginia Jorgensen, and an unidentified 55-year- ...
*  Smallpox vaccine tests, 1967 - Stock Image C011/3614 - Science Photo Library
She is testing smallpox vaccine vials that contain freshly processed freeze-dried vaccine. The vaccines will be used to ... This photograph was taken in 1967 during the Smallpox Eradication Program taking place in West Africa. Smallpox was eradicated ... Smallpox vaccine tests. US virologist Nathaniel Rothstein (left, c.1920-2011) observing a laboratory technician at work in ... She is testing smallpox vaccine vials that contain freshly processed freeze-dried vaccine. The vaccines will be used to ...
*  Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions - American Family Physician
The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, ... allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse ... Smallpox vaccination carries some serious risks: approximately one in 1 million primary vaccinees and one in 4 million ... concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. Public health departments and the U.S. military have ...
*  Smallpox vaccine - DynPort Vaccine Company - AdisInsight
... was developing a cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine (CCSV) manufactured through large-scale cell ... Smallpox vaccine - DynPort Vaccine Company Alternative Names: CCSV Latest Information Update: 04 Apr 2008 ... Discontinued Smallpox Most Recent Events * 23 Aug 2004 DynPort Vaccine Company LLC has been acquired by Computer Sciences ...
*  Smallpox vaccine extends life in cancer trial |
Smallpox vaccine extends life in cancer trialLast Updated: 2011-11-07 9:53:12 -0400 (Reuters Health)By Deena Beasley(Reuters ... Reuters) - A genetically engineered smallpox vaccine reduced the risk of death for patients with advanced liver cancer by ... JX-594 is derived from a strain of the virus vaccinia, once commonly used to vaccinate children against smallpox. ... company Jennerex Inc presented Phase 2 trial data on Saturday showing that patients given high doses of the altered vaccine, ...
*  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to use Linux Networx cluster for analysis of smallpox vaccines
Due to health problems caused by the current smallpox vaccine, CDC is using the extra computing power to study the disease and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to use Linux Networx cluster for analysis of smallpox vaccines. Salt Lake City 14 ... Since the current smallpox vaccine can sicken recipients, and one to two out of every million recipients will die, CDC has been ... "We are honoured that CDC has chosen a Linux Networx system to study smallpox and assess vaccines more quickly, potentially ...
*  Practice Guidelines: CDC Releases Guidelines for Treating Adverse Reactions to Smallpox Vaccination - American Family Physician
Smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus but does not contain variola virus, which causes smallpox. ... has issued guidelines for diagnosing and treating adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination in the preoutbreak setting. ... Smallpox vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus but does not contain variola virus, which causes smallpox. Different vaccinia ... OTHER VACCINE-SPECIFIC ADVERSE EVENTS. Less frequently reported adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination include ...
*  Effect of Dose, Safety, Tolerability of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination - Full Text View...
Smallpox Biological: Vaccinia virus: ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine Biological: vaccinia virus (calf lymph): Dryvax Phase 2 ... Effect of Dose, Safety, Tolerability of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination. This study has ... Active Comparator: Group 5: Dryvax® Vaccine Participants will receive a single dose of Dryvax® smallpox vaccine, 1.0x10-8th ... The Effect of Dose On Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of ACAM2000 Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox ...
*  Best Zapper News #12 | Smallpox Vaccine Danger | Best Zapper
Smallpox Vaccine Danger on Best Zapper , New Product - BarleyPlus Big Idea - Can YOU Help? Zapper Q and A - Wrist Bands Natural ... Small Pox Shot. We are hearing about the small pox vaccination program planned for the US in the news every week. In the Health ... The people most vulnerable to the side-effects of the smallpox vaccine are: people with immune deficiency, anyone fighting ... Best Zapper News #12 , Smallpox Vaccine Danger. Feb 2, 2003 , ZapTimes Newsletter ...
*  Smallpox Vaccine!
What are your thoughts about the Smallpox Vaccine and Bioterrorism? Do you think we, as a country, are prepared for ... Smallpox Vaccine! What are your thoughts about the Smallpox Vaccine and Bioterrorism?. Do you think we, as a country, are ... Re: Smallpox Vaccine! I had the smallpox vaccine as a child and had a violent reaction to it! I almost died. Also, people with ... Re: Smallpox Vaccine! I decided no. I had the smallpox vac when I was a kid. They put it on your leg then. I really hated ...
*  Safer Smallpox Vaccines In Works
New vaccine technologies are emerging that offer a fresh chance to devise a strategy against smallpox, the most fearsome ... All smallpox vaccines contain a weakened virus, called vaccinia virus, that is closely related to smallpox but much less likely ... Safer Smallpox Vaccines In Works. U.S. Preparing For Potential Bioterror Attack. By Justin Gillis. Washington Post Staff Writer ... New vaccine technologies are emerging that offer a fresh chance to devise a strategy against smallpox, the most fearsome ...
*  Smallpox vaccine makes return - Chicago Tribune
... s stockpile of smallpox vaccine to cover every person in the U.S. by the end of next year. The government intends to buy as ... much as 300 million doses of the vaccine, said Health... ... Smallpox vaccine can be used not only to prevent infection with ... The U.S. government is negotiating with several pharmaceutical companies to produce the smallpox vaccine, including Acambis Plc ... the Bush administration unveiled plans Wednesday to vastly expand the nation's stockpile of smallpox vaccine to cover every ...
*  Smallpox Vaccine Extends Life in Cancer Trial
A genetically engineered smallpox vaccine reduced the risk of death for patients with advanced liver cancer by nearly 60 ... A genetically engineered smallpox vaccine reduced the risk of death for patients with advanced liver cancer by nearly 60 ... JX-594 is derived from a strain of the virus vaccinia, once commonly used to vaccinate children against smallpox. ... company Jennerex Inc presented Phase 2 trial data on Saturday showing that patients given high doses of the altered vaccine, ...
*  Vaccinia virus as the smallpox vaccine
The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by ... Notice to Readers: Newly Licensed Smallpox Vaccine to Replace Old Smallpox Vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:207. ... Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the smallpox vaccine. The development of this vaccine was an important ... Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine ...
*  Study suggests smallpox vaccine may protect against HIV
Laboratory tests suggested that immunity to smallpox triggered by the smallpox vaccine can inhibit the replication of the AIDS ... End of smallpox may have led to HIV rise. The worldwide eradication of smallpox in the mid-20th century was a remarkable public ... but withdrawal of the smallpox vaccine, called vaccinia, starting at about the same time might have freed HIV to spread ...
*  Notice to Readers: National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry
Smallpox vaccine is known to cause fetal vaccinia, a very rare but serious complication of exposure to smallpox vaccine during ... Smallpox vaccine: recommendations of the Public Health Service Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR 1978;27:156-- ... CDC has established the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry, a surveillance system to monitor the outcomes in women ... Notice to Readers: National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry. ...
*  House Rejects Compensation for Smallpox-Vaccine Problems : NPR
... plan to compensate health care workers and other first responders made ill by bad reactions to the smallpox vaccine. NPR's ... House Rejects Compensation for Smallpox-Vaccine Problems The House of Representatives turns down a Republican-backed plan to ... compensate health care workers and other first responders made ill by bad reactions to the smallpox vaccine. NPR's Julie Rovner ... plan to compensate health care workers and other first responders made ill by bad reactions to the smallpox vaccine. NPR's ...
*  Smallpox Vaccine (Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
*  Forum MikroskopieTrends ´16: Von der Probe zum digitalen Modell « Quantum Related Diseases Research Group (QRDRG)
Researchers created a new synthetic virus that could lead to the development of a more effective vaccine against smallpox. The ... Creation of synthetic horsepox virus could lead to more effective smallpox vaccine 19. Januar 2018 ... Creation of synthetic horsepox virus could lead to more effective smallpox vaccine. 19. Jan. 2018 ...

Smallpox demon: or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox in medieval Japan. In those days, people tried to appease the smallpox demon by assuaging his anger, or they tried to attack the demon since they had no other effective treatment for smallpox.Massachusetts smallpox epidemic: Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or Colonial epidemic was a smallpox epidemic that hit Massachusetts in 1633, affecting settlers and Native Americans. The casualties included 20 settlers from Mayflower and their only physician Dr Samuel Fuller.AlastrimProgressive vaccinia: Progressive vaccinia (also known as "Vaccinia gangrenosum," and "Vaccinia necrosum") is a rare cutaneous condition caused by the vaccinia virus, characterized by painless, but progressive, necrosis and ulceration.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.MonkeypoxReverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |VaccinationQuantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-managed by the U.S.Vaccine Information Statement: Vaccine Information Statement is a formal description of a vaccine, with a concise description of the benefits of the vaccine, a concise description of the risks associated with the vaccine, a statement of the availability of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, and is required as a provision of the United States National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. Such materials shall be provided prior to the administration of a vaccine set forth in the Vaccine Injury Table.OrthopoxvirusPeptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.Pericardial friction rub: A pericardial friction rub, also pericardial rub, is an audible medical sign used in the diagnosis of pericarditis. Upon auscultation, this sign is an extra heart sound of to-and-fro character, typically with three components, one systolic and two diastolic.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasNaked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Biodefense: Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area who are, or may be, subject to biological warfare— in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. It is technically possible to apply biodefense measures to protect animals or plants, but this is generally uneconomic.TwinrixImmunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.EctromeliaMitiglinideHIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.United States Military Academy class ringUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.CervarixList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,ImmunizationMeningococcal vaccineAS04: AS04 (Aka. "Adjuvant System 04") is a trade name for combination of adjuvants used in various vaccine product by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in particular the Fendrix Hepatitis B vaccine.Denise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.

(1/444) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

Vaccination with tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Because the majority of these antigens are normal self antigens, they may require suitable delivery systems to promote their immunogenicity. A recombinant vector based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used for expression of human tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, and evaluated for its efficacy as an antitumor vaccine. Stable recombinant viruses (MVA-hTyr) were constructed that have deleted the selection marker lacZ and efficiently expressed human tyrosinase in primary human cells and cell lines. Tyrosinase-specific human CTLs were activated in vitro by MVA-hTyr-infected, HLA-A*0201-positive human dendritic cells. Importantly, an efficient tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific CTL response was induced in vitro using MVA-hTyr-infected autologous dendritic cells as activators for peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from HLA-A*0201-positive melanoma patients despite prior vaccination against smallpox. Immunization of HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice with MVA-hTyr induced A*0201-restricted CTLs specific for the human tyrosinase-derived peptide epitope 369-377. These in vivo primed CTLs were of sufficiently high avidity to recognize and lyse human melanoma cells, which present the endogenously processed tyrosinase peptide in the context of A*0201. Tyrosinase-specific CTL responses were significantly augmented by repeated vaccination with MVA-hTyr. These findings demonstrate that HLA-restricted CTLs specific for human tumor-associated antigens can be efficiently generated by immunization with recombinant MVA vaccines. The results are an essential basis for MVA-based vaccination trials in cancer patients.  (+info)

(2/444) Smallpox and its control in Canada.

Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil.  (+info)

(3/444) Experimental study of the role of inactivated vaccine in two-step vaccination against smallpox.

In experiments on rabbits it was found that although administration of inactivated smallpox vaccine did not induce a demonstrable antibody response in the serum it enhanced the immune response to subsequent inoculation with live vaccine. The dose of inactivated vaccine corresponded to 8 x 10(7) PFU before inactivation (by (60)Co gamma-radiation); the dose of live vaccine was 1.2 x 10(5) PFU. When the interval between the two inoculations was 7-days, virus-neutralizing antibody appeared after 5 days and reached levels 2-4 times those obtained with live vaccine alone. With longer intervals (up to 60 days) the enhancement of the immune response was even greater. It seems likely that use of the two-step method may reduce the incidence of post-vaccination encephalitis and clinical studies to determine the optimum conditions for safety and efficacy are at present being undertaken.  (+info)

(4/444) Large-scale use of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine prepared in primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells.

A lyophilized smallpox vaccine made from infected monolayer cultures of primary rabbit kidney cells was used together with a calf lymph vaccine in a field trial in Lombok, Indonesia, in 1973. About 60 000 children below 15 years of age were vaccinated: some 50 000 with the tissue culture vaccine and about 10 000 with calf lymph vaccine. Similar results were obtained with both vaccines in primary vaccinees and in revaccinees as regards the take rate, pock reactions, and serious secondary reactions.  (+info)

(5/444) An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

The biological properties of poxvirus isolates from skin lesions on dairy cows and milkers during recent exanthem episodes in Cantagalo County, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were more like vaccinia virus (VV) than cowpox virus. PCR amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene substantiated the isolate classification as an Old World orthopoxvirus, and alignment of the HA sequences with those of other orthopoxviruses indicated that all the isolates represented a single strain of VV, which we have designated Cantagalo virus (CTGV). HA sequences of the Brazilian smallpox vaccine strain (VV-IOC), used over 20 years ago, and CTGV showed 98.2% identity; phylogeny inference of CTGV, VV-IOC, and 12 VV strains placed VV-IOC and CTGV together in a distinct clade. Viral DNA restriction patterns and protein profiles showed a few differences between VV-IOC and CTGV. Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.  (+info)

(6/444) Recent events and observations pertaining to smallpox virus destruction in 2002.

To destroy all remaining stocks of variola virus on or before 31 December 2002 seems an even more compelling goal today than it did in 1999, when the 52d World Health Assembly authorized temporary retention of remaining stocks to facilitate the possible development of (1) a more attenuated, less reactogenic smallpox vaccine and (2) an antiviral drug that could be used in treatment of patients with smallpox. We believe the deadline established in 1999 should be adhered to, given the potential outcomes of present research. Although verification that every country will have destroyed its stock of virus is impossible, it is reasonable to assume that the risk of a smallpox virus release would be diminished were the World Health Assembly to call on each country to destroy its stocks of smallpox virus and to state that any person, laboratory, or country found to have virus after date x would be guilty of a crime against humanity.  (+info)

(7/444) Developing new smallpox vaccines.

New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments. The smallpox vaccine in the current stockpile consists of a live animal poxvirus (Vaccinia virus [VACV]) that was grown on the skin of calves. Because of potential issues with controlling this earlier manufacturing process, which included scraping VACV lesions from calfskin, new vaccines are being developed and manufactured by using viral propagation on well-characterized cell substrates. We describe, from a regulatory perspective, the various strains of VACV, the adverse events associated with calf lymph-propagated smallpox vaccine, the issues regarding selection and use of cell substrates for vaccine production, and the issues involved in demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy.  (+info)

(8/444) Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon.

We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus. Assuming 100 persons initially infected and 3 persons infected per infectious person, quarantine alone could stop disease transmission but would require a minimum daily removal rate of 50% of those with overt symptoms. Vaccination would stop the outbreak within 365 days after release only if disease transmission were reduced to <0.85 persons infected per infectious person. A combined vaccination and quarantine campaign could stop an outbreak if a daily quarantine rate of 25% were achieved and vaccination reduced smallpox transmission by > or = 33%. In such a scenario, approximately 4,200 cases would occur and 365 days would be needed to stop the outbreak. Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate.  (+info)

  • variola
  • In addition to typical smallpox (more than 90% of cases), there are 2 forms of variola major, hemorrhagic (characterized by hemorrhage into skin lesions and disseminated intravascular coagulation) and malignant or flat type (in which skin lesions do not progress to the pustular stage but remain flat and soft). (
  • Variola minor, or alastrim, is associated with a longer incubation period, a milder prodromal period, fewer skin lesions, and a lower mortality rate than variola major or typical smallpox. (
  • Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, which spreads through close contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. (
  • The mortality of the severe form of smallpox-variola major-was very high without vaccination, up to 35% in some outbreaks. (
  • Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. (
  • In addition, a form called variola sine eruptione (smallpox without rash) was seen generally in vaccinated persons. (
  • At this point variola major infection can take several very different courses, resulting in four types of smallpox disease based on the Rao classification: ordinary, modified, malignant (or flat), and hemorrhagic. (
  • complications
  • Some groups are at particular risk of vaccine complications: infants, pregnant women, cancer survivors, AIDS patients, organ-transplant recipients, anyone who has ever had the skin disease eczema and some others. (
  • However, DOD likely had even more cases of myocarditis than 580, since it is believed that people who have never before received the vaccine are at higher risk of complications than those previously vaccinated. (
  • Smallpox vaccination differs from other immunizations because recipients can accidentally transmit vaccinia , the virus in the vaccine, to others, in effect involuntarily vaccinating them and putting some at risk of life-threatening complications. (
  • Before the United States stopped smallpox vaccinations in 1972, life-threatening complications occurred at the rate of 14 to 52 per million. (
  • According to the most recent CDC data, 7,354 public health workers and other emergency responders across the country have been vaccinated for smallpox, with two dozen recipients reporting complications associated with the vaccine, none of them life-threatening. (
  • It is now thought that the smallpox vaccine causes serious complications for people who already have impaired immune systems, and the Times article described the case of a military recruit with "dormant HIV" who died within months of receiving it. (
  • vaccinations
  • But that does not deter him or his physician colleagues at DOD from forcing reactive smallpox and anthrax vaccinations on soldiers for a 'bioterrorism' threat that has never been documented as real. (
  • WASHINGTON, June 23, 2006 - The Defense Department has no plans to discontinue its smallpox vaccination program, despite yesterday's announcement that vaccinations may have caused a soldier's death. (
  • President Bush's decision on Friday to offer smallpox vaccinations to up to 10 million health care workers, firefighters, police officers and other emergency workers suddenly makes relevant the question of who pays the medical costs of illness from accidental infection. (
  • Colorado is the only state not to meet the Dec. 9 deadline that the agency set for filing full plans for smallpox vaccinations, Mr. Thompson said. (
  • Lee said the patient was one of the 161 public health workers and 59 hospital staffers who received the vaccine as part of the state's initial round of vaccinations in the national preparedness effort against terror attacks. (
  • Virginia's initial round of smallpox vaccinations began Feb. 5 and is continuing, Lee said. (
  • It is attributed both to waning cross-protective immunity among those vaccinated before 1980 when mass smallpox vaccinations were discontinued, and to the gradually increasing proportion of unvaccinated individuals. (
  • enough vaccine
  • I think it's a good idea to have enough vaccine ready to go in case we need it, but I don't see an immediate need to use it for the whole population. (
  • Since then, the government has pulled off a huge feat by stockpiling enough vaccine for every American, but the campaign stalled after President Bush announced a plan to inoculate as many 10.5 million doctors, nurses, police, firefighters and other workers ahead of time so they could respond to an attack. (
  • Doing so would provide enough vaccine to inoculate the U.S. population of about 285.3 million. (
  • Thompson said he was asking lawmakers for $509 million so the government could stockpile enough vaccine to protect everyone in the nation. (
  • vaccination program
  • The company then offered to turn the vaccine over to the federal government, which was preparing a smallpox vaccination program for the military and some healthcare workers at the time. (
  • The researchers did not actively monitor the volunteers for cardiac symptoms, because the trial took place before myopericarditis emerged as a rare side effect in the US military smallpox vaccination program. (
  • 1950s
  • Such vaccination could have kept HIV transmission partially under control in the early days of the outbreak, which is thought to have begun in the 1950s, but withdrawal of the smallpox vaccine, called vaccinia, starting at about the same time might have freed HIV to spread unfettered, the researchers said. (
  • The study authors noted that the vaccine for smallpox was gradually removed from use between the 1950s and the 1970s, following global elimination of the disease. (
  • There were epidemics of poliomyelitis that were only controlled following the development of a vaccine in the 1950s. (
  • variolation
  • This led to the practice of 'variolation,' which involved intentional administration of pustular fluids from smallpox scabs to uninfected persons. (
  • Smallpox vaccine evolved from variolation, a technique that was developed in China and the Ottoman Empire. (
  • Variolation involved the deliberate exposure of nonimmune persons to material taken from known smallpox victims. (
  • reactions
  • The vaccine carries serious health risks: It produced adverse reactions in about 1 in 13,000 vaccinated people, ranging from severe rashes to brain inflammation, which killed about one person in 1 million. (
  • Adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination---1978. (
  • The House of Representatives turns down a Republican-backed plan to compensate health care workers and other first responders made ill by bad reactions to the smallpox vaccine. (
  • Meryl Nass, M.D., a physician who has evaluated and cared for soldiers who became chronically ill after suffering anthrax, smallpox and other vaccine reactions, points out that 'the CDC found a much higher rate of myocarditis in smallpox vaccine recipients than did DOD: 1 in 1,725. (
  • Smallpox vaccine is the most dangerous of all human immunizations, and the risks of adverse reactions are higher for people whose immune system has been weakened by cancer, AIDS or other diseases. (
  • Smallpox vaccination carries some serious risks: approximately one in 1 million primary vaccinees and one in 4 million revaccinees will die from adverse vaccine reactions. (
  • Family physicians must learn to screen potential vaccinees for contraindications (e.g., immunodeficiency, immunosuppression, certain skin and eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse reactions. (
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, in Bethesda, called the vaccine 'the gold standard' given its track record of eradicating smallpox. (
  • Using vaccine made in 1956 and 1957, the recent study was a double-blind, randomized trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (
  • Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011. (
  • threat
  • x When smallpox was still a serious threat, and 40-50 people PER HUNDRED would die if they contracted the disease, getting vaccinated was an easy choice, because the odds of dying without it were so much greater than the risk of dying from the vaccine. (
  • To protect ourselves from the remote but extremely grave threat of a deliberate release of smallpox virus, we need vaccines that can be safely given to all Americans, including individuals with weakened immune systems," Secretary Leavitt said. (
  • You will get the vaccine if you are in the military and work in high threat areas. (
  • infection
  • Smallpox vaccine can be used not only to prevent infection with the smallpox virus but also to treat people exposed to the virus and thus contain an epidemic. (
  • Attempts at control of smallpox began after it was noted that accidental exposure to smallpox by a scratch on the skin reduced the severity of infection. (
  • Because a risk for infection to the fetus is possible in the pre-event setting, smallpox vaccination is not recommended for pregnant women or anyone with close physical contact to a pregnant woman (e.g., a household member or sex partner). (
  • MONDAY, May 17 -- Vaccination with the smallpox vaccine called "vaccinia" may boost a person's ability to resist infection with HIV, new research suggests. (
  • The research team theorized that administration of the smallpox vaccine might trigger long-term changes in the immune system that guard against HIV infection. (
  • In Jenner's time, smallpox killed around 10 percent of the population, with the number as high as 20 percent in towns and cities where infection spread more easily. (
  • The smallpox vaccine is believed to prevent infection. (
  • citation needed] Vaccination against smallpox is assumed to provide protection against human monkeypox infection considering they are closely related viruses and the vaccine protects animals from experimental lethal monkeypox challenge. (
  • Smallpox, which is the most lethal and devastating viral infection in history, first emerged among agricultural communities in India about 11,000 years ago. (
  • contraindications
  • Volunteers recruited at Vanderbilt, Iowa, and Cincinnati were screened for contraindications and given the vaccine at full strength or in a 1:5 or 1:10 dilution. (
  • outbreak
  • Now, because we don't know the odds of a terrorist outbreak, well, it really makes you think about the vaccine risk. (
  • This is called 'ring vaccination' and has been shown to be very effective against a smallpox outbreak in the past. (
  • Thompson said that if a smallpox outbreak occurs, the affected area would be quarantined and the vaccination would be administered first to 'first responders' such as police, firefighters and medical personnel. (
  • The vaccine would be recommended in the event of a smallpox outbreak to protect people in the United States who have weakened immune systems. (
  • Smallpox killed hundreds of millions of people in recorded history, more than any other infectious disease. (
  • The statement provides the rationale for a policy based on the so-called ring vaccination strategy recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in which cases of smallpox are rapidly identified, infected individuals are isolated, and contacts of the infected individuals as well as their contacts are immunized immediately. (
  • If true, the finding could link the rapid, late 20th-century spread of HIV to the simultaneous vanquishing of smallpox disease and the removal of the smallpox vaccine -- and possible HIV firewall-- from worldwide distribution. (
  • To prevent transmission of the vaccine virus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that clothing soiled by secretions be washed in hot water and detergent and, if possible, bleach. (
  • The disease has been declared extinct by world health authorities for almost 30 years now, but since Sept. 11 concerns arose over using smallpox and other infections as weapons. (
  • Lee said the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had been notified of the Virginia patient's case, adding that further tests were needed to determine conclusively whether the woman's ailments were a direct result of the smallpox vaccination. (
  • The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, and eczema vaccinatum. (
  • Smallpox is a disease caused by a virus. (
  • with Remarks and Observations on this Disease considered as a Substitute for the Smallpox, 1799 Observations on the Cow Pox, 1800 A Comparative Statement of Facts and Observations relative to the Cow-pox, published by Doctors Jenner and Woodville, 1800. (
  • Smallpox virus preferentially attacks skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples (called macules) associated with the disease. (
  • The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that persons investigating monkeypox outbreaks and involved in caring for infected individuals or animals should receive a smallpox vaccination to protect against monkeypox. (
  • cowpox
  • He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox. (
  • However, he became particularly interested in Edward Jenner's introduction of what was soon to be known as smallpox vaccine, which used material obtained from cases of cowpox. (
  • He used it in 1796 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox. (
  • epidemic
  • The Department of Health and Human Services acknowledged, for instance, that with no smallpox cases in the world, it can never be certain how the new vaccines would perform in an epidemic. (
  • She returned to London and had her daughter variolated in 1721 by Charles Maitland, during an epidemic of smallpox. (
  • inadvertently
  • CDC has established the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry, a surveillance system to monitor the outcomes in women who inadvertently received smallpox vaccine during pregnancy, became pregnant within 28 days after vaccination, were a close contact with a vaccinee within 28 days. (
  • If a smallpox vaccine recipient inadvertently transmitted the virus in the vaccine to other people and they fell ill, who would pay for the sick people's medical care? (
  • polio vaccine
  • These include "wars, the reuse of unsterilized needles and the contamination of early batches of polio vaccine," he said. (
  • In the 1999 version of his OPV AIDS hypothesis, Edward Hooper proposed that early batches of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) grown in cultures of chimpanzee kidney cells, infected with a chimpanzee virus, were the original source of HIV-1 in Central Africa. (
  • virus
  • After the terrorist and anthrax attacks of late 2001, concern about the unrelated smallpox virus reached a fever pitch. (
  • The smallpox virus resides in only two official repositories, in the United States and Russia, but there are fears that some countries kept hidden stocks and that terrorists or rogue states could get their hands on the germ. (
  • In recent years, there has been concern that smallpox virus stocks may be in the hands of bioterrorists, and this concern has been heightened by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. (
  • Smallpox also can be spread by direct contact with infected lesions or with clothing or bed linens contaminated with the virus. (
  • 5 It does not contain smallpox virus and cannot cause smallpox. (
  • You should get the vaccine if you have come in contact with the virus or if you are at risk. (
  • Early in 1799 he helped to set up the Original Vaccine Pock Institute in London and started to distribute vaccine, some samples of which were contaminated with smallpox virus. (
  • The virus was then introduced into the population through Hepatitis B (via the Hepatitis B vaccine) experiments performed on gay and bisexual men between 1978-1981 in major U.S. cities. (
  • This protected the virus, enabling the production of a heat-stable vaccine in powdered form. (
  • Anthrax
  • Twenty-two year old Rachel Lacy died in early 2003, one month after receiving five vaccines in one day (including smallpox and anthrax) and her autopsy demonstrated myocarditis. (
  • Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax exposures in the following weeks, concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. (
  • Viruses
  • Regardless of the effects of the smallpox vaccine itself, its use in practice in Africa is one of the categories of un-sterile injections that may have contributed to the spread and mutation of the immunodeficiency viruses. (
  • Smallpox and measles viruses are among the oldest that infect humans. (
  • 1940s
  • By the 1940s, Wyeth was the leading US manufacturer of the vaccine and the only manufacturer by the 1960s. (
  • Leslie Harold Collier (9 February 1921 - 14 March 2011) was a scientist responsible for developing a freeze-drying method to produce a more heat stable smallpox vaccine in the late 1940s. (
  • 2001
  • Because of the events of September 11, 2001, concern has risen that terrorist organizations or rogue states might use smallpox as a biologic weapon. (
  • researchers
  • Stockpiled vaccine has been used only for laboratory researchers working on orthopoxviruses. (
  • The worldwide eradication of smallpox in the mid-20th century was a remarkable public health achievement, but it may have set the stage for the HIV pandemic of the latter half of the century, researchers reported Tuesday. (
  • A trial of the vaccine in 340 young adults showed it was effective when diluted to one-fifth and one-tenth of full strength, according to the report by a team of 10 researchers from Vanderbilt University, the University of Iowa, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, and EMMES Corp. The lead author is Thomas R. Talbot, MD, MPH, of Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. (
  • victims
  • Samuel Willard treated smallpox victims, was a forerunner of modern psychiatry, and ran the first hospital for mental illness in America. (
  • physician
  • EmaxHealth asked Dr. Adam Welch , Associate Professor at the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy at East Tennessee State University and Gina Venditti MPAS, PA-C , Board of Trustees, Physician Assistant (PA) Foundation why it is so important for older adults to get an annual flu vaccine. (