Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Monkeypox: A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Orthopoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Ectromelia, Infectious: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.United StatesImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.

*  Smallpox Vaccine | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics

SMALLPOX VACCINE. Smallpox vaccine is associated with the early history of immunization. In 1798, Edward Jenner reported that ... This statement reviews the current status of smallpox vaccine, the adverse effects that were associated with smallpox vaccine ... The only smallpox vaccine currently available in the United States is a live-virus preparation. The vaccine does not contain ... VACCINE: CURRENT STATUS. Currently, smallpox vaccine is stocked in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) state by the CDC.14 ...

*  Update: Adverse Events Following Smallpox Vaccination --- United States, 2003

Reported by: Smallpox vaccine adverse events coordinators. Military Vaccine Agency, Army Medical Command, U.S. Dept of Defense ... At the time of smallpox vaccination on March 8, he also received five other inactivated vaccines; 19 days after vaccination, he ... During January 24--March 28, 2003, smallpox vaccine was administered to 29,584 civilian health-care and public health workers ... Supplemental recommendations of adverse events following smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program: recommendations ...

*  Protein that foils complement system may be key to smallpox virulence | CIDRAP

... used in smallpox vaccine, according to researchers who compared the two proteins. This difference may be an important reason ... for the virulence of smallpox and may offer an avenue for research on treatments, they suggest. ... The smallpox virus has a protein that inhibits the human complement system far more effectively than does its counterpart ... In addition, the disabling of VCP could represent an approach to developing a safer smallpox vaccine." ...

*  Vaccinia virus as the smallpox vaccine

The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by ... Notice to Readers: Newly Licensed Smallpox Vaccine to Replace Old Smallpox Vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:207. ... Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the smallpox vaccine. The development of this vaccine was an important ... Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine ...

*  Effect of Dose, Safety, Tolerability of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination - Full Text View...

Smallpox Biological: Vaccinia virus: ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine Biological: vaccinia virus (calf lymph): Dryvax Phase 2 ... Effect of Dose, Safety, Tolerability of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination. This study has ... Active Comparator: Group 5: Dryvax® Vaccine Participants will receive a single dose of Dryvax® smallpox vaccine, 1.0x10-8th ... The Effect of Dose On Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of ACAM2000 Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox ...

*  Notice to Readers: National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry

Smallpox vaccine is known to cause fetal vaccinia, a very rare but serious complication of exposure to smallpox vaccine during ... Smallpox vaccine: recommendations of the Public Health Service Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR 1978;27:156-- ... CDC has established the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry, a surveillance system to monitor the outcomes in women ... Notice to Readers: National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry. ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine (Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...

*  1950s smallpox vaccine passes dilution test | CIDRAP

A test of smallpox vaccine made by Aventis Pasteur in the 1950s show it is still effective even when diluted, suggesting that ... the United States has more than enough vaccine for everyone, according to a report this week in the Journal of the American ... Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine] can be expanded, leaving an ample stockpile of smallpox vaccine to protect the entire US ... the British vaccine maker Acambis has been under contract since 2001 to supply 209 million doses of a smallpox vaccine to the ...

*  Smallpox vaccine extends life in cancer trial |

Smallpox vaccine extends life in cancer trialLast Updated: 2011-11-07 9:53:12 -0400 (Reuters Health)By Deena Beasley(Reuters ... Reuters) - A genetically engineered smallpox vaccine reduced the risk of death for patients with advanced liver cancer by ... JX-594 is derived from a strain of the virus vaccinia, once commonly used to vaccinate children against smallpox. ... company Jennerex Inc presented Phase 2 trial data on Saturday showing that patients given high doses of the altered vaccine, ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions - American Family Physician

The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, ... allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse ... Smallpox vaccination carries some serious risks: approximately one in 1 million primary vaccinees and one in 4 million ... concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. Public health departments and the U.S. military have ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine | Reston Hospital Center

What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated... ... Learn more about Smallpox Vaccine at Reston Hospital Center What Is Smallpox? ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?. The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus, called the vaccinia virus. This is related to ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated With the Smallpox Vaccine?Who ...

*  Smallpox vaccine's effect may last 35 years, researchers say | CIDRAP

CIDRAP News) The results of a small study reported this week suggest that the immunity induced by smallpox vaccination may last ... Frelinger JA, Garba ML. Responses to smallpox vaccine. (Letter) N Engl J Med 2002;347(9):689-90. Full text of letter (available ... Experts say the duration of vaccine-induced smallpox immunity is uncertain because it has never been definitively measured in ... Aug 30, 2002 (CIDRAP News) The results of a small study reported this week suggest that the immunity induced by smallpox ...

*  Researchers seek what links smallpox vaccine, heart ills

... Inoculations preceded complaints, deaths; CDC panel offers safeguards ... Smallpox vaccine has been associated with life-threatening complications in a small number of patients, but until now, it has ... Searching is what federal health officials were doing yesterday as they continued to probe whether smallpox vaccine contributed ... Two other recent vaccine recipients - a 57-year-old nurse's aide from Florida, Virginia Jorgensen, and an unidentified 55-year- ...

*  FDA Approves VIGIV For Side Effects Of Smallpox Vaccine | BioWorld

... military with a product addressing the serious side effects of the smallpox vaccine. (BioWorld Today). ...

*  Will members of the religious right pass on smallpox vaccines | MetaFilter

Even if there were any killed to produce smallpox vaccine, my not using the vaccine wouldn't bring them back to life or do them ... Will members of the religious right pass on smallpox vaccines in the event of an attack? Apparently many of the smallpox ... Whereas I can't see saying that about the current smallpox vaccine, so maybe I am a hypocrite. But I could understand someone ... Will members of the religious right pass on smallpox vaccines. November 29, 2001 8:27 PM Subscribe. ...

*  Smallpox vaccine tests, 1967 - Stock Image C011/3614 - Science Photo Library

She is testing smallpox vaccine vials that contain freshly processed freeze-dried vaccine. The vaccines will be used to ... This photograph was taken in 1967 during the Smallpox Eradication Program taking place in West Africa. Smallpox was eradicated ... Smallpox vaccine tests. US virologist Nathaniel Rothstein (left, c.1920-2011) observing a laboratory technician at work in ... She is testing smallpox vaccine vials that contain freshly processed freeze-dried vaccine. The vaccines will be used to ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine | Coliseum Health System

What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated... ... Learn more about Smallpox Vaccine at Coliseum Health System What Is Smallpox? ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?. The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus, called the vaccinia virus. This is related to ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated With the Smallpox Vaccine?Who ...

*  Missouri Holds Smallpox Vaccine Training Clinic | St. Louis Public Radio

Louis, MO - About 50 Missouri health care workers took part in a training session Tuesday to learn how to administer smallpox ... Missouri public health workers took part in a day-long training session Tuesday to learn how to administer the smallpox vaccine ...

*  Smallpox vaccine - Wikipedia

The smallpox vaccine appeared to have been reducing HIV replication five-fold. Studies also show that smallpox vaccine is ... Recent studies suggest the smallpox vaccine provides some level of defense against HIV. Both the smallpox vaccine and HIV ... Charles Creighton believed that uncontaminated vaccine itself was a cause of syphilis. Smallpox vaccine was the only vaccine ... Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796. He followed up his ...

*  Is the smallpox vaccine safe to take? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap,a href="/topics/smallpox" track_data="{ ... In brief: Smallpox vaccine Smallpox vaccine mild rxn's include sore & red vaccination site, tender & enlarged axillary lymph ... In brief: Smallpox vaccine Smallpox vaccine mild rxn's include sore & red vaccination site, tender & enlarged axillary lymph ... It is the least safe of the available vaccines, and we were all very happy not to have to give it any more after smallpox got ...

*  Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response of IMVAMUNE (MVA-BN)Smallpox Vaccine in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View -...

Smallpox Vaccine in HIV Infected Subjects (CD4 Counts ,350 / µl) and Healthy Subjects With and Without Previous Smallpox ... Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response of IMVAMUNE (MVA-BN)Smallpox Vaccine in HIV Infected Patients. This study has been ... The purpose of this study is to gather information on the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational smallpox vaccine in ... and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects. J ...

*  Take Rate, Immunogenicity and Safety of Elstree-BN Smallpox Vaccine in Healthy Vaccinia-Naive Subjects - Full Text View -...

Take Rate, Immunogenicity and Safety of Elstree-BN Smallpox Vaccine in Healthy Vaccinia-Naive Subjects. This study has been ... Phase I Study to Evaluate Take Rate, Immunogenicity and Safety of Bavarian Nordic's Smallpox Vaccine Elstree-BN Administered to ... Use of any investigational or non-registered drug or vaccine starting 30 days preceding the study vaccine and ending at ... and the safety and immunogenicity of the smallpox vaccine Elstree-BN. ...

*  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to use Linux Networx cluster for analysis of smallpox vaccines

Due to health problems caused by the current smallpox vaccine, CDC is using the extra computing power to study the disease and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to use Linux Networx cluster for analysis of smallpox vaccines. Salt Lake City 14 ... Since the current smallpox vaccine can sicken recipients, and one to two out of every million recipients will die, CDC has been ... "We are honoured that CDC has chosen a Linux Networx system to study smallpox and assess vaccines more quickly, potentially ...


... year-old James Phillips first with cowpox then three months later with smallpox and is hailed as discoverer of smallpox vaccine ... 1718 George I offers free pardons to any inmates of Newgate Prison who agree to be inoculated with infectious small pox in a ... 1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for ... 1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an "experimental" measles vaccine that had ...

*  State Mandates on Immunization and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

View the vaccination mandates for vaccine-preventable diseases in childcare facilities, schools, colleges, and long-term care ... Journal articles that provide evidence that personal belief exemptions play a role in vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks; ... Smallpox. Measles. Tetanus. MenACWY. Varicella (chickenpox) MenB. Zoster (shingles) Mumps. View All ...

Smallpox demon: or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox in medieval Japan. In those days, people tried to appease the smallpox demon by assuaging his anger, or they tried to attack the demon since they had no other effective treatment for smallpox.Massachusetts smallpox epidemic: Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or Colonial epidemic was a smallpox epidemic that hit Massachusetts in 1633, affecting settlers and Native Americans. The casualties included 20 settlers from Mayflower and their only physician Dr Samuel Fuller.AlastrimProgressive vaccinia: Progressive vaccinia (also known as "Vaccinia gangrenosum," and "Vaccinia necrosum") is a rare cutaneous condition caused by the vaccinia virus, characterized by painless, but progressive, necrosis and ulceration.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.MonkeypoxReverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |VaccinationQuantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-managed by the U.S.Vaccine Information Statement: Vaccine Information Statement is a formal description of a vaccine, with a concise description of the benefits of the vaccine, a concise description of the risks associated with the vaccine, a statement of the availability of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, and is required as a provision of the United States National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. Such materials shall be provided prior to the administration of a vaccine set forth in the Vaccine Injury Table.OrthopoxvirusPeptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.Pericardial friction rub: A pericardial friction rub, also pericardial rub, is an audible medical sign used in the diagnosis of pericarditis. Upon auscultation, this sign is an extra heart sound of to-and-fro character, typically with three components, one systolic and two diastolic.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasNaked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Biodefense: Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area who are, or may be, subject to biological warfare— in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. It is technically possible to apply biodefense measures to protect animals or plants, but this is generally uneconomic.TwinrixImmunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.EctromeliaMitiglinideHIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.United States Military Academy class ringUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.CervarixList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,ImmunizationMeningococcal vaccineAS04: AS04 (Aka. "Adjuvant System 04") is a trade name for combination of adjuvants used in various vaccine product by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in particular the Fendrix Hepatitis B vaccine.Denise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.

(1/444) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

Vaccination with tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Because the majority of these antigens are normal self antigens, they may require suitable delivery systems to promote their immunogenicity. A recombinant vector based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used for expression of human tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, and evaluated for its efficacy as an antitumor vaccine. Stable recombinant viruses (MVA-hTyr) were constructed that have deleted the selection marker lacZ and efficiently expressed human tyrosinase in primary human cells and cell lines. Tyrosinase-specific human CTLs were activated in vitro by MVA-hTyr-infected, HLA-A*0201-positive human dendritic cells. Importantly, an efficient tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific CTL response was induced in vitro using MVA-hTyr-infected autologous dendritic cells as activators for peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from HLA-A*0201-positive melanoma patients despite prior vaccination against smallpox. Immunization of HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice with MVA-hTyr induced A*0201-restricted CTLs specific for the human tyrosinase-derived peptide epitope 369-377. These in vivo primed CTLs were of sufficiently high avidity to recognize and lyse human melanoma cells, which present the endogenously processed tyrosinase peptide in the context of A*0201. Tyrosinase-specific CTL responses were significantly augmented by repeated vaccination with MVA-hTyr. These findings demonstrate that HLA-restricted CTLs specific for human tumor-associated antigens can be efficiently generated by immunization with recombinant MVA vaccines. The results are an essential basis for MVA-based vaccination trials in cancer patients.  (+info)

(2/444) Smallpox and its control in Canada.

Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil.  (+info)

(3/444) Experimental study of the role of inactivated vaccine in two-step vaccination against smallpox.

In experiments on rabbits it was found that although administration of inactivated smallpox vaccine did not induce a demonstrable antibody response in the serum it enhanced the immune response to subsequent inoculation with live vaccine. The dose of inactivated vaccine corresponded to 8 x 10(7) PFU before inactivation (by (60)Co gamma-radiation); the dose of live vaccine was 1.2 x 10(5) PFU. When the interval between the two inoculations was 7-days, virus-neutralizing antibody appeared after 5 days and reached levels 2-4 times those obtained with live vaccine alone. With longer intervals (up to 60 days) the enhancement of the immune response was even greater. It seems likely that use of the two-step method may reduce the incidence of post-vaccination encephalitis and clinical studies to determine the optimum conditions for safety and efficacy are at present being undertaken.  (+info)

(4/444) Large-scale use of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine prepared in primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells.

A lyophilized smallpox vaccine made from infected monolayer cultures of primary rabbit kidney cells was used together with a calf lymph vaccine in a field trial in Lombok, Indonesia, in 1973. About 60 000 children below 15 years of age were vaccinated: some 50 000 with the tissue culture vaccine and about 10 000 with calf lymph vaccine. Similar results were obtained with both vaccines in primary vaccinees and in revaccinees as regards the take rate, pock reactions, and serious secondary reactions.  (+info)

(5/444) An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

The biological properties of poxvirus isolates from skin lesions on dairy cows and milkers during recent exanthem episodes in Cantagalo County, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were more like vaccinia virus (VV) than cowpox virus. PCR amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene substantiated the isolate classification as an Old World orthopoxvirus, and alignment of the HA sequences with those of other orthopoxviruses indicated that all the isolates represented a single strain of VV, which we have designated Cantagalo virus (CTGV). HA sequences of the Brazilian smallpox vaccine strain (VV-IOC), used over 20 years ago, and CTGV showed 98.2% identity; phylogeny inference of CTGV, VV-IOC, and 12 VV strains placed VV-IOC and CTGV together in a distinct clade. Viral DNA restriction patterns and protein profiles showed a few differences between VV-IOC and CTGV. Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.  (+info)

(6/444) Recent events and observations pertaining to smallpox virus destruction in 2002.

To destroy all remaining stocks of variola virus on or before 31 December 2002 seems an even more compelling goal today than it did in 1999, when the 52d World Health Assembly authorized temporary retention of remaining stocks to facilitate the possible development of (1) a more attenuated, less reactogenic smallpox vaccine and (2) an antiviral drug that could be used in treatment of patients with smallpox. We believe the deadline established in 1999 should be adhered to, given the potential outcomes of present research. Although verification that every country will have destroyed its stock of virus is impossible, it is reasonable to assume that the risk of a smallpox virus release would be diminished were the World Health Assembly to call on each country to destroy its stocks of smallpox virus and to state that any person, laboratory, or country found to have virus after date x would be guilty of a crime against humanity.  (+info)

(7/444) Developing new smallpox vaccines.

New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments. The smallpox vaccine in the current stockpile consists of a live animal poxvirus (Vaccinia virus [VACV]) that was grown on the skin of calves. Because of potential issues with controlling this earlier manufacturing process, which included scraping VACV lesions from calfskin, new vaccines are being developed and manufactured by using viral propagation on well-characterized cell substrates. We describe, from a regulatory perspective, the various strains of VACV, the adverse events associated with calf lymph-propagated smallpox vaccine, the issues regarding selection and use of cell substrates for vaccine production, and the issues involved in demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy.  (+info)

(8/444) Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon.

We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus. Assuming 100 persons initially infected and 3 persons infected per infectious person, quarantine alone could stop disease transmission but would require a minimum daily removal rate of 50% of those with overt symptoms. Vaccination would stop the outbreak within 365 days after release only if disease transmission were reduced to <0.85 persons infected per infectious person. A combined vaccination and quarantine campaign could stop an outbreak if a daily quarantine rate of 25% were achieved and vaccination reduced smallpox transmission by > or = 33%. In such a scenario, approximately 4,200 cases would occur and 365 days would be needed to stop the outbreak. Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate.  (+info)

variola major

  • In addition to typical smallpox (more than 90% of cases), there are 2 forms of variola major, hemorrhagic (characterized by hemorrhage into skin lesions and disseminated intravascular coagulation) and malignant or flat type (in which skin lesions do not progress to the pustular stage but remain flat and soft). (
  • Variola minor, or alastrim, is associated with a longer incubation period, a milder prodromal period, fewer skin lesions, and a lower mortality rate than variola major or typical smallpox. (
  • Smallpox is broadly classified into major smallpox (variola major) and minor smallpox (variola minor), reflecting clinical features and disease severity, with subcategories in each. (

vaccinia virus

  • The prevalence of North American orthopoxviruses in nature is unknown and may be more difficult to ascertain due to wide spread use of vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines in the wild. (
  • There is no specific treatment for smallpox, but smallpox vaccination (vaccinia virus) is highly protective, even after exposure. (

Department of Defe

  • the Department of Defense (DoD) is conducting surveillance for vaccine-associated adverse events among military vaccinees. (

Infectious Diseases

  • In addition, the effect of NA OPXVs endemicity on the immunization of wildlife populations against other infectious diseases, using VACV vectored vaccines, is unknown. (


  • The statement provides the rationale for a policy based on the so-called ring vaccination strategy recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in which cases of smallpox are rapidly identified, infected individuals are isolated, and contacts of the infected individuals as well as their contacts are immunized immediately. (
  • This report summarizes data on ten cases of cardiac adverse events reported among civilian vaccinees since the beginning of the smallpox vaccination program, including three new cardiac adverse events reported to CDC from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during March 24--30. (
  • On March 23, a woman aged 55 years with a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking died 5 days after smallpox vaccination ( 1 ). (
  • Smallpox vaccination of the American general population was stopped in 1972, but continued in military personnel until 1990. (
  • More recently, because of bioterrorism concerns, first time or re-vaccination for smallpox is occurring in certain high-risk groups, such as health care workers and the US military. (
  • There are sufficient stockpiles of smallpox vaccine in the event larger numbers of people require vaccination. (
  • Smallpox vaccination is protective in more than 95% of people for at least 3 to 5 years. (


  • Smallpox is a contagious, sometimes fatal disease manifested most commonly by a severe febrile prodrome, followed by a characteristic vesicular-pustular rash. (


  • Smallpox is a highly contagious infection caused by the DNA virus variola, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus . (
  • The incubation period of smallpox is typically about 12 days (range: 7 to 17 days), during which time there are no symptoms and the infection is not contagious. (


  • This statement reviews the current status of smallpox vaccine, the adverse effects that were associated with smallpox vaccine in the past, and the major proposals for vaccine use. (


  • The US Centers for Disease Control (US CDC) labels smallpox a Category A agent, a group of 13 highly lethal pathogens. (
  • The first stage of disease in smallpox is a severe febrile prodrome, which is a critical feature of the disease. (


  • After an extensive worldwide eradication program, the last nonlaboratory case of smallpox occurred in 1977 in Somalia. (
  • The last known nonlaboratory case of smallpox occurred in 1977 in Somalia and signaled the end of a successful worldwide, decade-long eradication effort. (
  • Case fatality rates of 30% or higher were observed during epidemics of smallpox. (
  • Even a single case of smallpox would be considered an international health emergency. (
  • In the United States, the last case of smallpox was in 1949. (


  • Smallpox is spread most efficiently in droplets or aerosols from the oropharynx of infected individuals. (


  • Smallpox was declared "eradicated" from nature in 1979, but remains a potential bioterrorism agent. (

health care

  • The United States discontinued routine childhood immunization against smallpox in 1972 and routine immunization of health care professionals in 1976. (
  • During January 24--March 28, 2003, smallpox vaccine was administered to 29,584 civilian health-care and public health workers in 54 jurisdictions as part of an effort to prepare the United States for a terrorist attack using smallpox virus. (


  • As recently as 1967, millions of smallpox cases per year were reported in Asia and Africa. (


  • Smallpox also can be spread by direct contact with infected lesions or with clothing or bed linens contaminated with the virus. (


  • In recent years, there has been concern that smallpox virus stocks may be in the hands of bioterrorists, and this concern has been heightened by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. (