Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Monkeypox: A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).Poxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Orthopoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Ectromelia, Infectious: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.United StatesImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.

*  Smallpox Vaccine Reactions Jolt Experts - WashPost | AHRP

Smallpox Vaccine Reactions Jolt Experts - WashPost. Smallpox Vaccine Reactions Jolt Experts - WashPost ... Unlike most modern vaccines, the smallpox vaccine is administered by 15 quick pricks that "establish an infection in your skin ... Smallpox Vaccine Reactions Jolt Experts From Rashes to Fevers, Array of Side Effects Is Uncommon Today By Ceci Connolly ... The Washington Post reports that even experts conducting clinical trials of the smallpox vaccine found the side effects " ...

*  Idaho Observer: Web Resources on Smallpox and Vaccines

Additional Resources on Smallpox, the vaccine and the disease: www. ... 20 and 1 reasons to Avoid the Smallpox Vaccine Smallpox VACCINE reaction pictures - ... Following are several resources and articles available online to use in your adventure of sharing smallpox vaccine information ... Web resources on smallpox and vaccination by Vaccination Liberation ...

*  Americans Push for Smallpox Vaccines, Despite Illness Risk, Need for Stockpile - WSJ

Pressure is building to vaccinate all Americans against smallpox as soon as enough vaccine is available, but the plan carries ... once enough smallpox vaccine is available. But such a program would fly in the face of initial plans to stockpile the vaccines ... For the moment, the U.S. has only 15 million doses of smallpox vaccine on hand. While the disease was eradicated from nature, ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine | West Florida Hospital

What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated... ... Learn more about Smallpox Vaccine at West Florida Hospital What Is Smallpox? ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?. The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus, called the vaccinia virus. This is related to ... What Is the Smallpox Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What Are the Risks Associated With the Smallpox Vaccine?Who ...

*  "Mechanisms of Antibody-Mediated Protection for a Protein-Based Smallpo" by Matthew E. Cohen

This finding suggests that antibody-mediated protection by a protein-based smallpox vaccine may involve antibody that can fix ... It is believed that subunit vaccine protection is mainly mediated through the generation of antibodies. We, and others, have ... Individual non-human primates receiving this vaccine had more homogeneous antibody responses that could neutralize EV in the ... we found that non-human primates are better protected from monkeypox virus challenge by protein vaccination when the vaccine ...

*  A Long-Term Study of Healthy Adults Vaccinated With One Dose of Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain) - No Study Results Posted -...

A Long-Term Study of Healthy Adults Vaccinated With One Dose of Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain). This study has been completed ...

*  Smallpox Grows Less Terrifying - The New York Times

... could be enlarged fivefold through dilution without losing much effectiveness and that a large additional supply of vaccine has ... Editorial observes that Americans welcomes reports that federal government's small stockpile of smallpox vaccine ... The current generation of smallpox vaccines is undeniably riskier than other vaccines commonly taken by the public. It can be ... The only question now is how best to use the vaccine.. Government officials consider the risk of a smallpox attack quite low ...

*  A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: World Health Organization declares smallpox eradicated

The smallpox vaccine did spread, but slowly. It was initially in short supply and hard to store, especially in hot climates. In ... A virulent outbreak of smallpox in New York City in 1947 surprised everyone and inspired a new method to improve the vaccine. ... Jenner immediately envisioned the vaccine erasing smallpox from the earth. But it would take another 150 years. ... These were smallpox's last victims. In 1979, a global commission certified that smallpox had been eradicated, and this ...

*  Smallpox Vaccination Begins in U.S. -- Precautions Needed -

... will begin a smallpox vaccination program. It will be mandatory for about 500,000 military ... ... For detailed practical information see The Military Vaccines Web Site: ... New kinds of smallpox vaccines are being tested. Some of them may be safe enough for many people with HIV or others who should ... "Rough-and-Tumble Behind Bush's Smallpox Policy," "Treating Vaccine ...

*  U.S. stockpile receives smallpox vaccine | BioPrepWatch

The first vaccine to be developed for civilian bioterrorism preparedness programs has been delivered to the U.S. stockpile, ... U.S. stockpile receives smallpox vaccine Friday, Jun 11, 2010 @ 9:06pm by BioPrepWatch Reports ... Officials with Bavarian Nordic, a Danish biotech company, told CQ Healthbeat News they began shipping their smallpox vaccine, ... The stockpile contains enough of the smallpox vaccine to inoculate an entire population. Officials said, however, that the ...

*  Protein that foils complement system may be key to smallpox virulence | CIDRAP

... used in smallpox vaccine, according to researchers who compared the two proteins. This difference may be an important reason ... for the virulence of smallpox and may offer an avenue for research on treatments, they suggest. ... The smallpox virus has a protein that inhibits the human complement system far more effectively than does its counterpart ... In addition, the disabling of VCP could represent an approach to developing a safer smallpox vaccine." ...

*  FDA clears new smallpox vaccine - latimes

... which says the shots could be made quickly if the virtually extinct virus reappears.The vaccine, ... The approval of a new vaccine against smallpox was announced by the Food and Drug Administration, ... The vaccine, ACAM2000, is intended to inoculate people at high risk of exposure to smallpox, a highly contagious disease. The ... The approval of a new vaccine against smallpox was announced by the Food and Drug Administration, which says the shots could be ...

*  PPT - CDC Smallpox Vaccine Production PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4a12e-ZDc1Z

15 million doses undiluted ... SMALLPOX VACCINE PRODUCTION. Summary. Vaccine for 'All Americans' by end of 2002 ... - A free ... Smallpox and Smallpox Vaccine - Title: PowerPoint Presentation Subject: Smallpox and smallpox vaccine Author: William Atkinson ... Aventis Pasteur Vaccine 3. Smallpox Vaccine Supply and Production. 2001. 2002. 2003. 2004. 2005. 1983 4. Smallpox Vaccine ... Smallpox Vaccine Supply and Production. Dryvax. 15 million doses undiluted ... SMALLPOX VACCINE PRODUCTION. Summary. Vaccine ...

*  Acambis Smallpox Vaccine Finally Wins U.S. Approval | BioWorld

BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industry's business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.

*  Vaccinia virus as the smallpox vaccine

The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by ... Notice to Readers: Newly Licensed Smallpox Vaccine to Replace Old Smallpox Vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:207. ... Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the smallpox vaccine. The development of this vaccine was an important ... Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine ...

*  The Guardian Is Able to Purchase Part of the Smallpox Genome - The Scientific Activist

Perhaps if someone actually creates smallpox from just the DNA information, then we could get rid of the remaining smallpox in ... The Guardian Is Able to Purchase Part of the Smallpox Genome. Posted by Nick Anthis on June 14, 2006 ... The Guardian reports today that is was recently able to purchase a 78-nucleotide sequence of DNA based on the small pox genome ... As The Guardian points out, it would be very difficult to reconstruct the 185,000-base pair genome of small pox from such small ...

*  Dose Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination - Full...

Smallpox Biological: ACAM1000 Biological: vaccinia virus (calf lymph) smallpox vaccine: Dryvax Phase 2 ... Dose Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a New Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox Vaccination. This ... The Effect of Dose On Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of ACAM1000 Smallpox Vaccine in Adults Without Previous Smallpox ... Smallpox. Poxviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of ...

*  A Long-Term Study of Healthy Adults Vaccinated With One Dose of Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain) - Full Text View -...

Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain) Group Participants were vaccinated with the second-generation smallpox vaccine in Study VVL04 ... Smallpox. Poxviridae Infections. DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of ... A Long-Term Study of Healthy Adults Vaccinated With One Dose of Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain). This study has been completed ... A Long-Term Safety and Immunogenicity Follow-up of Healthy Adults Vaccinated With One Dose of Smallpox Vaccine (LISTER Strain) ...

*  Smallpox Vaccine (Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

Smallpox vaccine is an active immunizing agent used to prevent smallpox infection. It works by causing your immune system to ... Information about this smallpox-vaccine-injection-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. D. Studies in ... You may need a booster dose of this vaccine every three years to maintain protection against smallpox. Ask your doctor if you ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of smallpox vaccine in children less than ...

*  Focal and Generalized Folliculitis Following Smallpox Vaccination Among Vaccinia-Naive Recipients | Infectious Diseases | JAMA ...

... detailed contemporary descriptions of adverse reactions to the vaccine are needed to adequately inform ... Aventis Pasteur smallpox vaccine).. In this study, most cases of folliculitis following smallpox vaccination occurred at the ... Smallpox vaccine adverse events among civilians-United States, February 18-24, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2003;52:156-157. ... Smallpox vaccine adverse events among civilians-United States, February 18-24, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2003;52:156-157. ...

*  FDA approves Acambis smallpox vaccine | CIDRAP

CIDRAP News) - A second-generation smallpox vaccine made by the British biotechnology company Acambis plc and stockpiled by the ... May 18 CIDRAP News story "FDA panel recommends smallpox vaccine approval" US Department of Defense smallpox vaccination safety ... an older vaccine that was grown on the skin of calves and used in global smallpox eradication programs. The newer vaccine is ... for 20 million doses of a smallpox vaccine that is expected to be safer for people with weakened immune systems. The vaccine, ...

*  Smallpox Vaccines in Florida

Monday was the first day that health care providers across Florida will be inoculated for smallpox. ... A small vial holds enough vaccine for 1,000 people. It is not smallpox itself. But who, how many, and where the vaccine is ... Q: What is smallpox? Why is it so worrisome? A: Smallpox is a highly contagious virus that is spread from person to person, ... A: Smallpox vaccine is more dangerous than any other. By comparison, the measles-mumps-rubella shot can cause reactions ...

*  A TIME'S MEMORY: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [thirty-one #poultry and #wildbirds #outbreaks] (#OIE, Feb...


*  This Week in Virology | A podcast about viruses - the kind that make you sick - Part 45

Cell-culture propagated smallpox vaccine. *Cowpox tranmission from rats to humans (Germany and France) and from cats to humans ... Antibody response to smallpox vaccine in humans (including Dr. Villarreal). *The chemical formula for poliovirus is C332,652H ... Note: There are two HPV vaccines on the market: Gardasil (quadrivalent, types 6, 11, 16, 18) and Cervarix (bivalent, types 16 ... Vincent, Alan, and Hamish Young discuss bacteriophages in viral vaccines, enteroviruses and diabetes, inhibition of Hendra and ...

*  MISC -

Interesting, but as you say, Faldo, he was named after vaccine.. [Translation by Google and me.] ... Smallpox in Variola. Can't tell you why.). (And btw it wasn't scratched into the skin the way later generations did, but rather ...

Smallpox demon: or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox in medieval Japan. In those days, people tried to appease the smallpox demon by assuaging his anger, or they tried to attack the demon since they had no other effective treatment for smallpox.Massachusetts smallpox epidemic: Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or Colonial epidemic was a smallpox epidemic that hit Massachusetts in 1633, affecting settlers and Native Americans. The casualties included 20 settlers from Mayflower and their only physician Dr Samuel Fuller.AlastrimProgressive vaccinia: Progressive vaccinia (also known as "Vaccinia gangrenosum," and "Vaccinia necrosum") is a rare cutaneous condition caused by the vaccinia virus, characterized by painless, but progressive, necrosis and ulceration.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.MonkeypoxReverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Tanapox: (ILDS B08.830) |VaccinationQuantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-managed by the U.S.Vaccine Information Statement: Vaccine Information Statement is a formal description of a vaccine, with a concise description of the benefits of the vaccine, a concise description of the risks associated with the vaccine, a statement of the availability of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, and is required as a provision of the United States National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. Such materials shall be provided prior to the administration of a vaccine set forth in the Vaccine Injury Table.OrthopoxvirusPeptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.Pericardial friction rub: A pericardial friction rub, also pericardial rub, is an audible medical sign used in the diagnosis of pericarditis. Upon auscultation, this sign is an extra heart sound of to-and-fro character, typically with three components, one systolic and two diastolic.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasNaked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Biodefense: Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area who are, or may be, subject to biological warfare— in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. It is technically possible to apply biodefense measures to protect animals or plants, but this is generally uneconomic.TwinrixImmunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.EctromeliaMitiglinideHIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.United States Military Academy class ringUnited States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories: The U.S.CervarixList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,ImmunizationMeningococcal vaccineAS04: AS04 (Aka. "Adjuvant System 04") is a trade name for combination of adjuvants used in various vaccine product by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in particular the Fendrix Hepatitis B vaccine.Denise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.

(1/444) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

Vaccination with tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. Because the majority of these antigens are normal self antigens, they may require suitable delivery systems to promote their immunogenicity. A recombinant vector based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used for expression of human tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, and evaluated for its efficacy as an antitumor vaccine. Stable recombinant viruses (MVA-hTyr) were constructed that have deleted the selection marker lacZ and efficiently expressed human tyrosinase in primary human cells and cell lines. Tyrosinase-specific human CTLs were activated in vitro by MVA-hTyr-infected, HLA-A*0201-positive human dendritic cells. Importantly, an efficient tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific CTL response was induced in vitro using MVA-hTyr-infected autologous dendritic cells as activators for peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from HLA-A*0201-positive melanoma patients despite prior vaccination against smallpox. Immunization of HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice with MVA-hTyr induced A*0201-restricted CTLs specific for the human tyrosinase-derived peptide epitope 369-377. These in vivo primed CTLs were of sufficiently high avidity to recognize and lyse human melanoma cells, which present the endogenously processed tyrosinase peptide in the context of A*0201. Tyrosinase-specific CTL responses were significantly augmented by repeated vaccination with MVA-hTyr. These findings demonstrate that HLA-restricted CTLs specific for human tumor-associated antigens can be efficiently generated by immunization with recombinant MVA vaccines. The results are an essential basis for MVA-based vaccination trials in cancer patients.  (+info)

(2/444) Smallpox and its control in Canada.

Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil.  (+info)

(3/444) Experimental study of the role of inactivated vaccine in two-step vaccination against smallpox.

In experiments on rabbits it was found that although administration of inactivated smallpox vaccine did not induce a demonstrable antibody response in the serum it enhanced the immune response to subsequent inoculation with live vaccine. The dose of inactivated vaccine corresponded to 8 x 10(7) PFU before inactivation (by (60)Co gamma-radiation); the dose of live vaccine was 1.2 x 10(5) PFU. When the interval between the two inoculations was 7-days, virus-neutralizing antibody appeared after 5 days and reached levels 2-4 times those obtained with live vaccine alone. With longer intervals (up to 60 days) the enhancement of the immune response was even greater. It seems likely that use of the two-step method may reduce the incidence of post-vaccination encephalitis and clinical studies to determine the optimum conditions for safety and efficacy are at present being undertaken.  (+info)

(4/444) Large-scale use of freeze-dried smallpox vaccine prepared in primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells.

A lyophilized smallpox vaccine made from infected monolayer cultures of primary rabbit kidney cells was used together with a calf lymph vaccine in a field trial in Lombok, Indonesia, in 1973. About 60 000 children below 15 years of age were vaccinated: some 50 000 with the tissue culture vaccine and about 10 000 with calf lymph vaccine. Similar results were obtained with both vaccines in primary vaccinees and in revaccinees as regards the take rate, pock reactions, and serious secondary reactions.  (+info)

(5/444) An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

The biological properties of poxvirus isolates from skin lesions on dairy cows and milkers during recent exanthem episodes in Cantagalo County, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were more like vaccinia virus (VV) than cowpox virus. PCR amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene substantiated the isolate classification as an Old World orthopoxvirus, and alignment of the HA sequences with those of other orthopoxviruses indicated that all the isolates represented a single strain of VV, which we have designated Cantagalo virus (CTGV). HA sequences of the Brazilian smallpox vaccine strain (VV-IOC), used over 20 years ago, and CTGV showed 98.2% identity; phylogeny inference of CTGV, VV-IOC, and 12 VV strains placed VV-IOC and CTGV together in a distinct clade. Viral DNA restriction patterns and protein profiles showed a few differences between VV-IOC and CTGV. Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.  (+info)

(6/444) Recent events and observations pertaining to smallpox virus destruction in 2002.

To destroy all remaining stocks of variola virus on or before 31 December 2002 seems an even more compelling goal today than it did in 1999, when the 52d World Health Assembly authorized temporary retention of remaining stocks to facilitate the possible development of (1) a more attenuated, less reactogenic smallpox vaccine and (2) an antiviral drug that could be used in treatment of patients with smallpox. We believe the deadline established in 1999 should be adhered to, given the potential outcomes of present research. Although verification that every country will have destroyed its stock of virus is impossible, it is reasonable to assume that the risk of a smallpox virus release would be diminished were the World Health Assembly to call on each country to destroy its stocks of smallpox virus and to state that any person, laboratory, or country found to have virus after date x would be guilty of a crime against humanity.  (+info)

(7/444) Developing new smallpox vaccines.

New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments. The smallpox vaccine in the current stockpile consists of a live animal poxvirus (Vaccinia virus [VACV]) that was grown on the skin of calves. Because of potential issues with controlling this earlier manufacturing process, which included scraping VACV lesions from calfskin, new vaccines are being developed and manufactured by using viral propagation on well-characterized cell substrates. We describe, from a regulatory perspective, the various strains of VACV, the adverse events associated with calf lymph-propagated smallpox vaccine, the issues regarding selection and use of cell substrates for vaccine production, and the issues involved in demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy.  (+info)

(8/444) Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon.

We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus. Assuming 100 persons initially infected and 3 persons infected per infectious person, quarantine alone could stop disease transmission but would require a minimum daily removal rate of 50% of those with overt symptoms. Vaccination would stop the outbreak within 365 days after release only if disease transmission were reduced to <0.85 persons infected per infectious person. A combined vaccination and quarantine campaign could stop an outbreak if a daily quarantine rate of 25% were achieved and vaccination reduced smallpox transmission by > or = 33%. In such a scenario, approximately 4,200 cases would occur and 365 days would be needed to stop the outbreak. Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate.  (+info)

vaccinia virus

  • The smallpox vaccine contains a live virus, called the vaccinia virus. (
  • The prevalence of North American orthopoxviruses in nature is unknown and may be more difficult to ascertain due to wide spread use of vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines in the wild. (
  • There is no specific treatment for smallpox, but smallpox vaccination (vaccinia virus) is highly protective, even after exposure. (


  • The Washington Post reports that even experts conducting clinical trials of the smallpox vaccine found the side effects "startling": "If Bush moves forward with vaccination, Dr. Kathy Edwards the Vanderbilt University physician overseeing the study, warns doctors to expect the array of unsightly, unfamiliar complications that will come. (
  • What is disconcerting, say the people participating in the clinical trials, is that when it comes to smallpox vaccination, what had once been considered ordinary is rather extraordinary by today's standards. (
  • Smallpox is nearly nonexistent as a result of a worldwide vaccination effort. (
  • Available at: (
  • Smallpox vaccination of the American general population was stopped in 1972, but continued in military personnel until 1990. (
  • More recently, because of bioterrorism concerns, first time or re-vaccination for smallpox is occurring in certain high-risk groups, such as health care workers and the US military. (
  • There are sufficient stockpiles of smallpox vaccine in the event larger numbers of people require vaccination. (
  • Smallpox vaccination is protective in more than 95% of people for at least 3 to 5 years. (
  • Smallpox vaccination and adverse reactions: guidance for clinicians. (
  • Complication of smallpox vaccination, 1968: results of ten statewide surveys. (
  • Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968: surveillance in a comprehensive care clinic. (
  • Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968-national surveillance in the United States. (
  • Complications of smallpox vaccination, United States, 1963-results obtained by four statewide surveys. (
  • Complications of smallpox vaccination: surveillance during an island-wide program in Puerto Rico, 1967-1968. (
  • Smallpox vaccination reactions, prophylaxis, and therapy of complications. (
  • Winkenwerder W. Department of Defense Smallpox Vaccination Program Safety Summary, as of February 12, 2003. (


  • Smallpox is a contagious, sometimes fatal disease manifested most commonly by a severe febrile prodrome, followed by a characteristic vesicular-pustular rash. (

variola major

  • Smallpox is broadly classified into major smallpox (variola major) and minor smallpox (variola minor), reflecting clinical features and disease severity, with subcategories in each. (


  • Preparing stockpiles of vaccines against a potential, speculated threat of bioterrorism for is one thing, but given that the vaccine is effective AFTER 3-4 days of exposure, and there is no evidence of a real smallpox threat, why then is the administration pushing for mass inoculations? (


  • Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine. (


  • As he weighs the decision, researchers are becoming reacquainted with the unpleasant - often severe - complications of the vaccine. (
  • The first stage of disease in smallpox is a severe febrile prodrome, which is a critical feature of the disease. (


  • Because of bioterrorism threats, it's important to remember the facts about smallpox. (
  • Smallpox was declared "eradicated" from nature in 1979, but remains a potential bioterrorism agent. (

infectious diseases

  • In addition, the effect of NA OPXVs endemicity on the immunization of wildlife populations against other infectious diseases, using VACV vectored vaccines, is unknown. (


  • The US Centers for Disease Control (US CDC) labels smallpox a Category A agent, a group of 13 highly lethal pathogens. (


  • President Bush is poised to announce plans, perhaps as early as this week, to resume vaccinating Americans against smallpox as part of a massive push to protect the nation from a biological assault. (


  • Through a series of carefully controlled experiments (even using himself as a subject) Dr. Campbell, along with Dr. J. A. Watts, discovered that smallpox, like yellow fever and malaria, was transmitted by an insect. (


  • Given that the threat of a bioterrorist attack is speculative, a risk/ benefit analysis of the proposed vaccine program shows that the American public will bear all the risks, the immunized vaccine manufacturers will reap all the benefits. (
  • You will get the vaccine if you are in the military and work in high threat areas. (


  • The incubation period of smallpox is typically about 12 days (range: 7 to 17 days), during which time there are no symptoms and the infection is not contagious. (



  • If an outbreak happens, the US has a large supply of the smallpox vaccine to vaccinate the entire population. (
  • Smallpox Vaccine Supply and Production. (


  • You should get the vaccine if you have come in contact with the virus or if you are at risk. (


  • Yet when she inoculated them with smallpox vaccine, arms swelled, temperatures spiked and panic spread. (
  • Smallpox can be spread from person to person by direct, face-to-face contact. (
  • Smallpox can be spread through the air, although this is rare. (



  • Following are several resources and articles available online to use in your adventure of sharing smallpox vaccine information enmass. (


  • Even at the CDC, where health experts work with an array of germs, smallpox vaccinations were briefly halted when 10 people had serious enough reactions to begin antibiotics, said Walter Orenstein, director of the CDC's National Immunization Program. (
  • Pregnant women, babies, people with eczema or weakened immune systems should not receive the vaccine. (



  • Available at: (


  • Dr. Charles A. R. Campbell, discovered the cause and cure of smallpox. (


  • Cimex lectularius -- the common bedbug--is the insect that spreads smallpox. (



  • Once among the deadliest scourges on earth, smallpox was declared eradicated worldwide in 1981. (


  • Smallpox vaccine adverse events among civilians-United States, February 18-24, 2003. (


  • Later, as many as 10 million police, fire and medical personnel would be offered the vaccine. (
  • Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. (


  • He said, 'the removal of this perversion of nutrition will so mitigate the virulence of this malady as to positively prevent the pitting or pocking of smallpox. (


  • Of 200 young adults who received the vaccine as part of a recent government study, one-third missed at least one day of work or school, 75 had high fevers, and several were put on antibiotics because physicians worried that their blisters signaled a bacterial infection. (


  • The purpose of this study is to provide long-term follow-up immunogenicity and safety data on participants who were vaccinated with the second-generation smallpox vaccine in Study VVL04 (NCT 00258947). (
  • Participants were vaccinated with the second-generation smallpox vaccine in Study VVL04 (NCT 00258947). (